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fStlAS VRldllTfitlNHlNG 1 


llji,i. aENERAL LIBRARY ^ 


^^.-tC Ca ^t $^.</^OA^i CAi^ 


D £ 




NoXin. The lodhan Mo- 

rain, or fireaft-plate of 

The Liath Meificith. 
The Brazen Image. 
The Charter Horn. 
The Harp of Brien Boiromh. 
The Iri(h Crown. 
The Paterae Urn, &c. 
TheCrotal, Corabafhas, or 

Cibbual, &c. 
The Brafs Tools. 
The Tuagh Snaighte. 
The Implements of War. 
The Purin, Seic Seona, 

Cloch Tag. 
The Cead, Rai Re. 

The Fainidh-Draoieach. — 
Tair-Faimhy Boii-Reann, 

No. XIV. A Vindication 
of the Ancient Hiftory of 
Ireland , wherein is (hewn 

I. The Defcent of its old In- 
habitants from the Phaeno- 
Scythians of the Eaft. 

a. The early Skill of the 
Phxno«Scythians, in Na- 
vigation) ArtS) and Let* 

3. Several Accounts of the 
Ancient Infli Bards, au- 
thenticated from parallel 
Hiflory, facred and pro- 
fane, &c. 






* . 



Kbb Xin. The lodhan Morabi or Breaft-plate of 
Judgment^ - . . Page i 

The Liath Meificith, ^ - . 13 

The Brazen Iinage> *> « 22 

The Charter Honi^ . . . ^^ 

The Harp of Bfien Boirondl^ - •* - 32 

The Iriih CiroVm, - - . 37 

The Paterae Um, &c. - - 41 

The Crotal, Corabftfiias^ or Cibtmal| &c» - 44 

Tie Brafi Took, * - - S4 

The Tuagh Snaighte, - - 55 

The Implements of War, - - - 61 

The Purin, Seic Se^nay Clocih Tag^ • - 64 

The Cead Rai Re, * 68 

The Fainidh-Draoieach. Tair-Faunh, Boil-Reann, 

&c. 73 

Mr. CyConePs Third Letter, - - - 107 

Prqpoiak for collecting Materials for publishing the an- 
tient and prelent State of the feveral Counties of 
Ireland, .... 141 

Letter from Dr. Macbride, - - 155 




No. XIV. A Vindication of the antient Hiftory of 

Chip. t. Genealogical Tables of the Irifli Coloniesi 
II. The Topoghiphical Names of Ireland, 14 

III. Expedition of Fartholan, 

IV. ^ of Ncmed, 




of the Firbolg, JirD'Omnann, 

or Fir Galeon^ - - - 129 

VI. Expedition of the Tuatha Dadann, 151 
VII. — of Phenius Pharfa, - 254 

vin. ^ 

- of Milefius 




X. Condufiony 

proved from Spanifh Autho* 



XI. Of Paganifm in general Of the Pagan 
Religion of the antient Iriibj - 3^^ 




D E 


<)! tfi ' i '»' > ' | i i » i|i »»j i >• 

NUMB. Xin. VOL. IV. 

•■" T r 


V - 

ColleSianea de Rebus Hihernicis- 


BY C. V A L L A N C E Y, L. L. D. 


'^ fie i^ai^anfiverftb a M^Hpr hefirc if Ar^4^ V/j H hJUfy 

Gallowanis nomen fixum indiMitU . '. . 

& ftiMiAAT de'iliae. GolTelini rctcn Oalloram 
Hiftor. jiididam, V. p. iiStfi 

i Gadibus ^ ^ynq^tm .t*«B||9)^ aMi«% ^iiff MltluiinsadbMa. 

Stbabo, Lib. 3. p. 1 7 J. 

catdonn^ une oonnoiflance parfait, non feulement det <labtsitnr it*des 
coutmnef , mais auifi de la Religion Phcnicienne. Ce Commerce m^me 
^>>'ai»oitgii J^. finite y egjngr wm.^i lOf d»»oe <te ^pii^, ^Ti'likfilie&i- 

-AtHi i0Mrc»<$le# |M^MsA» idbi |08lfi ^ isft «i«ae tto* shfiAmMiMe ^ne ce 
fut de ces Infulaires, dont h» fimsm flB^Vftfftt Ji csaadfAnee 4« Cuke 
d' A(larte, c*cft-a-dire d* Ifts, par ie moyen du commerce qu'ils eurent de 
topf, ttP^ Ar Ids jd^Kt itoi ito atJUnrfqaet. 

iAft»b^ deiKoMemi» mcak.iie Lhtef,T. 7. 

I itittl^nd thoie that efcape of them, unto the nations, to Tarihini, Pui and 
Lud, that draw the bow: to Tubal and Javan, TO THE ISLES 
AFAR OFF, that have not heard my fame, neither have ieen taj 
glory, and they (hall declare my glory among the Oentiles. 

IsAiAB, Uvf 19. 





On conr<m<l le g ter ms aa(dens» dUEarement doifBcs da be tctii J n w o a fc i 
& fi on lenr ^t s'^c de b ftupiditd, on n*y Toit cm*i|^orai|ce Ac t6ie- 
' bits. • Mail rigaorance eft en aoas, 'qni let oonnaiibns miL' 

Lett, iur Torig. des Sdencet: addrdUet 
m M. Voltaire pir NL Ballly. 

JLet Orientmz aTooent que let nbms dc Cog & de Magof, de Gin & de 
Magta» de Tcbib A de MatcUn* font Ijrnonymet. Tcbin eft le mot orin* 
tal doot noot aYont fmit le nom de la Chine. 

Lett, fur TAtlnntide de Piaton. par bL Batllf • 

I«t langoet blen connoet, bten etndieet peorent done reveler Torigine dct 
peuplet, knr pnriin*c, Mt palt qn'ilt ont habtt^, la tenne det ooanai^ 
£uicet oft iUiint anivei Be le degri de matnrlte de knr e^tfit: 

* » 

On pent regarder let peoples de la Orece ft de Tltalic eomme let defcendant 
det Phenident & det Phrygient ; mab let pcuplet dn Mbrd, qd pailaient 
riRXiAMDOIS ft le Runiqtte, ataient done une origine eommime avec let 

Let peuplet en vpiageant n'oat point efaangd de nom, n! d*ld6et: lit ont 

impale i det paXt nocnreaux det nomt andent, det nomt fiuhifiers ft chert. 

JLe pielcnt eft le fib du pa6d, al lui reftenhle s ee qne nons tiibnt de cet 

andens tems cftrUfloire de not fondrtioiis en Amerique oik noot atons 

. traniportc la France, TAngleterre ft TEipagnc. 

U nc faut pas entreprendre de lever entterement le voile d* rantlqdtd ; ee 
voile eft chargd du poidt de tant de liecles, il fiaut Unt d'eilbrtt poor en 
fouiever une partie ; c'eft l»ien aflcz d^apperccToir quelque diofe. 


T O T H 1 


O F 






B Y 




.» ; 

'. V 

. ; ,. , t J . • . 


m 9 

• I ' • . 


o I irriNAM Km m mRYwmr coNdbre carmen, 


DlreSlions to the Binder. 

^W Plate I Facing page it 
g ' ao 

3 »4 

4- 30 

5 40 

6 ■ 4s 

7 ■ 5* 

S— ^ j4 

^ ' cS 

10 fe 

11 ■6» 
l» t6 

«3--— — 7* 

14 ■■ 11 100 

T'f^^i^^— — ^P— ^^— ^ —— ■*— ' 

I I— i— — — — — — — n Ball — — ^►ig^iM^w ^^<»*« 



The beginning of nation$, (fays our prince of 
poets, John Milton) thofe excepted of whom facred 
books have fpoken, is to this day unknown. Nor 
only the beginning, but the deeds alfo of many fuc- 
ceeding ages ; yea, periods of ages, either wholly 
unknown, or obfcured and blemifbed with fables. 
That any law or fuperftition of the Druids forbad 
the Britons to write their memorable deeds, I know 
,not why any, out of Cacfar, fliould alledge. He 
indeed faith, that their doftrine they thought not 
lawful to commit to' letters j but in moll matters 
elfe, both in private and publick, among which well 
may hiftory be reckoned, they ufed the Greek 
"tongue. And that the Britifli Druids, who taught 
thofe in Gaui, would be ignorant of any language 
known and ufed by their difciples, of fo frequently 
writing other things, and fo inquifitive i»to higheft. 

Vol. IV. No. XIII. B would 



would for want of recording, be ever children in the 
knowledge of times and ages, is not likely. What- 
ever might be the reafon, this we find, that of Britifh 
aflfairs, from the firft peopling of the ifland, tb the 
coming of Julius Cafar, nothing certain, either by 
tradition, hiftory, or antient fame, hath hitherto been 
left us. That which we have of oldeft feeming, hath 
by the greater part of judicious antiquaries, been 
long rejeded as a modern fable *." 

Scripture, is certainly the only (Izuidard of all 
antient hiftory, and the touchftone by which the 
truth of it may be tried. Heathen writers, who, 
unaffifted by this, attempt to fearch into antiquity, 
have no ftay whereon to reft. Herodotus on all oc- 
cafions talks familiarly of a myriad of years before 
his time. The Greeks, fpeaking of their own coun- 
try and its inhabitants, thought it enough to fay 
that they ever were Avr^x'^^fn, or Aborogines, and the 
antient Irifh denominated themfelves Atach-tuatb f . 
In Egypt, the priefts were the poffeffors of learning, 
and intfufted with the public records. Heredotus, 
Plato and Diodorus went thither for information ; 
when they talked of the duration of their monarchy, 
the round number, the priefts generally aflfeded to 
fpeak in, was ten thoufand years ago. But they who 
pretended to be more exad, told Diodorus, that 
from their firft king Ofiris to Alexander the great, 
were precifely 23,000 years. 

The Greeks ftill knew lefs : they were totally ig- 
norant of the hiftory of the elder ages and remote 

* Milton*8 Hiftory of England. 

t O Conor's State of Heathen Irifli, No. XH. 

countries ; 


countries ; therefore they made their invention fupply 
the want of the knowledge of fa^, 

quicquid Graecia mendax 

Audet in hiftoriis 

Yet this is the foundation of hiftory imprefled on our 
minds at fchool ; and with great difficulty can we 
unlhackle ourfelves from our fchool education, when 
we come to more mature age. It is not furprizing 
that the Irifh bards and hiilorians (hould follow the 
examples of the Greeks, whofe &bles ai^ extolled to 
the fides by our tutors : and fo wanton have been our 
own countrymen to miflead the world in our own 
hiftory, that Jofeph of Exeter, afterwards archbiihop 
of Bourdeaux, famous in poetry and good learning, 
under Henry II. and Richard I. compofed a poem 
under the name of Cornelius Nepos, where he makes 
the Britons aid Hercules at the rape of Helione, and 
Apollo to aid them in the Trojan war.'* And indeed 
this critick age, (fays Selden, fpeaking of the Welfh 
Brutus) can fcarce any longer endure any nation, 
their firft fuppofed audiors name, not Italus to the 
Italian, not Hifpalus to the Spaniard, Scota to the 
Scot, nor Romulus to his Rome, efpecially this of 
Brutus *.*' 

And the very learned Gebelin exprefles himfelf 
thus, *• on eft tojours etonn^ quand on voit des 
favaiis auteurs s*egarer it ce point : il eft vrai que les 
Grecs eux-memes font de mauvais guides fur Tori- 

gin f." - 

* Selden'a Notes on Drayton'i Polyalbion. 
f Hifloriai Clvik du Calendrier. 

B 2 How 



How then are we to trace the origin of Weftera 
nations? Are we to follow the fabulous Greeks, 
Graeci profefto, levis, inconftans, mendax, fuper- 
ftitiofa gens femper habiti ; qui x«Tg«5r«25tW«», veritatem 
novis fubinde figmentis ita immutarunt & pene 
obliterarunt, ut &c. &c. * Or fhall we depend on du- 
bious etymology, and adopt the fyftems of Bochart, 
Heydegger, Berofus Annius Viterbeaiis, &c. Can it 
be proved that countries have always been named 
^om dhiefs, princes and dukes, in preference to the 
.ikiiation, features, or produce of the foil ? No— the 
contrary apf>ears in ten thoufand inftances. What 
ihen is to be our guide ? The fureft, is the language, 
law8« religion and cuftoms of the people, compared 
with tbdfeof other nations; ^^le langue d'une nation," 
fays Fourmont, '^ eft tojours le plus reconnoiflable 
de fes monumens ; par elle on apprend fes anti- 
^«itez5 on decouvre fon arigine.*' 

It is by this never failing touchftone, that our 
'great and impartial antiquary Lhwyd, takes upon 
him to declare, that the antient Scots of Inlandy were 
diftind from the Britons of th^ fame kingdom ; and 
that one may obferve in Cornwall, from the names 
of places, that anotlier people once po{&(Ied that 
country ; as one may from the names of places in 
fome parts of Wales, gather, that the Irijh nation 
once inhabited there, particularly in Brecknockihire 
and Caermarthenfhire f . 

By ^ihe fame guide, I judge that the antient hiftory 
of Ireland, is grounded on faft, that they are the 

* Delphi PhxniciflaQtes. 

t Letter to Mr. Rowland, Idona Antiq. p. 342, 537. 



immediate defcendants of the Pelafgi, and oS the 
Tyrrheni, the defcendants of Atys or Atac, fon of 
Cotys, fon of Meon, the firft king of Lydia and 
Phrygia ; but whence the name of Atac ? from 
-whom do the Irifh call themfelves Atach-tttath ? it 
bears the fame meaning as Peni, and both Atac and 
Peni in the Chaldaean language imply exiles, wan- 
derers, Phoenicians. — Aiteac in Iri(h alfo means a 
giant, a ruftick perfon, agriculture, (whence Attica) 
and likewife a firft born fon. Diodorus tells us from 
Sanchon. that Ofiris left the care of tillage in Attica 
to Triptolemus, which in the Irifli means no more 
than a tiller of the ground, i. e. Treabh-talamh ; and 
Tarcon who headed the Pelafgi when driven by the 
Helenifts from Maeonia, I apprehend was fo called 
from p'W Tarcon, a Hebrew word, fignifying an 
exile. See Plantavit's Lexicon Synon. Heb. and 
Chald. — ^In Kkc manner Diodorus, after he has given 
a long detail of the genealogy of Ceres, fays it is 
only an allegory or figurative narration, for that it 
only alludes to the times, when bread corn and thofe 
fruits of the earth that are called by the fanie name 
with the goddefs, were imported into Athens. Now 
this is the deity the Phoenicians worfhipped at Bedi- 
Car, and is the Irifli Ceara or Kara, of which her-c- 


• The Oriental writers that have mentioned the 
Britannic ifl^nds, are many. Rab. Ab. Cbaija, in 
his Sphaera mundi. Abarbanel, not only calls Ire- 

B 3 land 




land Little Britain •, but fays, that the children of 
Mefk and Tubal inhabited both iflands : Meik was 
a name they gave to the Etrufcans, and Tubal in- 
habited Spain, from both which places the Irifh claim 
colonies. Abarbanel is known to be well verfed in 
antient Oriental hiftories ; he fays, that the chil- 
dren of Mefle and Tubal went to dwell on the 
the banks of the Euphrates, but foon removed from 
thence, and came at length to the Great Wejiern 
IJlands. From hence may be derived the name 
Iber or Hiber, in like manner as the children of 
Abraham, from palling over the Euphrates, were 
called Hebrews ; and it is remarkable, that if the 
Irifh Seaimachies have impofed upon us, in the date 
when their anceftors took the name of Hiber, they 
have done it with great art and cunning, making it 
coirefpond with that of the Hebrews. 

Aben Ezzra fays, (in Obadiah,) that when Jofhua 
took polfeilion of Canaan, moft of the inhabitants 
retired to Greece, Italy, Gaul, and to fome weilern 

Sedor Olem mentions an old cuftom prevailing 
amongfl the Jews of the fecond temple, of celebra- 
ting a great feaft on the 1 5th and 1 6th days of Nifan, 
for the expullion of the Magogian Scythians from 
Beth-fan, by Maccabeus ; for, fays he, they were fo 
very powerful, that neither Jofliua, David or Solomon, 
could ever extirpate them, upon which, the Seytho- 
polians retired to Greece, and fome very far diflant 
wejlem countries^ with whom they always kept up a 

♦ Hence Ptolemy calls it Little Britain: Strabo, lib. i. 
p. no. Bntifh lerna and his anticot Abndger, explains it by 
the Britons inhaKiting lerua. 



correfpondence *. Joannes de Fordun, certainly 
hints at this part of the Scythian hiftory, where he 
fays, " ex variis quippe veterum fcriptis cronogra- 
phorum intelligitur, quod gentes antiquiflimae natio 
Scotorum, a Grscis & ^gyptiorum reliquis, caeteris 
mari rubro cum rege fubmertis, primum cseperat 
exordium f." 

Cumberland obferves, that he believes that Lucian 
de dea Syria, points out Noah by the name of 
Deucalion Scytha : that the name of Japhet is clearly 
difcernible in the Greek 'idmrn, and the Latin Ja- 
petus, as Ham or Cham's name is in Hanunon or 
Chemia the old name of Egypt, the land of Ham ; 
and it falleth out well, fays he, that Paufanias in his 
Corinthiaca informs us, that the Phliaiians affirm, 
that Arans among them was contemporary with 
Prometheus the fon of Japetus, and three ages (or 
one hundred years at leaft) elder than Pelafgus, the 
fon of Areas, or than 'Avr•;c^F^ at Athens. And 
Paufaniaus moreover obferves, that the Philafians 
had a very holy temple, in which there .was no image^ 
either openly to be feen, or kept in fecret. So, the 
learned Dr. Baugmarten, (after proving that He- 
rodotus miftook every thing he had heard and faw 
of the Scythians) adds,. '^ all we know of the real 
religion of the Scythians, . terminates in the worflup 
of the invifible deity : tbey admitted of no images, 
but, like the Magi, only made ufe of fymbols : this 
is inconteftible from their punifliing with death, 
' without refpeft of perfons, any one who was con- 
victed of image worlhip. They certainly brought 

♦ Sec Preface to No. XII. 

f Selden Jud. dex Script. Anglic. 


viii PREFACE. 

three new divipities from Afta, and neither wor^ 

(hipped them in images, nor dedicated to them 

temples, groves, or any thing elfe. And all the ce^ 

remonies pertaining to the worfhip of thefe three 

deities, may be comprehended in the word HAMAN, 

iigniiying no more than a ccmfecration or religious 

ufage *." 


* Baugmarten's Remarks on the Enrrlifli Univ. Hi ft. vol. u. 
p. 121. From this mann many of our great moantains receive their 
name. Take an old IHifa • fabl« ftill in every one's mouth of 
SliaUi-na-Mann mountaio* They Fay it wai firft tohahitcd by 
foreignen, who came from very diflant countries ; that they 
were of both fexei, and taught the Irifh the art of G Shirisy qr 
Ourisy that iB» the management of flax and hemp, of cattle, and 
of tillage;— They all wore herns according to their dignity ; the 
chief had five horns* The word Ouris, now means a meeting of 
women and giH# it one .houfc or bam, to card a certain quantity 
of wool, or to fpia a quantity of flak, tind fometimes there arc a 
hundred together. Wherever there is an Ouris, the Mann 
come invifible and aflift. When a Seiferac or ploughing, by 
joint ftock of horfcs, is going forward, the Mann then affifls 
in fhape of invifible horfes i — but (add the monks) if the OuHs 
is beguB on a Saturday tii^fc after twelve o'clock* mr purfned on 
the Sabbath, the Mann moft afluredly will break the whcelk, 
and fpoil the crop. Compare this ftory with Cumberland's 
explanation of Sanconiatho, and we (hall find it to be his Meon 
or Ofiris, who invented weaving and ploughing, and Ofiris m 
the Chaldee was written Siran or Ciran, an bid Irifti name for 
a plough. (See Ben Uzzicls Targum.) and in Irifti Ois-aireac «r 
Oifarac is a chief ploughman | and man in Heb. is a plmtgl, 
(Aratrum) and hharajh In Hebrew, is alfo to piough, a word 
not far diftant from our Onris, but this word having no root in 
the Irifti, may be wi^tten O-Shiris, the S being eclipfcd, forms 
Ohiris ; or as the vulgar pront^uncc it, Ouris. The Eg^-ptian 
god Ofiris, fays Halleway, means, *« the Giver of good things," 
and is derived from the Hebrew ttafhar, to be rich. Bifliop 



All this peffediy correfponds xtath the dodrine of 
•the Hibernian Druids ; the diree Aiiatick divinities^ 
I believe^ were Dagh^ Anu and Ceara, by which 
they fignified certain conftellations that infliienced 
the Earthy and all was comfnided in Mann, by which 
I have always underftood they meant the inviAbk 
God, the ail healing and alt faving power, ndiofe 
prefence m theit Oracles, was named Lcgb^ or die 
^therial fpiritual fire. 

*' Although you may truly lay with OrigM, that 
before our Saviour's time, Britain adcnowledged 
not one true Oed^ yet it came as near to what they 
Should have done, or rather nearer, dsan moft dF 
others, either Greek or Roman, as by -nations ia 
Csefar, Strabo, Lucan and the like, dffcooritng of 
diem, you may be fatisfied- For although Apollo^ 
Mars, Mercury, were w6riiipped among the vulgar 
Gauls, yet it appears, that the Druids invocation, 
was to One all healing on all savino power/' 
(Selden on Drayton^s Pblyolhion.) • 

^^ And. k)ng before Csdar's time, Abaris, (about 
,the begilming of the Olyti^iads) an HypeiijoreaAy' 
is recorded for Belus's Prieft (or Apollo), among 
the utmoft Scytluans, being further removed from 
-Hellenifm than wrr JSrifij/fc.'* (Maldiue Vit. Pytha- 
goree. Seldon on Drayton.) 

This Abaris Ive have proved from good authority, 
iwas an Hibernian Druid* (See No^ i a; Preface.) 

Cumberland fets thefe names in a very dear lij^hty he (ayf* 
** When the Egyptians defigned to honour Ofiris^ vngder the 
name of Meon,*they meant to fignify the perfon or deity that 
gave them habitations, eftates, refuge, and all the benefits of a 
colony : whence tht IrUh word co*mhanim,'to dwell together. 



aril PREFACE. 

thapnians, they certainly had a right to quarrel with 
the Pclafgians for attempting a fettleitient in them. 
And we fhall hereafter find the inhabitants of Ire- 
land applying to the Pelafgi to relieve them of the 
Carthaginian yoke of flavery. 



The lovers of Irifh antiquity will not think this 
account oi the Pelafgi too prolix — the ancient hif- 
tory of this country, though blended with the fables 
of the Bards^ correfpqnds with the moft part of the 
hiitory of the PelafgL 

In the- preface to my lafl number, I fhcwed the 
miftake of Keating and the bards he had copied, in 
making the Firbolg atid Tuath Dadanann, colonies. 
They were only the nfuacs of the different orders 
of priefts, that arrived with the colonies. I take 
the firfl to be the more antient order. 

In a very antient MSS. of the Seabright coUeftion, 
is the following pailage. Tangatar Fombaraigh 
(Afirigh) go h Eirinn, agus do chuirfeat d«ior-cios 
uirre. i . da trian Itha, bleachta, cloine, agus uinge 
dhor on tfroin no ceann on chionn amac. Tanaig 
Luch4amhfada o Chrotun na cuan, i. Eamoin 
ablach, a tir Tairge, dfhiirtacht Eirinn, agus ma- 
craith fidhe Tuatha Dadanann maile fria, agus do 
dhealbhdaois Tuath Dadanann clocaha agus crain 

na talamhan a reachtaibh daoinedh, S^c. &c. * that 


* TbU MS8. has the name of Ed. Lhwydi in the firft; page. 
Liber Ed. Luidij ex dono R. CI. V. Hen. Aldridge. S. T. P. 

& -^Edis 


is. The African fea commanders, came to Ireland^ 
and impofed very heavy taxes upon the inhabitants, 
viz. two thirds of the produce of the land, of their 
kine, and of their children (for flavesy, and more- 
over one ounce of gold annually on every nofe or 
head. But Leuco— longimanus (long handed) ar- 
rived to the fupport of the Irifli ; • he came from 
the harbour of Croton, or iEmonia felix, in the 
country of Tarcon ; and with him came certsdn 
youthful Sorcerers, called Tuatha Dadanann, who 
had the power of metamorphafing flones and trees 
into fighting men, &c. &c. 

I fhall not take up my readers time in comparing 
the fable of the latter part of this narration with 
that of the antient Greeks, but proceed to the hifto- 
rical part. 

Etrufcorum Rex Tarcon, Graecus ex Maeonia, 

primo praefcftus Tyrrheni tantum, mox ipfe rex 

faftus ; fratre Tyrrheni vel filius, civitates 12 

ftruxit. nomen fiium Tarquiniis indidit. Crotonoe 

habitavit. (Dempfter, Gori, &c. de Etruria Re- 

Leftos Caere viros, leftos Crotona fuperbi 
Tarcontis domus (Sil. Ital. 1. 8.) 

i( Mdis Chrifti D«cani. N. B. the contradion Tairgc, in the 
Irifhy has been convetted by Keating to Tairgire, and then it 
reads, the land of promlfe, inftead of the country of Tarcon» — 
this was an excellent hobby-horfe for him to amble on. 

* Eirinn, in the original, it was called Eire, Eiris, and Eirino^ 
aUnong ofher poetical names. And this is the Iris of Diodorut 
Stculy which he fays was inhabited by Britons. (Lib. 5. page 
J09) — This is a ilrong confirmation of Ireland being known by 
the name of Brhannia and Eire, at the lame time. 




Sec alfo Strabo Amas, I. 5. p. 151. -Sncas Gal- 
Jettis. Hift. Univ. 1. 4. Cato de originibus, &c. 

The countxy about Croton was called Maeoni or 
^monia : there was alfo the city of Eamonia, the 
Vica Maeoni and the planum Maeoni in Etruria : the 
bft retains the name of la Pianura di Meana. Now 
a& there was Eamonia in the inland parts, and 
Eamonia on the fea caft, in which flood Croton, 
our Irifli hiftorian moft properly diftinguiflies Cro- 
ton, to be the maritime Croton or Maeonia ; Croton 
na cuan. i. e. of the harbours. 

Dionyifius Hal. mentions the change of name 
into Cothornia. Tempus, quo Pclafgorum res 
caepenint deficere, incidit in alteram ferme ante 
bellum Trojanum aetatem ; duraverunt tamen etiam 
pene ultra ejus belli tempora : donee contrafti funt 
in gentem minimam, nam praeter Crotonem, Um- 
briae civitatem inclytam, be fi quod aliud aborigines 
tenuerunt domicilium, intericrunt reliqua Pclafgo- 
rum opida. Croton vero, quum diu retinuiffet ve- 
terem Rei-publicae formam : baud multo ante nof- 
tram aetatem, & civeis mutavit & nomen. Cothor- 
nia vocitata & fad:a Romanorum Colonia. * 

Herodotus fays, they fpoke a different language 
from the Greeks — qua lingua Pelafgi fint ufi, pro 
certo adfirmare non poffum, fed ex conjeftura licet 
dicere, ejus linguae fuifle, cujus funt hodie ii ex 
Pclafgis, qui fupra Tyrrhenes Crotonem urbem in- 
colunt, & olim finitimi erant iis, quos nunc Dores 
▼ocant : tum videlicet, quum cam, quam nunc 
Thefialiotin regionem adpellant, incolebant ; item 

* The Cfuthcni of Ulfter were named Cctherni. (Colgan.) 



cujus funt ii quoque Pelafgi qui Placiam atque 
Scylacen condidenmt apud Hellefpontum ; & Athe^* 
nienfium contubernales fuerunt. Ex his, inquam, 
conje^ure fada, dicere licet, Pelafgos olim barbar^ 
fuiile loquutos ; nam &: Crotoniatas (imul & Pla- 
ciani lingua quidcm diflident a fuis quique vicinis, 
at inter fe conveniunt, quo argumento fatis aflen- 
dunt, fe earn ipfam fermonis formam confervaliie, 
quam habcbannt, quum in eas regiones migrarunt. 

By the fame force of argument, I can prove the 
Pelafgi were here ; for all the antient Etrufcan or 
Pelafgian infcriptions, produced in Gori and Demp* 
(lu« can be well explained in the Irifh language, as 
Ihall be fhewn in another place ; but a ftronger evi- 
dence of the arrival of this colony cannot be given, 
than the name of iEmonia or Eamania, that was 
given to the capital and royal refidence in Ulfter, 
Cruteni, to the country and people of Dalreida; 
Crutenorum & Vetiorum regio in U-Lidia vel Ul- 
tonia, (Colgan) ^monia to Inch Colum Kill, on the 
coaft of Scotland, and of ^monia, Eubonea and 
Eubossa to the Ifle of Man ; and I believe the fa- 
mous Eiremon or Heremon, from whom the Irifh ^ 
claim defcent, fignifies an ^monian chief; becaufe in 
all the antient MSS. I find the name written Eiream- 
hoin, feemingly compounded of Er, great, noble, a 
chief; and Eamoin, of Eamonia or ^monia; I 
think the name points out the origin of the Pelaf- 
gian Irifh from Eamonia, or as they write the name 
Eamania ; or can we go aftray in the name of thofe 
Dodonian Priefls, that accompanied the colony, 
when we recoiled that Thatain Etrufcan, and t<tsn 
Thata in Phoenician, fignifies forcery, magic. * 

I cannot * 


I cannot here pafs over two words peculiar to 
Ae Irifh in diis weftem part of the globe, iignifying 
afoa or defcendant of the £une ftock, and to this 
day prefixed to fumames of Families^. I mean MAC 
and O9 both of oriental origin. In the Irifti text, 
al tfce beginning of this le£Hon we have macraithj 
k e. youthful males. This word occurs in Gendis, 
chap. xlix. vier. 5. theEnglifli verfion has it tranf- 
lated babitatiam ; Simon and Levi are brethren, in- 
firamen/ts of cruelty are in their habitations. Mon- 
tanus, dubious of the word, iofertl the Hebrew in 
the Latin text, in Italicks, thus, ^^ arma iniquitatis 
torum macbara.** Rabbi Meir who lived in the time 
of the fecond temple, gives another turn to the 
whole verfe. *' By the bkflmg of Jacob upon 
Simon and Levi, the weapoM of vengeance are their 
tSHT^'i'l^DD (*nachirothim) children/* " That is,'* 
feys he, ^ they love weapons as their children : and 
hence,** adds be, " y^ mak and y^D ^WLcy^" is a 
£bn, and the words are ufed by the inhabitants of the 
lea cOTifts, and in the cities on thofe coafts.'* ' I fup* 
pofe tihe Rabbi meant Pho&nricia, OBrien fays, the Iriih 
writie O, or U A, to imply a ion. The broad vowels 
being ufed promifcuoufly, and dipthongs and trip- 
thosigs in Irifli, having the found of monofyUables 
only, ithey might write ou, ua, or oua, but O is un- 
doubtedly moft prefer. O im^^lies the Son in ex- 
cdicnce ; Mac, a defc^ndant, according t-e OBrien ; 
i believe he is right, for macar, in Chaldee is 
fyondere. The learned Abbe Renaudot, fays, that 
the Egyptian name OSiris, is formed of Chiri or 
Chirfe, that is the SUN, and O, (filins,) Son, tiiere- 


PREFACE. xvii 

fore OCHIRIS or OSIRIS, is le Jils defokllpar ex^ 
cellencey the Ton of the Sun. And here occurs ano- 
ther old Irifli word Chris and Chreafan, i. e. holy, 
facred. Crifean, i. e. Sagart, (Vet. Glofs.) i. e. 
Crifean is the fame as Sagart, a Prieft^ I take this 
name to have been given to the Druid in his holy 
office of facriiicing to the fun ; it has alfo a great 
affinity to Kreejhno^ the name of a Hindoo deity. 
(See Halhead's grammar of the Bengal Language^ 
page 20.) And according to Gori, Cerus in the 
Etrufcan Language, iignifies facred : Did we ever 
hear of a Mac-Morgan or an OGriffith ? Was O, or 
Mac, a common name with the Gauls or Welfli 
Britons? How came the Erfe and Irifli by thefe 
oriental appellations? or by the Egyptian liis the 
moon, in Irifli Eas, and Eafconn the full moon. 


The next colony recorded in the Irifli hiftory, are 
faid to be the Cruiti, or Cruitni or Peadi. " As 
a bhfhlathamhnas Eiremoin tangadur Cruitnith no 
Peafli, fluagh do thriall on Tracia go Eirinn,'* — 
i. e. in the reign of Eremon, the Cruiti or Cruitni or 
Peafti, migrated from Thrace to Ireland, — ^to which 
Keating adds, " according to the Pfalter of Cafliel, 
written by Cormac, the reafon of this migration, 
was, that Polycornus the tyrant and king of Thrace, 
refolved to feize upon the only daughter of Gud, a 
chief of the Peadi. Herodotus places the Padyae and 
Crithoti in Thracia Cherfonefliis. Thrace, Samos 
and Crete, had been peopled by Phoenicians, Pelaf- 
gians and Etrufcans j Polycrates the tyrant, (prr- 
Vox. IV. No. XIII. C bably 

xviii PREFACE. 

bably tniftaken by Cormac for Polycornus) drove 
the Samarians to Crete, and purfued them from 
thence to different places, and at length fays Eiife-^ 
bius, tliey retired to Italy. 

The Greeks were chiefly indebted to the Thra- 
cia»s for the pdiite arts that flouriflied among them. 
Orpheus^ Linus, Mufsexts, Hiamyris and Eumolpus^ 
all Thracians, were the firft, as Euftathius informs 
us, who charmed the inhabitants of Greece with 
t^ir elocjoence and #nek)dy, and perfuaded them to 
exchange their frercenefs for a fociable tifjs and 
peaceful msomers ; Aay, great part of Greece was 
antiently peopled by Thracians* Tereias, a Thracian, 
governed at Daulis in Phocis ; from thence a body 
of Hiracians ' pafied over to Eubsa, and poflefled 
themfdres of that Ifland. Of the iame nation were 
the Aones, Tembices, and Hyanthians, who made 
themfelves mafters of Baeotia ; in fine, gi^at part of 
Attica itfelf, was inhabited by Thracians. But tho* 
the Greeks knew they were fo chiefly indebted to 
them both for the peopling and polifliing of their 
country, they have with the utmoft ingratitude 
and injullice, ftyled tliem Bart>arians. fi»ffi»ff a 
word that of iginally only implied foreigners, fitmi the 
Phaenician *)^^ bar, and IriUi bata, wandering, of 
another nation, dehors. * 


* Th^re are many pkces hi Irelaod apparently iiaiHed by thk 
Thracian CaloDy» after others in antictit Thrace, fiicli are, 

Thrace, Ireknd. 

Antrium, Antrim, the Capital of the Peadi. 

Geloni, Gailean. 

Lygo«, LeighiB. 





Thefe Pcafti or Paftyae, are not the Pifti or woad 
painted Britons, (theWeUh) defcribcd by Caefar, 
TTiey are diftinguifhed by the Scots by the name of 
Pea£li, a word that founds exadly the fame as 
Pa6ttyae. TTie Thracians were remarkable for 
branding their foreheads and arms, but never paint- 
ed their bodies. Tracam^ in Irilh, is to brand with 
a hot iron, and probably was the origin of the name, 
and not from Thiras, as Bochart after Jofephus ima- 
gines ; and perhaps Thirax, mentioned Gen. x. 
1. to be the youngeft fon of Japhet, was fo called 
from inftituting the cuftom of branding.-— - 

— Membraque qui ferro gaudet pimdfle, Gelonus. 

Says Claudian. 

Inde Caledonio velata Britannia monftro 

Ferro pifta genas ; ■ ■ 

The cuftom of fealing or branding was very anti- 
ent. God from the beginning, gave his people 

Athyrav, Riv. 



Uifcedatta, (OB. diAionafy). 


Ely, Eili. 

Machleia, Riv. 



Canic. ' 


Samac, about Lough Erne. 




Ufmacy Lifmnc. 




SaOTciU, SarkeU. 


And a hundred others, may be drawn from the feme fountain 
kead,— and in other parts, the names of many places of antient 
E^ruria are to be found. 

C 2 typical 


typical things and aftions, which he c^XXtdiJigns ; 
and fome facraments which appear to have been 
termed feals and fignets. St. Paul calls the circum- 
cifion of Abraham, z/eal of righteoufnefs, (Rom. 
iv. II.) In the fame epiftle he exhorts,—" Grieve 
not the holy fpirit of God, whereby ye are fealed 
unto the day of redemption." Ifai. xlix. i6» 
*' Behold I have graven thee upon the palms of my 
hands.'* Exod. xiii. 9. " And it ihall be for z^gn 
unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial be- 
tween thine eyes.*' But, befides thcfe public or 
ecclefiaftical feals, each man (or nation) had his pri- 
vate feal for a counterparty or correfpondent Hiero- 
glyphic to the faid public ones ; to teftify for him, 
in all his public arts, whofe fervant and fpiritual 
child he was. This, among -other facred ufages and 
rites, the fir ft apoftates to heathenifm carried oflF 
with them, perverting and abufing the fame, to the 
laft degree of infatuation. For, they had not only 
their figns which were «y«A^1« ig uh i^i5f, images and 
emblems of their Gods, in their feals, drinking 
cups, military ftandards, and many other things ; 
but, they themfelves were ordinarily confecrated to 
their Gods, by burning or branding fome name, 
mark, emblem (^ir»f»<mfi6f fignature) or number of 
their faid Gods, in their own flefli, on their hands, 
necks, foreheads, and other parts. Thus Ptolemy 
Philopater, was furnamed raxx^ h^ rl ^ixxa xtmt 
xarifi^^ah bccaufe he was ftigmatized in his body 
with ivy leaves, the emblematical mark of Bacchus : 
The votaries of the Sun were marked with the nu- 


meral letters XII. for the number 608, which was 
the Sun*s number. • 

Whence alfo, the bead in the Revelation, is faid 
to caufe all, both fmall and great, rich and poor, 
free and bond, to receive a mark in their hand, and 
in their forehead. So idolaters in general, marked 
themfelves in their fkin and flefh for the devils vo- 
taries. To oppofc this abomination, God forbad 
his people to print any marks in their flefh, (Lev. 
ix. 27). So in Revelations xiv. 10. *' If any 
man worfhip the beaft and his image, and receive 
his mark in his forehead or in his hand, the fame 
ihall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, and 
(hall be tormented with fire and brimftone.** 

Herodotus and Strabo, having noticed that the 
Thracians followed this cuftom to excefs, I have 
ventured my opinion, that they might have been fo 
called from tracam^ to brand, a word in the antient 
language, ftill prefcrved in the Irifh; at the fame time 
I acknowledge, that the Hebrew words trak "^i^, 
impellere violenter, taruk,fx«/,/^r^(?n expellere,(/^z^« 
expulfio, ptna & phinahy expellere, ghalal expellere, 
iuathath^ cxpulfus ; Athak & nathak (in the Chal- 
dee,) extirpare, expellere, feem more rationally to 
be the origins of the names given by the Hebrews 
to the Tracians, Turks, Dacii, Pa^ni or Phoeni, Phoe- 
nicians, Galli & Gallati ; and probably to our 
Tuath-Dodonians, and our Attach-tuath and Attac- 
cotti ; for it is evident from holy writ, that all thefe 
nations or people, foon after the flood, had drawn 
the wrath of God upon them, and were told, that 

* Halloway's Originals, Phyfical and Theological. 


xxii PREFACE. 

they were to be a wandering and an expelled peo- 
ple : So were the Saca^ whom I mentioned in my 
laft No. to be the fame as Scytha*~-Sacas enim vel 
Scytha3 quod idem eft. (Strabo, Bochart, &c.) 

This call.$ to mind a paffage in Epiphanius, in his 
Epift. ad Acac. & Paul, " from the age of Therah 
downward, Phaleg and Ragau, removed towards the 
clime pf Europe, to part of Scythia, and were joined 
to thofe nations from which the Tbm^ians came/' 
Bochart,, endeavours to confute this p^^ffage; of Epi* 
phanius ; I think he has failed. But certainly this 
gave room to Grotius, Salmafius, and Stillingfleet, 
to fuppofe that Peleg was the father of the Scythians, 
who were the firft that . pet^lcd Greece, under the 
pame of Pelafgoi, and fuch a wandering people 
might have been fo called with great propriety, as 
\ fhall hereafter fliew^ both from the oriental ^nd 
the Iriih languages* 

Stillingfieet confirms his opinion, he thinks, by 
etymology ; I go on the fame uncertain ground. 
He fiiews the affinity between the Hebrew and an* 
tient Greek, from the various dialea:s and pronun- 
ciations of the latter, which in the Doric comes 
neareft to the eaftern tongues ; and from the re- 
mainder of thofe tongues, efpecially where the 
Pelafgians have been, which Bochart thought of 
Phoenician, but our Author will rather have of He- 
brew extraflion, I have purfued the fame path, in 
all my publications on the Irifh language, antiqui- 
ties, &c- And fo great an affinity has the old Irilh 
with the Hebrew, that my friend and correfpondent, 
J, J. Heideck, Profeffor of Oriental languages, 



will not be perfuaded, but that t JewUh colo&y poce 
fettled in Ireland. 

The Scythians were certainly the defcendants of 
llbgQg^ not of Phaleg. They mixed with the 

of Beth-San, Tyre and Sidon. They 

conquered Aflyria, and when they loA that crown^ 
feme remained in Cs^o^yria, where they were 
again joined by the Hiaeniciam. They paffed with 
them, from thence to Crete : And it haa been the 
opinion of many learned men, that the Phxniciana 
were originally from Crete. Fortunatus Scacchos, 
a very learned man, in his Arcanum, S. & Myro» 
thee. chap. 17. Corcthos & Phetetheoe non IfraeUtas, 
fed alienigenas fuiffe.—- iHicGtmces Cretenfmm co« 
lonos, eo nomine figniiicari alii arbitrantur, cujus 
fententiae eft Auenor in eadem radice iy\y Pbas- 
nices ab Creta originem traxifle, Cretenfmrnve 
coloaiam Phceniciam extitiffe, dicunt aliqui fobodo- 
ran pofle, ex Pbaenico porto, quern infulae Cretae 
fidicripfiffe ferunt Ptolemseum in ora auftrali. 

Facit etiam ad hoc probandum illud Sophen* 2Veh. 
qpii habitas funieulum maris gent perditorum, i. e. 
OmS ^i ghui or ghoi Cerethim, i. e. gens Cere^ 
thim.-<—*«<-^ Again in Ezech. ch. 25. Ecce ego exten- 
dam manum meam fuper Palaeftinos, & mterficiam 
inter&fbores, & perdam reliquias maritimas regionis ; 
the Hebrew text reads thus, Ecce ego extendam 
manum meam fuper Philifthvim, & fuccidere feciam 
Cerethos, And in this place Aquila, Theodotius 
and Symacchus, have retained the word Ceretbem 
KiffdMA^, but fome Greek copies have ]c^r«f, Gretas. 

This probably led Tacitus into the miftake of de- 
riting the Jews from Crete. Judseos Creta infula 


xxiv PREFACE. 

profugos, noviflima Libyae infedifie memoraiit. 
(L. 5. Hift.) 

The Hebrew •li ghoi, fignifies a detefted people. 
Homo gentilis. Sic Judaei quem vis vocant, qui 
non eft de populo Ifrael, maxime tamen Chriftianis 
hoc nomen dedere. Nam Turcas appellant lifmeelim, 
five Ifmaelitas. Etiam unum hominem nomlnant 
ghii contra verum linguae ufum, & naturam voca- 
buli ; (Buxtorf Lex. Ghald.) In like manner, the 
Irifh call the Saxons Guith-ban ; the white detefted 
people ; and Guith-ban, became at length the name 
of England : (Shaw's Irifli Did.) but their own 
people and fellow countrymen, the Scots of Britain, 
they named Eilbonnac, from Eile a tribe, bonn good, 
and aice race ; and thus I believe Eilban foon became 
the name of England, inftead of Guidhban, whence 
Albania. This I am induced to think the origin of 
the word, becaufe I obferve in the Irifh MSS. the 
Scots feated in Britain are named Albanac, and in 
truth, it is the name the Highlanders or Erie diftini- 
guifh themfelves by at this day ; whereas by Eiris, 
or Eirinn, and Eirinnach, they mean the owners of 
the foil. 

Bifhop Cumberland derives the word Palaeftinus, 
from lySfi pelas or plas, which he obferves from 
Caftle's Heptaglot. fignifies to befmear with duft 
and afhes : and therefore the proper origin of Peleus 
at the mouth of the Nile ; but he allows, that in the 
Samaritan or Ethiopic, the fame word B^Sfl imports 
peregrinatio, migratio de loco in locum. So likewife 
Pleas, Phlcas or Fleas, in the antient Pelafgian-Irifh, 
fignifies to wander, to which add gboi, a people or 
pation, it forms Pelafgoi, the wandering people j the 



yery idea by which the Greeks have exprefled that 
people, quali Pelafgoi, cranes, wanderers. The Irifli 
ftill retain the word in pUeafgac or fleafgach, a 
wanderer, (boiler, having no fettled home, and with 
the modem Irifli, it im|^es a piper, fidler, or harper, 
ftrolling from town to town, or from houfe to houfe* 

It is of no great importance, if this be the proper 
etymology of the Pelafgi or not ; certain it is, that 
the Irifli do preferve the remembrance of Plafg or 
Pelafgus, in their genealogies. In the Reim-rioghhre, 
or royal calendars, in the fuppofed colony of theTuath- 
Dadananns, they make Pleft or Paleft, the fifth ge- 
neration from Noah, and Pelafg or Halg, the fif- 
teenth ; and five generations from him, they place 
Breas, who, it is faid led die colony to Ireland. 

As I think it is evident, that Phoenician, Pelafgian 
and Etnifcan colonies, did fettle in Britannia magna 
and Britannia parva, or England and Ireland, I am 
naturally led to feek the etymology of the name 
Britannia, in the Irifli language. Setting afideGeofiry's 
idle ftory of the Trojan Brutus, we will fliew what 
others have faid of this name. And firft, that great 
etymological luminary, Bochart ; he derives it from 
the Phcenician barat ager, and anak ftannum, i. e. 
the field of tin ; brot in the Iriih, means the borders 
of a country, from whence by tranfpofition of letters, 
the French border^ and Englifh border. I think 
Bochart was mifled by Strabo and Ptolemy, who 
write it fi^^Titmi (Brcttanica) which is certainly an 
adje&ive, and is dcfedive in fcnfe without ri^^ (an 
ifland) joined to it. 

Secondly, Camden, he is certainly right in the 
termination «?<« (tania) which in Hebrew, Syriac, 


xxvi F R E F A C £• 

Irift, ^okA aU Oriental lai^uag^, fignifies a couDtrj 
or region ; bi^t he is a$ mu(;b ^ a lofs what to make 
of the ikil part of the word MV, as I am of the 
latter part taniuke, iiniel$ I derive it from tiiuxn, to 
fufe, tx> melt, which is certainly the root of the 
English word tin» 

England \pas called Luigria^ by the lri(b^ and by 
the Wclfb corrupted into Lloyger ; it was fo called, 
lays Lewis, before the year of Chrift 586 j Ihortly 
after which time, Lecefter, the chief city of the 
Mercians, was called Leogera ; and when they became 
Chriftians, their faiihops were called Prselijde^ htO" 
gerenfes. (Antient Hift, of Britain, p. agJ} 

It h allowed by all biftorians that thefe two iflands 
were vifited by the Fhcenicians and Carthaginians;, 
for the lead, tin and c(^>per, with which they 
abomidedf In Iriib krut and hug fignify lead ; a^n 
and tan^ and Wa a country, hence Brutaoa, Bruttan ' 
and Luigria, do all imply the country of lead and 
tin ; and fo much for Geofiry'a Laegrus the fon cf 
Brutus« Brut in Iriih, fignifies alfo pitch, tar, or 
whatever is readily fufed, or afted on by Ar^/, i.. e. 
fire; whence I believe the Hebrew Tf^SS prut, 
lead, or any bafe metaU 

But fay the opponents of Irifli hiftory, there is no^ 
foundation in the annals of the Phoenicians or Car- 
thaginians, that they did fail to Ireland or England ; 
that remark ia eafily anfwered,, Nor are we without 
authority that they did come here. Gorijonldes in 
his book de Hannibale, 1. 3. ch. 15, fays, that Han- 
nibal conquered the Britains, who dwell in the ocean 
fea, p'U^^pW^ D^OCn^n n*3t3n> We have no fuch 
conqueft recorded in the hiftory of Magna Britannia^, 



but as I have Ibewn, more thw once, the hiftory of 
Ireland or Parva Brittannia, declares they did conquer 
this country, impofed grievous taxes on the inhabit* 
ants, vtrho vrere relieved by their old friends and 
allies the Pelafgians or Etrufcans, from Crotom 

Thefe iflands ware kno\m to the Cardiaginians, 
Greeks and Arabs, by the name of the fortunate 
iflands* They were the Elyfian fields of the Arabs 
and of the Greeks. Selden has wiittcn much to the 
purpofe on this fubjeft, in his X. Scriptor. Anglic. 
And Ifaac Tzetzes pofitively declares, " in oceano 
infula ilia Brittania, inter Brittaniam illam qus fita 
eft in occidente & Thylcn quae ad orientem magis 

vergit." « Id eft," fays Selden, ^« Britannia 

magna feu Albion quam fie collocat ille inter Bri- 
tanniam alteram feu parvam, quae Hibernia eft & 
Thulen, de cujus fitu baud parum difcrepant cho- 
rographi tum veteres turn recentiores ; Uluc aiunt 
(adds Tzetzes) etiam mortuorum animas trap/wbi^ ad 
bunc modum fcribentes ;" to which Selden replies, " et 
fane Tzetes hofce intelligo, in litore Britanniae magnac 
volunt reperiri navigia ilia animabus onufta, indeque 
lUa cum remigibus, impetu unico, ad HIBERNIAM 
adpelli, tunc SCOTIAM itidem vocitatam* 

Juftus Lipfius is another authority. He quotes 
the following paflage from Ariftotle. " In mari extra 
Herculis coluranas, infulam defertam inventam fuifle, 
filva nemorofam, fluviis navigabilem, fruftibus 
uberem, multorum dierum navigatione diftantem, in 
quam crebra Carthaginienfes commearint, & multi 
fedes etiam fixerunt ; fed veritos primores, ne uimis 
loci illius opes convalefcerent, & Carthaginis labe- 
rentur, edido cavifTe & poena capitis fanxilTe, nequis 




CO navigafle deinccps vellet." (Ariftot. in Admiran- 
dis.) To which Lipfius obferves, ** quod vcrum 
cenfeo de una aliqua novarum infularum : quia multos 
dies navigatione impendit : neque probabile igitur 
Canarias, aut alias vicinas, fuiffe. Nofter Seneca 
(nam illc Tragedias Medeae certo auftor eft) de iis 
ipfis pracdixiffe vidctur, pueris jam decantatum 

venient anms 

Saecula feris, quibus Oceanus 
Vincula rerum laxet, & ingens 
Pateat tellus, Tiphyfque novos 
Deteget orbes, nee fit terris 
Ultima Thule. 

Qnod ille tamen proprie de Britannicis infulis in- 
tellexit, & in Claudii gratiam fcripfit, (J. Lipfius, 
V. iv. p. 594.) 

To this let us add the remarks of Culverius. 
" Gefta haec anno xxi, poft alteram illam Etrufcorum 
contra Cumanos expeditionem, quam fiipra memo- 
ravimus. Ac tanta quum foret eorum terra ;narique 
potentia, longinquas etiam navigationes extra Colum- 
nas Herculis in mare Oceanum aliquando inftitu- 
erunt. Diodorus 1. 5. Hac igitur ratione Phoenices, 
inveftigando ultra Columnas oram, quum Africae 
litora legerent ; ingentibus ventorum procellis ad 
longinquos in Oceano traftus fimt abrepti. Ac per 
multos dies vi tempeftatis jaftati, tandem ^dpradi&am 
infulam adpulerunt, naturamque ejus ac felicitatem, 
a fe perfpedam, in aliorum deinde notitiam perdux- 
erunt. Ideo Tyrrheni quoque, quum maris imperio 
potirentur, cohniam eo deftinarunt, fed Carthagini- 


PREFACE. xxlx 

enfes ilU$ obftiterunt. Sed quam magnum atque 
celebre per omnem ilium terrarum orbem, qui in 
Europam, Aiiam & Africam diftinguitur fuerit Tyr- 
rhenorum nomen, oftendere voluit Ariftide$. (Clu- 
verius, Ital. p. 445. ) 


The remarkable piety, morality and philofophy of 
the Hibernian Druids, added to the early eftablifli- 
ment of the Orgia of the Cabiri in this ifland, caufed 
it to be named In/ula Sanda ; and the fecundity of 
its foil, and temperature of the climate, gave it the 
name of the bleffed and fortunate ifland. In treating 
of the Cabiri, I fliall have frequent occafion to mention 
Sanchoniatho ; and I mud here premife, that I believe 
the Greek tranilation by Philo. BibL is a mere for- 
gery, worked up with Greek ideas on a Phoenician 
allegory, mifunderftood and interlopated by Philo, 
in every page. This I venture to fay from com- 
paring the Irifli hiftory of the Cabiri, with the Phoe- 
nician, for example, why ihould QuramiSy the Hea- 
vens, marry his fifter Ge the Earth, and bring forth, 
ift, Ilus, who is called Cronus ; 2d, Betylus ; 3d, ^ 

Dagon, who is Siton, or the god of corn ; and 4th, 
Atlas ; becaufe in the Irifh ftory, Aoran the plough- 
man marries Ge, or Ce the Earth, and the firft 
plowing brings forth Ilus, weeds, ftones, orts ; the 
fecond Biadhial food, (for fome corn will require but 
two plowings) but the third produces daghy or deagh^ 
great corps of wheat, when follows athlusy i. e. ruadh, 
fallowy to recover for another crop. Cronus does 



not fignify Time in this psiflage ; crann is a plough, 
fear crainn a plough-mam« (See Shaw's Eng. Ir. Did.) 
In other places Philo has hit upon the proper fenfe ; 
for Mil and ^ron, (ignify time in Irifh. 

Strabo in 1. iv. p. 198, fays, " infulam ^c prope 
Britanniam in qua Cereri & Proferpinae facta fiunt 
eodem ritu quo in Samothracia ;** and this he affirms 
from Artemidorus, vdio wrote under Ptolomaeus 
Lathyrus, and none of the Helenick Greeks, had 
then entered Britain, as Samcs has well proved in 
his Britannia antiqua illuftrata. 

TTie information given us by Sanchoniatho, that 
the Diofcuri and Corybantes made improvements in 
fliips and veffels, wherewith they pafTed over the fea, 
(within the two next generations after the flood, accord- 
ing to Cumberland) will evince us, that thus men might 
pafs early even into iflands and countries, feparated 
by fea from each other, which mud needs help to 
forward the difperfion of mankind into many coun- 
tries. And accordingly we find the fons of Sydyc 
called by Sanchoniatho, Samothraces, which imports 
they got into that ifland, and into Thrace, near ad- 
joining. For Herodotus fays, the ITiracians were 
initiated according to the rites of the Cabin, whom 
he records to have been in Samothracc, and hence 
to have removed with the Pelafgi into Attica, and 
thence into other parts of Greece, where Paufanias 
affures us, that their myfteries were upheld even to 
his time. Not that Samothrace implies the Thracians 
of Samos, but the Orgia of the Cabiri. 

From the Irifh MSS of the Sebright coUeftion, and 
from others in my own poflTeffion, I have been able 
to coUeft much of the Druidical religion* Of the 




Cabiri^ I IhaU now only fpetk. The Aames and 
explanatjons of chefe Cabin app^r to be all aile- 
gorxcai, aad to have fignUkd no more than an al* 
m&fidck of the viciffitudes of the feafobs, cakuiated 
for the operations of agriculture, from which names 
certain planei^ and confteUationa were denominated^ 
and £fti«i hence the origin of the figns of the aodkc* 
And tbefe we ihail hereafter find run through the 
Ma^ogi^ line,* viis* the Tartars, Arabs, PerfianS) 
Turks, MoguUs, Chinefe, Japanefe, &e. &c. and 
wiH account for that valuable difcotery of Mr. Call, 
who found the twelve figns of the 2o<Uac painted on 
tfie cieling of a Pagoda, at Vardape^a, near Cape 
Comorin in the Eaft Indies, and in the fame manner 
we reprefent Aem *. Monf. Bailie has, in my t^- 
nion, proved very clearly that the ChaWee and 
Egyptian aftronomy, was but the tkbris of the fcience, 
and that it originated with the Scythians. Does not 
Ludan place the tranfitdions of moft of his Syrian 
deities in Scythia ; Why fend Lete or Latona to 
murder her guefts in Scythia ? 

The hiih Cabiri I find mentioned as of both fexes; 
in Ihort, they appear all inanimate, Aefar, SanA, and 
Samhan excepted, viz* 

Aefar, i. dia i. Logh, i. e. Aefar is god; the 
Logh, the fpiritual flame. Is not this the tk ^«y7o( xiytt. 
&Cii of Zeao ? Notanda igitur, & hie y^m vocula qua 
crebrd in hoc generationis re utuntur, ut Senecae^ 
" Caufa autem, id eft ratio, materiam format ; in- 
corporalis ratio, ingentium operum artifex," ingen- 
tium, totius mundi, ait, incorporalis, quia mens ipfa 

* Phflot Tranf. vol. 62, Anno 1772. 



Dei eft, & animus, ut fie dicam ignis *. This in ihoit, 
was the bafis of all Stoic philofophy, and by a per- 
verfion of the original fenfe of the Druids, arofe all 
the nonfenfical mythology of the latter Egyptians, 
Phoenicians, Etrufcans and Greeks. 

In the laft number I derived the word aefar from 
eafar the creator. I find it fince written aefar, and 
in Shaw's Irifli Didionary Aesf hear, which pronoun- 
ces the fame ; the/ with an hiatus, does not found, 
and is thrown in by the poets, to divide the fyllables. 
Dr. Hyde in his religion of the antient Perfians, ex- 
plains the name Azer, to have fignified Abraham 
in the Zend^ meaning thereby fire. Et quia Azur 
eft igni&, ideo fulmen feu fulgur-autem Mohom- 
medanus interpres hoc etiam efte ex nominibus Dei 
excelfi. (p. 64.) -(-. 

Ain or Aion follows -ffifar, with the following ex- 
planation : 

Ain, I ; Aion, i ; Mac Seathar, i | ; Seatharan, 
i. e. Ain or Aion, was the fon of God, and called 

Sanchoniatho tells us, that n^mriy»^ the firft born, 
was called AiiJr, from whom proceeded rwU, and this 
Aion was the firft that gathered the fruits of the 

* Juft. Lipfius de Stoicis. 

f I take this opportunity of returning thanks to my learned 
correfpondent Boirimh. I acknowledge his carredion in this 
word ; if poifible, his letter (hall find room in thia number. 

X Samaritan, Sahar, i. e. Deus, Heb. IJOtJ^ Shatai Dominus. 
Seathar, a name of God, fo called from fcathar, ftrong, in the 
fame manner that El among the Hebrews was an appellation of 
God, from the Hebrew El, which fignifies ftrong, powerful. 
O'Brien s Iriih Lexicon^ 


PREFACE. xxxili 

Bjftiop CmnberlaQd^ to fupport a fyflem, m^kes 
Protogencs and Ain, tipo mortals, from whom pro- 
ijLeedisd Qemis and Qenea* SaxKhon* fays no fuch 
thijig 'y \^ makes Protogonus the iame as Aion, from 
whom proceeded Qejie:a ; bw, fays the Wfhop, Aioa 
wa« th^ firft g^tb^er^f of the fruit$ of the earth, amj 
of tree$, f:on£equently this was £y^, and Protogenu^ 
Wj8i^ h4^^ & though he acki^owledges that Aion U 
made mafculine by Philo Biblyus, rir a/^J*, but, fays 
b^, die transcriber ignprantly coni^dered Aion as an 
^pellative, in which notion it is mafculine, and not 
as he ought to have 4oQe^ as a proper name of a 
vioman^ m which fe;nfe it muft be feminine* (Re- 
Qiafks, p. 219.) 

In the lalt number, I proved Seathar to be fynonlr 
Qiaus to Aefar, i. e. God ; now Ain ia the Iriih Cabiri^ 
is placed m"^ to JEhx^ and is faid to be Mac Seathar^ 
the fon of God, the Aioa or Aon^ i. e. the firft, the 
only one ; fxovci whence he was furnamed Satharan. 
Aion *9 <u!>niieqp^ni:ly is Adgni, axkd he was the firft 
gatherer of the fruits of the ^arth^ which he found 
r^ady fowo s and fo wias Seatbarn or Saturn of the 
Romans^ for wbic|) realpii )he was reprefented with a 
fcydie in l^s JbliS^^ A«7^^ • ^^ vri ii>oivsj(«r, Hefyc. 
Pagon isCronvis or Satv* of the Phoe^ians. Cronus 
liep-e is our Crewn ^d I>3gh, fpf Pagon the 
god of agriculture, not of .time. JBrUt then wher^ 
^11 w^ ^d ^^ Sa^ons^&o tells yo^ plainly, 
frpjm Aipm pro«ieded Cefn^ feyJPhilo written Geneaj 

• * 

* Ain, Ao^>.A*on> hpnpurabkj praife- worthy, refpcdlful. 
Grftsjt Aine, Jaiis. (O'Brien.) Ami fuch was the Irlfli Chead-om, 
or Hhcad om, the firft man, i. c. Adam. 

VdL. IV. ^o; Kfll. D but 



but Gean in Irifli is a woman^ fo called becaufe (he \% 
agan or geanach, that is, precious, dear, lovely, fair 
to behold ; and the Arabic verfion would have 
called her aghanet, immerfed in love, or the eflFefk 
of loving, and ghunnasj a perfeft beauty, and fuch 
was Eve ; and from Gean a woman, the Irifh very 
properly derive in-ghean a daughter ; it is fur- 
prizing the Greek word yv^i a woman, did not 
occur to the Bifhop. 

Such appears the work of Sanchoniatho to an 
Irifh fcholar, and when we confider, that in the Irifli 
language, Seanachith is an antiquary, an hiftorian ; 
and Seanacha-nathy the art or fcience of an antiquary ; 
we are almoft inclined to believe Mr. Dodwell, and 
to reject Sanchoniatho as counterfeit. But furely 
Philo Byblius, Porphryry and Eufebius were better 
able to judge than any moderns : and they never 
called in queftion his being genuine. 

Here then is an ingenious Phoenician or Druidical 
ftory, literally copied from the Holy Scriptures. 
Blufti then, ye opponents of the Sacred Writings ! 
ye multipliers of Adams ! ye ftand here correfted by 
a Phoenician and a Heathen Hibernian Druid. 

Ceara, i , ainm do dhias, agus ainm don dagh, 
agusCeara, i; Maloith, i. e. Ceara (Ceres) is the 
name of ears of corn, and the name of a plentiful 
crop, and ceara is a flail. 

Ceara to this day is the word ufed by the Irifti, for 
heating oats in a pot, and placing thein in a hole in 
the dry earth of the cabin floor,, where they are 
trampled on till the hull parts from the feed. 

Ceara prefided oyer bread, corn and wheat. The 
Iriih fable gives her a daughter named Ppr-|aibhean; 



this is the Claflic Proferplna ; the propriety of the 
name is not to be underftood, but in the PhcEnician 
and the Irifti. Por Hfl is feed, race for planting or 
propagating ; Saibhean \^SW (avena) is oats, or fmall 
grain. Ceara, fay the Irifli poets, invented the Cearan 
or quern, i. e. the hand mill, and the cearran or 
fickle ; but Porfaibhean, (Proferpina) invented Leite, 
an excellent food, made of oatmeal, called itirabout^ 
from leite a ring or circle, or to move in a circle, 
becaufe it mufl be ftirred about during the operation* 
Porfaibhean, fay the Iriih fables, eftabliihed an annual 
folemnity named Luithre or Taithre, that is, the 
harvefl-home of the oaten-meal, and by the latter 
name, it is now known to the poor farmers. She 
invented or difcovered alfo, the flige or large horfe 
mufcle fhell, to lift up this leite : (he was made a 
conflellation under the name of Leithre ; thefe ihells 
ihe made into fcales for weighing the meal, and in 
this form ihe is reprefented in the zodiac. The 
Greeks robbed us of this conflellation and called it 
Litra, which is fynonimoift to Libra. It has been 
underftood that the conftellation Libra or Litra was 
a kind of innovation ; that the Greeks were not ac- 
quainted with any fuch is certain ; yet we find them 
among the Saggittaries and Capricorns on the old 
Egyptian remains. (Hill's Aftronom. Dift.) 

Porfaibhean is faid to have invented another moft 
wholefome food of the hulls of oats, named Saibhean, 
pronounced faivan, and now called fowens j a food 
well known by that name in the f uburbs of Dublin ; 
. eaten with white-wine and fugar, it is equil to the 
beft blamanche. 

D 2 . . It 

xxxvi PREFACE. 

It is very plain that Ceara is the Egyptian Ifis* 
" J'ai d'abord foup^onnc que c'etoit-la le fymbole 
que portoit I'lfis Egyptienne aux approches de I'in- 
ondation, & qu'on lui doiinoit alors le nom de 
Leto ou Latone, qui eft k nom du lezard ampbibie* 
Ifi8 prenoit de fon cote le nom de Di-Ane *, Pabon- 
dance k Ton mettoit en fa main la figure d'une caille, 
dont le nom fignifie aufi falot, fecarB()e mStC^ flav. 
les mots Latin faius & falvas en vioinent, ii figniiier 
aufli cotttumix une caiile. <!^elque£ois on trouve 
deux caiUes aux pies d'Ifis, poxir fignifier une eaticre 
££curite. Abbe Plucbc is fomctimes -very happy in 
his Egyptian etymologies, and fometknes much egare* 

Ceara is called Maloit or maJoid, a flail in common 
Irifh. I doubt if flie invented l^ inftrument of 
hufbandry. Mai in the Hebrew is to cut, to bruiie. 
The Phoenicians had a temple to Car, Beth-Car, 
I Sam. 7. 1 1. Halloway derives the word from Cor, 
the cdieftiai revohitions and itB efieds, whidi are the 
chief and firft fruits in animals and plants. 

SlTO Carmd, Spica-plena & pinguis graois afa^mde 
Tefertur. (Piantavit^ Synon* Lexicon,) this is our 
■caor^ a berry, a full grain. 

Carmel dicitur quafi ^^'O 13 pnlvinar plenui^ 
id eft, fignificat plenam granis. Buxtorf. Chald. 
Lex. Melila^ fpica, a confricando, quafi fricatio 
•confricatio ; (ibid) here is our frication invented 
by Ceara, from whence we may conjefture, Maloidy 
formerly fignified to tread the com, and now it 
means a flail, ufed for the fame purpofe. 

Bates ofbferves, that Carmel in the Bible, fome- 
times exprefles a field of corn, fometimes green ears;, 
and fometimes ripe ears, fit to be rubbed in the 




hand. The green corn, fays he, whiUl in the pulp 
will neither threih or rub out : and corn in the full 
ear, juft cut, will rub out, but not threfh. The 
green com they dried at the fire, or roafted it : and 
the full ripe grain in the ear, they rubbed out and 
eat with oiL ~ here are three ways of eating com, 
in bread, parched, and in grain. 

Anu, mathar dias, agus mater deorum ; non 
mater deorum, acht ro bo maith dinno biathal fi 
dias, I • £o*anu. Vegetation, of corn gathering into 
ear, not mother of the Gods, fays the Gloifarift, 
non mater deorum, but as Ihe provides bread, com, 
or food, bearing the ear— (he was the eo— (good) — 
Anu — whence Juno with the Latins. Ana & anu 
in Iriih, fignify riches, abundance, continuance of 
fair weather, a drinking cup or horn, a cornucopia ; 
dear, beloved ; and Ann-oid, a temple or church — 
Aon, excellent, noble j Anann, a poetical name 
of Ireland. 

Mathar and Abar, in Irifli, are fynonimous 
words, for xhtfirji caufe^ whence, compounded with 
jlghas or Achas fignifying, good-luck, felicity, prof- 
perity, &c. they form Matharaghas & Abarachas, 
an epithet given by the Druids to the true God, 
thereby importing the Deity to be, the great firft 
caufe of all felicity, faith, religion, &c. &c. (See 
Agh fully explained in Pref. No. lo). 

From this Druidical name, is derived that ridicu- 
lous Greek myftical word ABRAXAS, fo much 
noted by the Fathers. The word was probably of 
Egyptian origin, for by the Emperor Hadrian's 
letter to Servianus, we find the primitive Chriftians 
in the Eaft, mixed the Gods of the Heathens with 

D 3 the 

xxvui PREFACE. 

the Chriftian Religion, and if they had not miilaken 
the fenfe of thofe words, there would have been no 
crime in adopting fo noble an epithet, -^gyptum 
(fays Hadrian) quam inihi laudabas, Serviane ca- 
rifiime, totam didici levem, pendulam, &r ad omnia 
famae momenta volitantem. lUi qui Serapin colunt, 
Chriftiani funt, & devoti funt Serapi qui fe Chrifti 
Epifcopus dicunt. (Vopifcus in Vita Sjiturnini 

The Gnofticks, Bafilideans and Valentinians, had 
the Abraxas ; Irenasus, TertuUian and Auguftin, 
notice the idle fable of the Greeek letters in the 
word, compofmg the number 365, and that they 
fuppofed, there were fo many Heavens. But Mi- 
thras and Abraxis, are fynonimous words for the 
the Deity, and are to be found on the fame medals, 
often with the word I A O and A D O N A I, the 
firft (landing for JEHOVA, the laft is a Phoenician 
and Irifh word, fignifying Dominus. How then 
did Mithras make out 365 : indeed, to form Aba- 
rachas into this number they were obliged to tranf- 
pofe a letter, and to turn CH into X, and then it 
was made up in this manner, viz. « i. c 2. % 100. 
« I. { 60. ct I- <r2oo, which added together make 
up the number 365. Brafilides eftablifhed his doc- 
trine in Spain, and there we find the name written 
Abraffes. The Etrufcans had alfo their Abraxas j 
he is found on their coins with Serapis, Canubis, 
&c. Our Hibernian Druids alfo prefixed the word 
CAD, i. e. Holy to A B R A, and of this, the 
Gymnofophhifts, are faid to have formed ABRA- 
CADABRA, and to have made Amulets, as a 




charm againft fevers, to be worn round the neck in 
this form, viz. 







I cannot help thinking this and the number 365, 
are tricks of the later monks, becaufe, St. Jerom 
exprefsly fays, that by Abraxas, the Baffilideans 
meant the Almighty God. Bafilides qui Omnipo- 
tentem deum portentofo nomine appellat Abraxas, 
(& eundem fecundum Graecas literas, & annui curfus 
numerum dicit in folis circulo, contineri, quem ethnici 
fubeodem numero aliarum literarum vocantMithram.) 
Father Montfaucon has given fome hundeds of draw- 
ings from the various medals ftruck with this word 
Abraxas ; where he is reprefented in every diflorted 
form, of half man half beaft, the imagination could 
invent (Antiq. Vol. IV. page 357.) Our Hiber- 
nian Druids, like their Scythian anceftors,] admitted 
of no images. 

^ ^^4> T1?< An or Aun was the name of an ob- 
ject of worfhip in Egypt and Canaan ; Abbe Pluche, 
takes no notice of it. Gen. xli. and 45. it is An, in 
verfe 5, it is Aun. The word, fays Bates, is 
ufed for the ftrength and power of God. The 


xl P tt £ F A C E. 

apoftates no doubt, meant by it, the heavens, and 
the Prophets turn the word upon them, as in Amos, 
V. ver. 5. S>^ El ihall become ps<, there was a 
Beth Aun near Beth El, Jofh. vii. ver. 2. Hot 5th, 
the calves of Beth An* The On or Aun of the 
Egyptians, was in their more degenerate days, the 
city of the Sun, if we can truft the Ixx. Ezek. 30, 
and 17. The 70 were good judges, but are not 
well underftood ; the introduftion of foreign words 
ufed by idolatrous nations^ into the Hebrew text, 
were known to the Ixx. and our Commentators 
would do well to follow their explanations. 

Hence the Ban-ana plant, worfhipped by the 
Egyptiatis, as the fymbol of fecundity ; hence alfo, 
the Irifh dealb-an-dea, a butterfly ; literally, the re- 
prefentation of the goddefs Atiu ; the Egyptians re- 
prefented air, as the ciiufe of vegetation, by a 

Anu. I. Ith. I. lath, Anith. i. Anann. therefore 
Ith was mater deorum, likewife Sifj^n ^^^^' Chaldee 

obfl:etrix., KH^Pl hhlta. Vita. Ith, In Irifli, is 

wheat, bread corn ; and here we find Anu joined 
with Ith and Anu doubled, in Atiann, a name of 
Ireland. Ith or It, is derived from the Hebrew 
T^tDr\ it, et, itah, wheat. This Hebrew word fays 
Bates, is ufually put under ^jj-^ henut, for what 
rcafon doth not appear. I put it under this root be- 
caufe it is the only corn we always bind or tie up 
■with a bandage. 

We find Ith or lath, in a multitude of compounds 
in our Irifli Cabiri, as Anith, Jath nan Ann. 
Amudith, lomadith, Maloith whence maloid, (as 
before), Sughith, and many others — in our di£H- 



otiaries ive find Ith, com ; Itham, to eat ; Ithadias, 
an ear of com ; Ithfen^ a dray for corn ; Itlur, a 
corn-fieki, foil^ land) country ) Amudith, the plen- 
tiful Ith } Deafc-ith, the berry of wheat 5 Sugh, 
fap, juice ; Sugith, wheat in fap. Ctefias fuppofes 
the Affyrian Derceto, to be the fame as Dagon, 
i. e. frumentum,* — it was a good guefs of Ctefias- 

Auguftin fays, Seia, was the goddefs of new fdwn 
com; andSegetia when it began to fpring up, — 
Saoi or Saoidth in Irifh, is grafs, corn in blade — 
ni^jR Anona, cibus, pec. cquorum ut al. Viftus, 
commeatus, fruttientum, tributum annuum ad an- 
nonam confervandam. * 

" Ainith, is the Anaitis of the Perfians and of the 
Copts, f But Anith or Antea was Ceres, as Mon. 
Gebelin proves. In Orpheus, there is a hymn ad- 
dreffed to Ceres or Demeter, and one under the 
name of mother Antea. \ Anaitis and Zaretis, 
Diana Ferfica. (Selden.) 

This was the Al-Itta of the Arabians, al being 
only a prefixed article. Gad autem feu Dea fimpli- 
citer eodem modo vocabitur, quo Herodotus alias 
ab Arabibus Venerem, Alitta appellari teftatur quod 
eft Dea, quamvis alii nomen apud Herodotera Alleh 
efle putant— quod Domina fit Regina no£Us, hinc 
igitur denuo patet, Venerem eandem cum luna in 
Oriente habitaiti fuiife. Millius, de Gad. p. 124 1. 

The Chaldaean Anedbt, mentioned by Syncellus, 
feems to have the fame origin ;— and hence I think 

* Caftellus. 

t Reland in his letter to Wllkins on the Coptic. 

X Hift. AUcg. du Calcndr. page 575. 


xlii PREFACE. 

the Greek fable of Peleus and Telamon, both bom 
of the nymph Endeis, the daughter of Chariclo, i. e. 
(in Irifli Ceara-clu) the renowned Ceara, — and hence 
the ruftick Roman feaft of Anna Perenna. Hence 
alfo^ the Etrufcan Ammudatis. Ammudatis & 
Deus magnuSy invenio Ammudatem Deum cultum : 
fed quis & a quibus ne (Edipus divinarit. * 

And the Syrian Mylitta f (or Mulita, i. e. Venus.) 
the Lus-for^oir^ and the Lusfo-iar of the Irifli, i. e. 
the light in the eaft, and the light in the weft ; the Lu- 
cifer of the Greeks and Romans, but they knew 
not, as the Irifli did, that flie is fo called, becaufe 
when flie departs out of the funs rays on the weftcm 
fide, we fee her in the morning juft before day 
break : it is in this fituation of Venus, that flie is 
called the Morfting-ftar, as in the other flie is called 
the Evening.ftar. 

But as I have reafon to think thefe dry fubjeds 
unpleafant to my Irifli readers, I fliall give t^ names 
of the reft of the Cabiri in a lift, and leave to them 
to compare the names and attributes with thofe of 
other countries. They may reft aflured that the 
bafis of all the Mythology of the Jlaft and of the 
Weft, lies concealed in the philofophy of the Irifli 
Druids, and that there are fuflicient monuments 
ftill left, to prove the aflertion. 

Dagh or Dagh-da, explained in No. 1 2. 

Lute & Lufe, bandea, i. e. a goddefs. I believe 
the Gloflarift fliould have explained this in the maf- 
culine, a God. Louthat was the name of one of 

* Dcmpfter dc Etruna Regall. 
t vD Mill plcniiudo. 


PREFACE. xliii 

the celeftial powers or good angels of the Gnofticks. 
Lahat, was an epithet of the fupreme God, with 
the Phoenicians. 

Nath, I . dia an Cacht. Nath, the God of wif« 
dom. Nath ainm coitceann don uile aide eigfibh, 
(Vet. Gloff.) i. e. Nath is a name common for all 
fublime compofitions, as hymns, &c. Nath. i. 
Tine. i. Tin-cofg. i, teagafg. i. e. Nath, Tine, 

Tincofg, fignify teagafg, i. e. wifdom. ^This was 

alfo an Egyptian Deity. Urbis (Sais) praefes Dea, 
^gyptiace quidem Neit : Graece autem, ut illorum 
fert opinio Ai^f«. (Plato in Tim.) i. e. Minerva nam 
A^uw antiquis Graecis, Tufcis vero Tina. (Gori), 
But we fee Tine and Nath, are fynonimous names 
for wifdom, in the Irifti. 

Neit, dia Catha. Neit, the God of war ; neit in 
Irifli fignifies war. 

Neaman Dogha. i . Uibhle tenedh. i . Ceara. Sy- 
nonimous names of the fame Deity. Eiriu, Eire, 
Eirinn, Por, Porfaibhean, fynonimous names. Por, 
is feed or race for planting or propagating. Saib- 
hean, fignifies Oats, (j^BtS^ Avena) and Eirinn, is 
fertile foil, ♦itj peri, in Heb. is fruit, corn. N. B. 
Eire, is a poetical name of Ireland, and is the Iris of 
Diodonus, inhabited, he fays, by Britons. 

Ain. Mac Seathair. i. e. Ain, the Son of God. 

Ain. I. Tauladh. i. Phan, Fen, i. Mulach, fyno- 
nimous names of the fame Deity. 

Tath. I. Tait. i. Taithlann. i. Foghmhar. i. e. 
the Deity of the harveft. (See No. 1 2.) 

Geamhar, i, e. the Deity prefiding over com in 
the blade. 


adir PREFACE, 

Raidhe. i. Redhe« i. c* Sub deities of Re, the 
moon. Fauns, Ruftickg, labourers in the field. 

iEdh. I . ^th, I . teinne, the Deity of fire. 

Samhan. i. Samh-fhiunn, i. e. Samhan is the 
end of fummer, the clofing of the light of Sam, 
the Sun. (See No. 1 2.) 

Dius, I ; Congo, 1 5 goirlog, i ; fambolg, i ; bolg, 
I ; bolog, f ; comhartha, ar neamh ar clith na ma- 
dideana^ i. e. Dius and the following words fignify an 
ear of corn ; it is a fign in the heavens, at the left 
of the Virgin. 

See the learned Dr. Hyde on the Sibylla. In 
Arabic daufeh is an ear of corn ; and duffiiza is the 
Perfico-Indian name of this conft Jlation ; but here 
we are told the word implies Virgo. Secundum Phoe- 
nices & Chaldaeos, autumnali Tempore (quando fruges 
ad meffem maturae) praeeft fignum virginis feu puellae 
fpicas in agrolegentis ; hinc, infigni Aftronomo Perfae 
Albumazar, in Sphaera PersJndica in primo figni 
virginis decano oritur puella cui Perficum nomen 
dujhiza feu virgo. Apud Arabes & Perfas hoc fignum 
fynochdochic^ vocatum eft Sumbul feu Sumbula, i. e. 
fpica quae tamen proprie & abfque figura, eft tamen 
primaria hujus figni ftella fpicarum fafciculum re- 
prasfentans, nSl2E^> fibula in Hebrew is fpica ereda. 
in the modern Irifli it implies a gathering in of the 
com, whence fabhal a bam, granary, &c. Samhbolg 
an ear of corn ripened by Samh the Sun. 

Samhan-draoic, 1 ; Cabur, i ; comhceangalladh ; 
of this hereafter. 

Cann, i ; R^ Ian, i ; Luan Ian, the full moon ; 

hence the Kann or Diana of the Etrufcans. 



Samhan^ i ; Cdfil, i ; OioUa» L e« Sataii^ the 

The Gredcs urere acquainted vith this dcm ; but 
I do not find they received him into their catalogue, 
which 16 the more ftirprizing, at they acknowiedge 
htm of Pbcesiician origin, ag we leara from Damafdm 
mhk Life of Ifidorus. Phot. Kbl. Cod. 24a, p. 1074. 
** Aflclapiuc, who is worihipped at Beryte, U neither 
Grecian nor Egyptian, but Phoenician ; for Sdye haA 
<iiildren, who were called Diofcures or Cabires. The 
«ghth was ESMVNVS, that h to fay, ASiOJlPIOS. 
He was a youith of fuch exqufite beauty, ihztA/iron^Sj 
queen of Phoenicia, and mother of the gode, fell m 
love with him, if the fable k true« He, who took. 
<lelight lA attending the ilocks, percd^g the godde6 
attadied iierfeif to him fb ftrongly, that he had no 
means of avoiding her, caftrsied hindelf with a hat- 
<tiet. The igoddefs, grieved to the foul at this affion, 
<:al}ed the youth Paian^ (wW n«74»v« nmxirmtm t«9 fuui^^M*^ 
ttnd placed him among die gods, dtat his paffion 
fhouM never be forgotten. X)n this account he was 
named ESMVNVS by the Phoenicians, though others 
fay lie was ib <:aHed by being the eighth fon of Sadyk; 
Efmunus in Phoenician Jrfiplying that number ; how- 
ever tliis is he who carries light in the midft of dark- 

The reader \v31 find moft of thefe deities among 

the Phoenician and Chaldaean gods mentioned by 

HaHoway. And in Relandus, he wiH find Beth-Car, 

Beth-Anath, -Beth-Er, Beth-Ere^ &c. &c. 

Lemery at the word Oriza (rice) on the faith of 
Biron and -other voyagers, fays, that in India is a 

•paged, remarkable ifor the delicacy of its workman- 




real power of words and mufic over ferpents, from 
cof^oming or coofociadng them,— but the word 
czprdly meaiis a companion, an afibc^te, company, 
as Jud* XX. I . All the men of Ifrael were gathered 
toge&«r ^i^kuift the city, (Chabirim) knit together 
«s one man, and Job xi. 25. ufed it tn the lij;^ 
feufe, the Chabirim (companions) nuke a banquet 
for them* 

Bochart, Selden and Cumberland have been mil- 
led by Paufanias and other Greek writers^ in explain- 
ing Cabiri to (ignifiy Dii potes, vel Dii magni. 
Saoi^pi^iatho tells us, from Sydyc came the Dioicuri, 
Cabiri, Corybant^ and Samothraces ; thej(e firfl in- 
vented the building of a ux^f, or a compleat fkip. 

Bpch^Tt ackxvowledgf s, credebantur enim iis ho- 
buti ^uftiores fieri, & fan£tiores & in quibufcuiiqtte 
periculis praefentifSmos habere Deos, & a naufrapo 
i»zsav^ efie prorfu^ immunes. On voyages they 
were the prefervers of ftups from fhipwreck ; our 
Druids therefore najmed them Di-Ofcara *, the guar- 
dyian angels of travellers, voyagers, &c« Hence JafoQ, 
Orpheus^ Herwles, Caftor, Agamemnon, UlyjSe^, 
and Pollux, fought to be initiated in the Samothra- 
jciaa rites. But what is ilill flro^iger, Curra-bunxiith 
in Iriih, implies feip-buihters^ for the Gorybantcs 
were the facrificing priefts of Ceres, who was Ifis, 

* My readers jouft ijot be furpnzfd at finding different ex- 
planations of the fame Phoenician words, drawn from the Inlh 
language. As new light is thrown ofi the Aibje^ by the more 
antieift MSS. thot have ktely come to my view. Thus, ia a 
^CMTiacr pobllcatioa, I coihted t}]# Irkli Dijtir^ with the Puivc 
S>iofcufi $ but. on comparing the paflage of Sajjchoniatlio, with 
Bochart'^ Remarks, they evidcatly were the Drujdical Di- 
Ofcara ; for Ofcara fignifies a voyager by fea or land. 


PREFACE. xlix 

the great navigatrix, fo called for the Iriih Efs^ a 
{hip, as I have (hewn in No. XIL 

The learned Spencer, that princeps Criticoruniy in 
his Diff. de Origine Arcse & Cherubinorum, plainly 
Ihews that Cherub in Hebrew doca moft properly 
imply ftrength, might, power ; but that Chabir im- 
plies yoaV, and were often written one for the other. 
It is the fame in Irifh. Cairbre is the moft proper 
word anfwering to Cherub,whenceCairbreLiffeachar, 
and a hundred other princes of Ireland were fo called. 
That Samnos and Saxnnothracia were fo called from 
the rites of the Cabin, having been eftabiifhed there 
by the Pelafgi, is allowed by all authors. Bochart, 
from a paffage iij Herodotus, conjectures they were 
called DIpTlOD Samadracos, pro morione fumitur, 
quail Samothraces Deos, id eft Cabiros, oris atque 
corporis habitur imitetur. We have fecn a better 
derivajtion, in the foregoing pages. From what has 
been faid, I conclude, that the myfteries of the Cabiri, 
confifted in the Arkite worfhip, fo learnedly handled 
by my worthy and learned friend Mr. Bryant. 

The Greeks had confounded the Saman and the 
Cabiri, which were named Amain, or the mf^nal 
deities, from the Coptic anysniy i. e. infernum, and 
turned the name into Eumenides, L e. the good 
minded deities ; yet they always worlhipped them in 
fear and terror. From ament, came ament-dis, the 
deities of hell. The word may be found in the 
Coptic Pfalter, pfalm xvi. " Becaufe thou wilt not 
leave my ibul in (amcntj hell.'* Again, in Luke, 
xrhap* xvi. ** And in (amciu) hell, he lift up his eyes, 
being in torments ;" from this Coptic or -Egyptian 
Vol. IV. No. XHL E word. 



word, are derived the Irifh amain, aimhneac, dohm- 
ncac ifrein, all fignifying the infernal deep, hell, &c. 

Another name of the Irilh Cabiri, was Tromh-dhe, 
tutelary gods, fays Shaw ; but whereas the proof? 
trom, I ; caimfeacus, i. e. Socii. Vet. GlolT. Hib. 

If thefe Phoenician deities were known to the 
Welfh Britons, then we may conclude, that the Irifh 
and Welfh were one and the fame people : but if wc 
find, (as is really the cafe) that they were not known 
to the Welfli, or to the Gauls ; we muft conclude, 
cither that the Irifli are of another defcent, or that 
they had an early connexion with Orientalifls, who 
did not only eftablifli their religion, but their lan- 
guage in Ireland ; which I think has been fufficicntly 
proved. And thefe deities may have come to them 
by the Pelafgi or Etrufci ; for, Samothracia Sacra 
Etrufcorum inventum. Dardanus jeorum audor. 
(Virgil. Gori. Dempfter.) And we find moft of the 
names of the Irifh Cabiri on the Etrufcan monuments, 
as Anu, Ithia, &c. &c. 

The Pelafgi and Etrufci, became one nation and 
people. Nempe Pelafgi, cum Tyrrhenis five Etruf- 
cis permixti. (Cluverius, Ital. p. 438.) Pelafgi, com- 
munemque cum Tyrrhenis terram incoluerunt. 
(Marcian. Heracl.) 


Before I quit this fubjed, I mufl reply to a general 
objeftion made to the introduSion of Etrufcan co- 
lonies, to this illand. It is known that the Etrufcans 
were a very polifhed people, of Oriental origin, and 



remarkable for their Ikill in architedure ; where then 
are their buildings to be difcovered in Ireland ? 

It is certain that our Druids, and the Etrufcans, 
like all other antient idolaters, firft had no covered 
temples, but made the holy fires on the tops of 

'' Mundus univerfus ell Templum Solis.** 

(Alex, ab Alex.) 

Here they worfliipped Aefar, firft towards Samh^ the 
fun, and next towards the facred fires, as being the 
things in which the Logh chiefly dwelt. They direded 
their worfhip to Saman and the Cabur, in caves and 
darknefs. Such I take to be the cave of New Grange^ 
fo well explained by Governor Pownall. In this 
cave were three altars, correfponding to the fuppofed 
number of the Cabiri. But I have great reafon to 
think, they afterwards made their holy fires in the 
round towers, and that the building of them was in- 
troduced by the Tuath Dadanann priefts from Etru- 
ria ; becaufe we are told, that the old priefts, the 
Firbolg, oppofed the dofl:rine of thefe Tuath Da- 
danann ; a holy war broke out, which ended at 
length in two battles, one fought at the plains of the 
J^orth tower, and the other at thofe of the South 
tower. All this is the exaft refemblance of the 
Perfian hiftory. They firft made the holy fires on 
the tops of hills, but Zoroaftres, finding thefe facred 
fires in the open air, were often extinguiflied by rain, 
tempefts and ftorms, he directed that Jire towers 
ftiould be built, that the facred fires might be better 
preferved *. 

* Frid^aux's ConneAiony 8vo. vol. x^ p. 306. 

E 2 And 



And it fo happens, that the tower of Cafhell, ad- 
joins a building called Cormac's chapel, that is of 
true antient Etrufcan architefture. ITie capitals of 
the pillars are of the rude Etrufcan order ; the arch 
is femi-circular, and in fliort, there is nothing of what 
we call Gothic, in the wholL- building. Cormac was 
proclaimed king of Cafhel, in 902, and at the fame 
time exercifed the funftfoiis of archbifhop of that 
See. 0*Brien fays, there is fufficirnt evidence that 
he did not build this chapel, but only repaired that 
and the two churches of Lifmore. The tradition of 
the oldcft people at Caftiel, is, that it was a Heathen 
temple, A plan, elevation and fedion of this very 
curious building, fhall be given in the courfe of this 
work, when we treat of Irilh buildings in general. 

The Seanachiths, or hiftorians of Ireland, have 
recorded, that the Perfian religion thus reformed, 
was profeffed in Ireland, E. gr. Anno mimdi 281 1, 
do gabh Tighearmas M'Follamheim, M^Eitriail, 
M'Iriail faidh, M'Eircamoin, rioghacht Eiri n 
oir ase an Tighearmas fo do thionfgain iodhal adh- 
radh do dheanamh ar ttus do Crom chruaidh, 
amhuil do rin Sorajtres^ fan Greig ; i. e. in the year 
of the world 281 1, Tighearmas fon of Foliaman, fon 
of Eithriall, fon of Irial the prophet, fon of Eremon, 
fucceeded to the throne. It was this Tighermas ef- 
tablilhed the worfhip of the idol Crom Cruach, as 
Zoroaftres had done in Greece. I take this from 
Keating, who probably ftuck in Greece, inftead of 
Perfia ; and Crom Cruach was not an idol, as I have 
explained in my laft number. 

There was a Beth-Kerem, called alfo Beth-Akke- 
rem, (Jerem. vi. i.) in Codice Nidda, xi. 7. this 




place is defcribed abounding with a red fand, and 
the dreams iffuing from it were of a bloody colour ; 
this correfponds fo perfeSly with the fabulous ac- 
counts of our Crom-cruach, that I could not avoid 
mentioning it. 

The Greeks had the name of Zoroaftres in great 
efteem, fpeaking of him as the great mafter of all 
human and divine knowledge. Plato, Ariflotle, 
Plutarch and Porphyry, mention him with honour. 
Pythagoras, an Etrufcan by birth, was the difciple of 
Zoroaftres ; Porphyry fays, *' that by him Pythagoras 
was cleanfed from the pollutions of his life paft, and 
inftruded from what things virtuous perfons ought 
to be free j and alfo learned from him the difcourfe 
concerning nature, and what are the principles of 
the univerfe;'* and lamblicus tells us, that Pythagoras 
ftudied twelve years at Babylon under Zoroaftres, 
and in his converfe with the Magi, he learnt from 
them arithmetic, mufic, and the knowledge of divine 
things and the facred myfteries pertaining thereto. 
But, Pythagoras did not bring this doctrine into 
Greece and Italy, with that purity with which he 
received it from Zoroaftres. Abul-Pharagius, an 
Arabian writer, by religion a Chriftian, tells us, that 
Zoroaftres foretold to his Magi or Druids, the coming 
of Chrift, and that at the time of his birth, there 
Ihould appear a wonderful ftar, and left it in com- 
mand with tbenl, that when that ftar fliould appear, 
they fliould follow the direftions of it, and go to the 
place where he fliould be born, and there offer gifts 
and pay their adoration to him ; and that it was by 
this command, that the three wife men came from 
the Eaft, that is, out of Perfia, to worfliip Chrift at 

E 3 Bethlehem. 



Bethlehem. And fo far Shariftani, though a Ma- 
hommedan writer, doth agree with him, as that he 
tells us, that Zoroaftres foretold the coming of a 
wonderful perfon in the later times, who (hould 
reform the world both in religion and righteoufncfs. 
(Hiftoria Dynaftor, p. 54. Rcligio Vet. Perfarum, 
c. xxxi. Prideaux*s Connection, v. i, p. 328.) 

I mention this circumllance of Zoroaftres*s hiftory, 
becaufe it is very furprizing that the Irifli Seanachiths 
fhould know any thing of Zoroaftres, if they derived 
from the Britains, and from Gaul ; but more parti- 
cularly, becaufe we find in moft of the antient records, 
it is pretended that an Irifli Druid did foretell the 
coming of Chrift. And there is great probability, 
that this was borrowed from their knowledge of the 
hiftory of Zoroaftres, through the Etrufcans. 

Another ftrong circumftance of the Etrufcan co- 
lony from Croton, having arrived in Ireland, and 
mixed with the Thracian Paftyae, feems evident 
from tl^e name of Crutheni, Cruthi, Dalaraite, Da- 
laradia, Dalradii, Dalradii, Dalrieda, being the 
common name of the fame people feated in Ulfter, 
who afterwards pafl'ed over to Scotland. 

Pergit ad terram Cruthenorum feu Dal Rietinorum. 

(Vita Patricii a Patr. jun.) 
Dal Radii didi Crutheni. (Colgan.) 

Dalaradios — ^populos Ultoniae, ex quibus oriun- 
dus fuit S. Comgallus & qui proinde cognati ejus 
ab Adamnano vocantur, eodem vocari Cruthi- 
meis. (Colgan). Here we find the Crethi or Paftya^ 
of Thrace, as mentioned before ; the name Cruthi- 
meis, fignifies Judge of the Cruthi. 



Dalradia Regio Ultoniae, hodie Ibh-Tach. 


Dai apud Hibernos communiter ufurpatur pro 
ftirpe, • ut Dal Raidhe, (feu Dal Raite) Dal Cais, 
&c. Ibh has the fame fignification, (OBrien's Did.) 
Ibh a country, tribe, people ; this is the Chald« 
rVHa provincia ; confequently, Dal Raite, fignifies 
the tribe of the Rheti ; populi a Tufcia ducunt 
originem, a Rharto Lydorum duce ita diGtu (Demp- 
fter de Etruria Regali.) — Ibh Tach or Tagh, muft 
alfo mean the tribe or defcendants of Tages ; Etruf- 
cus divinationis per auguria inventor ; hence the 
Salantini olim Dol-ates, (ibid.) — ^that is the Dal 
of Atys. But fays Colgan, Dalradia or Arradia, 
is faid to be fo named before the arrival of Patrick, 
from a certain king or queen, named Aradius. 

Arctium, Regia Cilniiy Rex Etrufcdrum. Arre- 
tium etiam didum Etrurian urbs antiquiflima, ac 
potens. Colonia erat. Aretia Jani Uxor. (Dempfter.) 

In the Etrufcan antiquities difcovered by Inghira- 
ihius, we find one moft curious, written in Etrufcan 
and Latin, on a iheet of lead, enveloped in wood 
and pitched canvas ; it was written by Profperus, 
the Augur ; and runs thus, Pater mens Vefulius 
Antii Fefulani, & Accae Cecinnae filius me non 
folum Ethrufcam, fed etiam Graecam & Hebraicam 
linguam docuit ; poftea augurandi artem & ipfius 
naturaearcanae— igitur cum ita res fe habeant, quae 

* In Spanifhy Del. Arab, dal, famiHa. Hcb. ^^T dall, cx- 
traduSy n^^T dalith propago. — Sil, in Irifli, has the fame fig- 
nification, Hcb. *yjj^ Shil. Arab Sil-JIch. 




apud me funt, Romanis non relinquenda decrevi — 
quare in firmiori loco & tutiori hujus arcis cornua 
mea aurea^ & omnia facra Di-Anx repofui & penates 
meos & multas fcripturas, quas omnes apud me 

Cl3l3CCCXIX : ex Tranfalpcnninis Coloniis 
magno exercitu comparato, Vulterram verfu$ venit. 

CIoI^CCCXXXIX : Crotonac concilium— Adri- 
enfes obfefli, poftquam opem a Rhethiis promiflam 
diu fruftra expedaiTent legatos ad Vulterranum fe- 
natum mittunt, orantes, ut ipfis Colonis ignofceret, 
yerum i\on ignofcitur : donee Adrienfes praefedum, 
& defedionis duces Alco tradidiflent-^ui dam* 
nati funt, 

Thufcorum colonias hie reponit Fefulanus Cuftos 
hujus Scomellanae Arcis. 

Brigania — ^Ebodera — Ceneftiacum Caerites^— Spina 
eifdem Pelafgis fabrica Fefulenfibus— — Cortona 

Arretini autem habent. 

Birgiam, Ogiganum, Cirtonam, Arietiapi, AI- 
benium, Ogigium, &c. Italiae habitatores funt Abo- 
rigines, qui ex -^giptiis prodiere. Profpcrus Augur, 
hoc fcripfit. 

To this let us add, that the firfl: Etrufcan king 
after the fabulous time of the Etrufcans, was Meleus. 
Rex Etrufcorum totae Italias imperayit : he confe- 
quently was the leader of the Pelafgian colony to 
Spina, and afterwards to Spain, where Herodotus 
finds him under the name of Melefi-genes, and 
thinks it was Homer.— Decere eum dum juvenis 
cffet, regiones & urbeis vifere, — ^porro quum ex Hi- 




fpania & Tyrrhenia in Itfaacam deveherentur, con- 
tigit Melefi-genem occulis jam ant^ parum valentem, 
extreme laborare. — ^This fhews the origin of the 
Irifh Hiftory, and though I believe that part of the 
Irifli records not to be true in every part of the de- 
tail, there is good authority to fay, that fuch a co- 
lony did arrive from Spain ; of which I fhall treat 
in a future number. In fhort, the hiftory of the an- 
tient Pelagi and Ethrufci, is the fame as that of the 
antient Iriih. . 

It is not only in hiftory, that the Irifh fhew an 
Oriental origin, but in the arts and fciences, the 

terms, names and appropriations ;— for example^ 
in the military line ; with what contempt the Iriih 
troops, called Galloglafs's and Keams, are mention- 
ed by all Englilh writers. Words corrupted from 
Ciola-chlas, and Ceama ; but thefe are Hebrew 
names occurring many times in the facred fcriptures, 
S^n chil, Viri ftrenui. Tfl*?n chloz miles armis ac- 
cinctus. So in Irifli Culith, Charioteers. mS^ 
Kiiluth, Copiae militares, Turmae militum : Amufadh, 
light troops, lying in ambufh, DIDH hamus, miles 
eques levis armaturac & expeditus ad currum. 
Ceama, is from ]^if)np Karuain, milites evocati, qui 
precibus folum ad militiam aflumebantur. 

The ancient Irifti had a corps called Shililah; 
they fought with fpears made of oak, pointed and 
hardened in the fire : thefe were a kind of light 
armed irregulars. In Chaldee t<nSt8^ fliilaha is a 
miffile weapon ; telum, gladius, miffile^ (Caftelus) 
and p^^ flielak, burnt: whence the common name 
at this day, viz. Ihileelah, a ftick burned at the end, 
carried by the Peafants to defend themfelves. 





ITic Spanifh narative of Pedro Teixiera, printed 
at Antwerp in 1 6 1 o, who was at Borneo in 1 600, 
and defcribing the weapons of the inhabitants, fays, 
*' Pero lo mas comun fon Selihhef que fon unos 
palos toftados tan rczios para herir como el heirro.** 
i. e. they fought with Selihhes, Jlicks burned at the 
end, and were as flout to flrike with as if of iron. 

Heb. ]toi^D filufin milites veterani, Triari. 

The Iriih Laineach, a fpcar man, is the Hebrew 
n^^ lanak, whence the Latin lancea ; So Ruim- 
neach corrupte Ruibneach, a fpear man, is the 
HD*^ of the Hebrew, lancea, hafta, fpeculum ; 
unde ItaL Ronca. Lat. Rumex genus teli ; all thefe, 
and many more military terms common to the He- 
brew and the Irifli, may be found in Plantavit, 
under jjnSo tJ^^K ^^^ belli. 

I now take my leave of the xf^^*^ «^'»^*« of Irifli 
hiftory, and proceed to occular demonftration of 
the Oriental manners and cuftoms this country can 
boafl of, by monuments ftill exifting in the king- 
dom, which could have been introduced only by 
the Phoenicians, Pelafgians or Etrufcans ; or by the 
connexion of the Magogian Scythians with them. 

My readers, by this time, are probably convinced, 
that fome foreign colonies, from the caftcrn coun- 
tries, mixed with the anticnt Irifh ; as a further 
proof of it, I cannot pafs over the Irifli names for 
Jhoesy words in common ufe, fo difierent from the 
Welfli. The mod antient flioes were made of buU- 
ruflies : this was firft praftifed by the ^Egyptians, as 
we learn from Balduinus, — " Ad -^gyptios redeam, 
apud eos e junco, quemadmodum e papyro, ut apud 
Hifpanos e Sparto, calceos in ufu fuifTe : cum junci, 



P R E F A C E- 


quorum feraciflima eft -^gyptus, in funcs^ ftrata, 
corbes, atque adeo calceos, non minus quam Spartum 
Hifpanicum. Spartem autem id, h quo Sparti Calcei^ 
ut & plcraque alia conficiuntur, junci fpecies eft." 
{Calceus Antiquus & Myfticus, p. 24.) 

The names for flioes in Irifh, arc bhrog, bhrogamliy 
as, gheas, foirgimh, folas; triaghim, cuarthan, coifb- 
heirt, galoighimh, Cuarogamh, guifeir. 

In Welfh, Efgid, kuaran, guintas, foliak, hop- 
pen, arkenj — ^kuaran, is corrupted from the Irilh 
cuarthan, i. e. cuar twifted, wound round, and the 
Egyptian and Chaldee j^j^n itana, junci fpecies ; 
i. e. Calceus, fays R. Jehuda in Gemara. See alio, 
Buxtorf, at the word, where he fays, ** his pedes 
involvebantur tain quern calceamentis, die propitia- 
tionis, quando prohibitum eft calceis incedere, fic 
ibidem mentio calceamentorum ex foliis dadyli, 
junci,** &c. &c. from the Irilh cuarthan, the Greek 
and Latin cothurnus feem to be derived, fays 
Lhwyd. Foliak is from the Irifli fol-as, compound- 
ed o(fol a covering, and ai a flioe ; from the Cop- 
tick Ae/oy ghefoj juncus ; whence the Irifli guifeir a 
Ihoe, hofe ; and the old Perfic gufh a ftioe ; and the 
modern Irifli geas-aire & geafaidh vulgo greafaidh a 

The Irifli brog, is either from the Coptic broia 
juncus, (broia, jonc marin, St. Ifidore nous a con- 
ferve ce mot. Bullet) or contracted from beir wear- 
ing and gamh (nqj goma Chaldee) juncus. So 
is coift)heirt flioes, i. e. beirt worn, cais on the feet. 
Foirgimh, is probably two Chaldee words K'^fiK 
phera and NOIJ goma, both implying Juncus or the 



Bnllnifii ; or from the IriOi foir proteding, faving, 
defending) & goma^ j uncus* 

Their is another Irifli word, derived from the ufe 
of the bull-rufh, not to be found in the Welfli, and 
that is ftomon^ a rope. M^i2yD in Chaldee SimuMa^ 
jancus, a bull-rufli or ftrong grafs, of which ropes 
are made, lays the i.exiconiils. The only Welfh 
words for a rope in Lhwyd, under funis, are rhaf, 
tant, kord, rheffyn. The words here collated, are 
in fuch common ufe, that if the Welfh language 
had ever admited them, they could not have been loft, 
as Mr. Lhwyd juftly oberves of the Iriih word uifce^ 




o R, 



(From Keating's Hiftory of Ireland.) 

Ai D. 4. Do gabh Fcaradhac Fionfachtnac, M*- 
Criomthain-Niadhnar, Mac Lughoi-Riabhndearg, do 
fiol Eireamhoin, rioghadt Eirin 20 bliadhain. Mar 
Taothchaoch inghean Loic, mac Dairc do Cruithin 
tuaith mathair Fearadhac, as uime do garthaoi 
Fearadhac Fachtnac de dobhrigh go raibh ceart agus 
firinne da ccoimead lo na linn an Eirinn. As nai 
rcimhias do bhi Moran mac Maoin an, i. e. an ceart 
Breithon aga raibh an lodhan Moruin aige, agus do 
bhi do bhuadhaibh aice gi be do cuirieadh fa na 
bhraghaid i re linn breitheamhnas eigcirt do dhean- 
adli, go niadhadh an lodhan go daingion timpchioll 
a braghad, agus go mbiodh ag fafgadh ara bhraghaid 
go mbearadh an bhrath choir ; agus do niodh mar 
an cceadhna Icis an ti do tigeadh do dheanamh 
fiaghnaife bhreige go hadmbail na firinne dho, gon 
on lodhfm ata feanf hocal, mar an orduigheann iieach 



Another was found fome years ago in the County 
of Longford, and fold for twenty-flx guineas. 

The brcaft-pbte of the high prieil of the Jews, 
was named \ZfTy choflien, Exod. xxviii, 4. and in 
Exod. xxyiii. 15. DDS^D \WD chofhen mefliephot, 
that is the breaft-plate of judgment. The Greeks 
name it A^«^ i. e. rationale, quia ad pedus, rationis 
quafi fedem, fuit appofitum. 

It is very particubrly defcribed in Exodus xxviii, 
and 1 5th verfe, ^' Thou flialt make the breaft-plate 
of judgment with cunning work, after the manner 
of the Ephod thou (hak make it ; of gold, of blue, 
and of purple, and of fcarlet, and of fine twined 
linen fhalt thou make it. Four fquare ihall it be, 
being doubled. And thou fhalt fet in it, fettings of 
ftones, even four rows of ilones, &c. And thou fhak 
make upon the bread plate chains at the ends, of 
wreadien work and pure gold, and two rings of gold, 
and thou fhalt put the two wreathen chains of gold in 
the two rings, &c- and thou fhalt put in the breafl- 
plate of judgment the URIM and the THUMMIM, 
and they fhall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth 
before the Lord. 

There i$ no miftaking this defcription of the 
breafl«plate of the Jews ; the chains excepted, it has 
no refemblance to that of our Hibernian Druids. 

Lookii^ into Buztorf 's Chaldee Lexicon, I found 

loden fignified the brcaft plate ; and that Moran, did 

the fame ; but I could no where find loden-Moran 

compounded. The commentators in my poffeffion, 

afforded no information ; I then applied by letter 

to R. J. J. Heidcck, Profeflfor of Oriental Languages, 

and received the following anfwer : 

" Sir, 




" I find tSfiS'^Dn itrn chofcn hemefphot, or the 
bread plate of judgment, named iniO iH* loden 
Moren, by Rab. Joda in Talmud Sanhedrim, p. 1 34* 
And in Comm. Ein Jacob, p. 1 50, it is derived from 
the impcrfeft verb t^C^n which he fays is Moren, and 
C£)5£^D he fays is the fame as loden, and he adds, that 
the words Urim and ITiummim have the fame fignifi- 
cation ; but Rab. Simon in Ejus: p- 135 and 151, 
more plainly fays it is Moren loden, which according 
to Rab. Solomon larchis, is alfo lodcn Moran. Rab, 
Meir calls it Doen Moren, The Rab. in Talmud 
fay, that the Meffias fhall be called loden Muren. 
for he fhall be the judge, as in. Ifaiah xith. Thus, 
Sir, it is very plain that the Irifh name Is derived 
-Jrom the Chaldee Choflien Hemeflipot, or loden 
Muren *. 

I am, &c. 

Temple-bar, John Jos. Heideck,- 

ift July, 1783. Prof. Ling. Oriental. 

In the Irilh language Dunn is a judge, and Maor, 
a lord or chief. The explanation given by Buxtorf 
to Moran or Maran, fo perfefHy correfponds to 
Keating's pidure of Moran, one would think the 
Irifh word had originally the fame meaning* i^o 

• The Irifti word is often written lodh, and I think has the 
fame meaning as Urim, viz. an oracle. Hcb. ^% iad, oraculum* 
prophctia^ as in £zek. iii, and xxii. And the /W of the Lord 
was there upon me ; lad is a hand, and thus it is tranOated in 
the EngHfh ; but the commentators all explain the word by 
propbctia Domini. 

Vol. IV. No. XIII. F Maran j 


Maran ; Dominus dicitur autcm de politico & ec- 
clefiafUco domino, id eft, dodore excellente, reli- 
(juorum fapie&tium capite : qui fimul judicaiidi habet 
poteftatem. Maran de fummo, qui prxerat rcliquis 
fapientibus quern etiamnum hodie communes Rabbini 
vocant Morenu. Inde & Chriftus vocatus fuit per 
esxellentiam Maran. Hinc vox ifta Syra in N. T. 
Maranaiba Dominus venit, qua extremum anathema 

AH the Hebrew writers confefs themfelves igno* 
rant of the materials and of the form of the Urim 
and Thummim. Kimcfai obferves, it is no where 
explained to us what were the Urim and Thummim ; 
it is plain from the Scripture, they differed from the 
ftones of the breaft plate, (in voce T^K-) 

Munfterus fays, what they were no mortal can tell. 
Sirachis thinks they were gems ; and Schindler us, 
that it was only an infcription or writing of the name 
Jehovah, or fome other word, introduced between 
the linen of the breaft plate. Some aflert the words 
were written upon a plate of gold. 

Many opinions might be colleded, but fays Rab. 
David, he^fpoke beft, who ingenuouily confeifed, 
that he knew not what it was. 

That it was an inftrument of divine revelation, 
is very plain. And according to Jofephus, this^ 
oiacle ceafed about 1 1 2 years before Chrift. We 
learn from the Holy Scripture, that God revealed 
himfelf chiefly by four ways ; ift, by Nebuah, i. e. 
by viiions and apparitions ; 2d, by Ruach Hecodefh, 
i. e. the infpiration of the Holy Ghoft ; 3d, by Urim 
and Thummim ; 4th, by Beth-Kol, L e. the daughter 
of a voice or ah echo. The Hibernian Druids pre-" 



tended to Aijoy the fame divine honours, calling 
them by the fame names, except the laft, which they 
termed Mac Col or the fon of a voice, i. e. an echo *• 
The anfwer to thefe oracles were always delivered 
from the Dary the facred oak tree. Mr. Hutchinfon 
has (hewn, with a great deal of learning and judg-* 
ment, that the Heathens, in fome of th^r facred trees, 
recognized the very tree of the knowledge of good 
and evil ; and alfo, more particularly thought he faw 
frequent mention of it in the old Teftament, under 
the name of "HTH hadar, i. e. the refplendetit tree; but 
we are no way informed of what fpecies of fruit the 
•n dar was- (HoUoway Orig. Phyf. & Thcol.) 

The antient Britons call the oak dar and derw, 
perhaps from ^n for its durablenefs ; from a con- 
tradion of their dar an oak, and dewin a prophet, 
they feem to have formed Derwiddon, the famous 
Oak Prophets called Druids, (ibid.) f 

The prophets and their actions mentioned by 
Mofes, which were before him, or which are occa- 
(ionally mentioned by others after hiin, prove that 
there were fcveral before the flood and the patriarchs, 
and fome few others afterwards ; of whofe predic* 
tions, fome are recorded, 'till Mofes who was like 

* Breith-call it an oracle in Irifh ; corrcfpooding to the 
Cbaldcc JfSp rna Birath Kola, i. c. fiHa vocU : from the Irifti 
Aircacalp the ^.atin Oraculum. Call*mhuia is another name of 
an oracle, meaninp^ the voice of Man, i. e. Dcus. 

f There cannot be a ftronger example of the Welfh and Irifh 
languages having been the fame originally ; and of the corruption 
of the WeMh. I have elfewhfre ftev^n the derivation of Dru or 
Draoii a Druid« the plural of which is Draoilh, whence the 
Welfh DrwiddoQi perhapa wUh Dunn 10 the termination. 

F 2 the 



the great prophet, was raifed up. Eccief/ Antcdiluv. 
xiii. Gen. 6, and 5, dicitur fpiritus Dei difceptaffc 
cum filiis hominum quae vox \\1 DUN per totam 
fcripturam fignificat publicum ofScium in Ecclefia, 
feu predicationem qua arguimur, reprehcndimur, 
difcernimus bona a malis ;• hence the Irifh Dunn^ 
i. e. Ollamhan a dodor, a Druid in his Oracular 

The antient Heathfcns, the falfe priefls to their 
falfe Elahim, performed, I thirik I may fay, almoft 
every individual article in the inflitution and excr* 
cife of the priellhood. And though among the mo- 
dem Heathens, fome abufes had by ignorance and 
miftakes, crept in ; yet in tlie main, they retained 
many of them, and fomcthing aiming at thofc they 
miftook: which is another demonftration, that all 
thefe inftitutions and typical aftions, were in being 
and praftifed before the difperfion at Babel, f 

1 he Heatlien falfe prophets, pretended their deity, 
their light, their fpirit conveyed their wills to them, 
by all the methods, by which Jehovah conveyed his 
will, or the knowledge of things part or to come, 
to the true prophets, by oracle, by dreams, vifions, 
fpeech, &Cfc and imitated as far as they could, the 
true prophets in their aftions, &c. which is demon- 
ftration that oracles, prophets, and all thofe methods, 
were irt being and praftifed before the difperfion at 
Babel. As it is clear, that while the effencc was 
united to a man upon earth, and the Holy Ghofl 
fupernaturally infpired the apoftles, &c. Chrift fuf- 
fered fatan, the infernal fpirits, to dwell in men, and 

* HutcIiinfoDi Data in Chrift. p. 62. f ibid. 83. 



by fome of their 
as it was in their 
reafonably be fup 
and prophets befo 
be permitted to d( 
tatcs the Heathen, 
the divine oracle 1 
ceafed with the ap 
pretence to oracle 
thens. It almoft 
had been fomethii 
no longer permitt' 
the callings out a 
names in the Rt 
Whether our Ma 
of the Jodhan Mo 
Holy land, or if il 
municatinn with t 
thaginians, t cam 
imitated th^ Urii 
before usj - The 
to ufe feveral orh; 
the Heathenei' ; 1 
language, fo as to 
the Egyptian ■ of 
Such may have b 
mitri, which are- I 

• Hutchinfon Dal 

t The leampd MiB 
facra gcmilibus cum 
ITraditai, fed ab Krat 


may be fynonimous words, correfponding to the 
Irilh Uraim or (vcl) Tammam. * 

The High Prieft was not to confult the Urini for 

' .any private ptrfon, but only for the king, for the 

prdident of the Saiiliedrim, for the general of an 

, army, or for for foiae other great prince or public 

. governor in Ifrael ; and not for any private affairs, 

but for luch only as related to the public intereft of 

the nation, cither in Churcif or State. 

Our Hibernian Druids nev,^r confulted the lodhan 
Morain, but in the courts of jufticc, or on affairs of 
ftate ; to all their decrees Urrainij i. e. implicit obe- 
dience was paid. 

Indubious cafes, or where the intereft of the 
Church was concerned, or the eleflion of a king, 
they consulted the Liath Meisicith, or Liath 

* To avoid t!ii3 confufion, the Irilh language cither prefixes 
cei ke, i. C4 feeing that, or affixes gus^ i. e. fadl, deed, truly ; ceoy keo,<7;y//: from Wbenccthe Greek jmu : 0tf/«/» contra^, 
ed to agus : or, o^ndeUf i. e. aod In truth, contracted to andea : 
it is remarkable that agus is only to be found in the Egyptian, 

' Bafc, or Cantabrian ; and in the Irlfh, Erfc and Manx: 

from oundea, is formed the (German unde, the Teutonik code, 
and the Englifli and^ 









T/jis very curious monument af antiquity^ is the prt^ 
pertypfT. Kavenagh, Efq; of Ballyborris, in 
the County ^Carloxv. 

1 T is a box, the fize of the drawing, and two inches 
deep, it is made of brafs cafed with filver : it con- 
tains a number of loofe flieets of vellum, on which 
are written extrafts of the gofpcl and prayers for the 
fick, in the L^tin language, and in the Irifli charac- 
ter. There are alfo, feme drawings in water colours 
of the apoftles, not ill executed : thefe are fuppofed 
to be the work of Saint Moling, the patron of that 
part of the country. 

In the center of the lid is a large cryftal,* the 
fiz^ of the drawing and one inch and a quarter 


* Crioft-al in ln(!i, fignifids a holy flone ; and is probably the 
true etymology of the wortf, and not from xfvf^^ frigi**? for the 
Greeks could not be ignorant* that cryita} was the produce of 
hot countries as well at^ of cold, — the beft is foqnd in the idand 
of Madagafcar :— the flrongeft cryftajlizations arc formed by 



thick ; this h the Miijicitb : it was originally let 
through the cover, fo that the light could pafs 
through : on the back of it, there is now a foil of 
tin, moveable, evidently the work of a modem 
day* At the right hand corner at top, is another 
cryftal on a red foil ; next to it a bead of a tranf- 
fparent compofition : the ornament that ftood next 
is loft : thofc of the two left hand corners have 
been taken out, and the fockets filled with common 
glafs on a red foil. At the right hand corner at 
bottom is an oblong piece of cryftal on a red foil ; 
next it a tranfparent bead ; and laftly, an amethift- 
drop of a deep purple colour : there have been orna- 
ments at the two ends of the Meitidth, which are 
alfo loft. 

The box reprefents the Roman Thuribulum, in 
which the incenfc burnt during the facrifice. Se- 
veral drawings of thefe ftiay be feen in Montfaucon. 

I am favoured with drawings of fcveral boxes of 
this kind, fabricated fmcc chriftianity, being orna- 
mented with crucifixes : this has no marks of that 
kind, and appears to be the Druidical Liath Mcifi- 
cith or Liath Fail, in which they pretended to draw 
down the Logh^ the effence or fpiritual fire, and pre- 
fcnce of Aefar, (God) whenever they confulted 
this Oracle. 

Hence the xiy^^ the articulate voice or fpeech in 
man, (in its kind or degree) what the Divine 
A«r«f9 word^ is to the elTence, viz. the Irradiaion ad 
extra of the mind or foul. The fame notion, there- 
fore, the Heathehs had of dieir God, the/olar lighij 
and called it rxcordingly, by the fame name Aiy^. 
(Holloway's originals, v. i. p. 222.) With fubmif- 




(ion to this author, the word Logos was applied by 
John in oppofition to the Druidical Logh, for John 
wrote againft Cerinthus, a converted ' Druid, and 
therefore very properly ufed this word ; from Logh 
is derived the Iriih and Coptic Lo, day, the light of 
the day. 

How this fire was communicated, I cannot pre- 
tend to (ay, but, as it is well known, thlt Cobalt 
ground up with oil, will lye an hour or more in that 
un£bious ftate and then burft into an amazing 
blaze : * it is probable that the Druids, who were 
fkilfid chimyfts, (for their days) could not be igno- 
rant of So fimple an experiment. A fire lying fo 
long concealed, would afford them ample . time for 
prayers and incantations. 

Nothing could fo well fuit the purpofe of the 
Druids as bringing fire from oiL Oil was the em- 
blem, the facrament of that complex vertue, of 
wiiddm, juftice and mercy, called Holinefs. " Myf- 
ticc fic intelligentibus. Oleum eft ipfe Dominus, 
a quo ad nos pervenit mifericordia.'' f Specimen 
quoddam divinatis in oleo prse omnibus tetrae, a^ 
que arborum frudibos, veteres omnes agnovifle 
quamdamque cxcellentiam divinitus quodammodo 
in eo ol^ collocatam oftendunt. | And thus pro- 
bably the facred fires were lighted. Juftus Lipfius, 
thinks this was done by an inftrument like a fun- 

* Experiment lately made in London^ before Mr. Bankf. 
(Letter tome), 
f Clem. Alex. p. 1 29. 
' X Sdiac. Myroth. p. 224. ibwL p. 567. Sec alfo Eufcb. 

Demonftr. Ev. 1. 3. 


lel, colle^ng the rays of the f 
Dipra&icabie in this dimate. 
' noft«r igniB, a£Uonem: divii 
[uid matcri^e- repent in facrif 
luriAcat, & a vincutis mat^if 
ura: puritatem ad Dcorum 
acit.'* : - • 

Clu-iftiMiity took its name f 
riftitutionof oil. The emble 
^on --was anointing : the 
\WD Mefuh : thofe who ant 
re DttiB^O ' "^^ word conft 
i ntCD Mefliaih, rendered an 
Sreek itirrmt, Xf.r^, the Meffi; 

Mr. ODonneli, of the Baroi 
orms me, there was in the h; 
Jarnard, of Fahan, a preciouf 
ailed in Irifli, MeeOiac, a wor 
•rew, and to fignify a Vow. 11 

crucifix and: the twelve ape 
:ribed by Sir iJenry Piers, ii 
neath *, by the name of Cor/ 
refence, dbo new body; a n 
-hriftian miflionaries, in oppo 
lefar, or Logh, the fpiritual 
iey ptetertddd to draw fron; 

The cryilai Hone in the c 
Jeificith ; or the iVIagical fto 

Liath, i. e. Lith, i. e. Seod 
gnify a gemm. (Vet. Glofi". 

• Cellcflanta Vd I, We (hall g!' 

)urfe of this work. 



Meifi, i. e. Dealbha Sithbheara, i. e. Mcili fig- 
nifies, magical reprefentations. (ibid). 
Meifi, a judge, fairies, ghofts, hobgoblins. (OBrien 

and Shawe.) 

Lith, folemn, feftival. (OB. & S.) Lith lai, fefti- 
val days. Lia fail, the fatal ftone. (ibid.) 

Leice, (corrupted of Liath-cith) a precious (lone, 
a diamond : In the highlands of Scotland, a large 
cryftal of a figure fomewhat oval, which priefts kept 
to work charms by ; water poured upon it at this 
day, is given to cattle againft difeafes ; thefe ilones 
are now preferved by the oldeil and moft fuperfti- 
tious in the country, (Shawe). They were once 
common in Ireland : I am informed the Earl of 
Tyrone, is in poffeffion of a very fine one. 

A/if*^, gemma, politus lapis ; hence Pbilo-Iithos^ qui 
gemmas amat. (Pliny). 

Mais & Meifi, have both the fame fignification in 
Irifh, viz. Draoidheaft, * i. e. Druidifm. Cith, is a 
vifion ; whence cim, I fee ; ocitear, feeing that* 
The correfponding Hebrew words are jJt^o mafa, 
prophetia dura, jf^^ n^aza invenire, comperire; 
1^ chi, revelatio ; Chald. j^^^ chitfeh, videre ; Arab 
khei, a phantom. 

The ufeofthisftonewasftriftly forbidden to the Jews 
by MofeSjin the xxvi. chap, of Lev. ye (hall make you 
no idols nor graven image, neither rear you up a 
ftanding image^ neither (hall ye fuffer the flone 
nOB^O niafticith, to be within your dominions. 

• Every term appertaining to the tenets of the DruMical re- 
ligion, IS tranflated draoidheachty by our modern Lexico- 




The Vulgate and Englifh^ have miilaken the (enfe^ 
and tranilate this pailage^ by ** neither fiiall ye fet 
up any image of (tone in your land." Montanu^ 
lays, & lapidem fpeculationis non dabitis in terra 
Teftra* The LXX very properly name this ftone 
x19h (niirlt i that is gemma fpeculationis. 

x»0TH derived from nt»r|«^Ni« (ignifies, delibero, con- * 
folto. Skopai, non fpecula tantum, fed etiam a&us 
fpeculandi denotat, (Spencer). rMnUf, fpeculor, con- 
tempior, intueor, obfervo animo agito. AV«rxM»i, 
divinatio ex infpedione seris. 

No words in the Greek language could more 
properly have exprefled the form and ufe of the 
die liath Meiikkh, than xii^^ n^wU. The fame ftone 
is ^suH forbidden in Numbers xxxiii. and 52. 
^^ llien ye (hall drive out all the inhabitants of the 
land from before you, and deftroy all their CDnVIXWD 
Mafhdothim, tranflated n^wti^ by the 70, and fic-^ 
iures in the Englifh veriion." It is evident from this 
pafiage, that Maihcith in Hebrew, is the fingular 
number and not plural, as many of the Rabbins 
would have it. 

Hie LXX, The Rabbies of the apoftate Jews, 
and the Chriftian Ecclefiaftics, ''fays Hutchinfon) 
have had the management of the tranflations, and 
the handling of the Scriptures : the LXX, &c. 
have confounded the roots for their names, con- 
flrued a word in one place one thing, in another 
{dace another thing, to avoid the meaning : and 
' moft of the Rabbies would have their inftitutions 
to be taken firom the heathens, to be fuificient in 
themfelves, and have no reference to the divine in- 





ftitutions, which were at the beginnings * Yet he 
allows, that many things have been revealed and 
recorded Ance5 ^^^ many things more antient, have 
been lately difcovered. f I am afraid our author 
has pafl a hafly judgment on the 70 ; for although, 
as Leufden thinks, part of the original tranflation 
of the 70 was loft, and the reft made by much later 
authors ; I cannot help thinking the various words 
they have given for the fame word in Hebrew, was 
done with great confideration and defign. 

No paffage in the old Teftament has perplexed 
the Commentators more than this £bn Mafhciih. 
Dodor Spencer, after reciting all that has been 
written on it by the Rabbles, concludes, that a 
man muft be a prophet rather than interpreter, to 
underftand them ; Vatem potius quam interpretem 
pojlulare videatur : and the learned DoSor is of 
opinion it muft have been fomething, formed fix>m 
an Egyptian or Syrian model. 

Some of the Rabbles thought it was a tall ftonc, 
others an Obelifk, which they worfliipped, others 
that it was a mute idol ; and others, that it was a 
tower, from whence to explore the ftars : but the 
Samaritan text, calls it ebn mithnaggedahj that is, 
lapis indicationis aut annunciationis. Aud my late 
very worthy friend Mr. Moore, author of the Manx 
verfion, very properly names it cloch-thoit, (or hoit 
corrupte) that is the magical ftone. Poole, is not 
very diftant from the form of it, by calling it a fet- 
itone, lapidem inclufum. 

* Data in Chriftianity page 206. 
f Ibid, Religion of Satan, page 51, 


If. levitc. 96.V.I. 



in Irifli 

('. t. 

The joyful feaft for any bounty. 

No. 2. Reprefcnt3 an altar without fire; the 
ardft hag placed a fmall blaze on the ground, to 
fhew the dilappomtment. A woman Aands by the 
altar with a Iamb in her arms,' to point out the in- 
tention of the facrifice. The fame old man and his 
attendant are retiring from the altar in hafte and 
confufion. A Druidcfs leans over the altar lament- 
ing and explaining the caufe of the ill omen. The 
Infcription in Etrufcan, is, 


In Irifli 

(. A 

Returning unfuccefsful from the feftival facrifice of " 
the Lamb (vowed) to Holy Ithia. 

N. B. The Etrufcan Infcripion is to be read fi-om 
right to left. 

Vol. IV. No. XIH. 


1 HIS little image of brafs, is of the fize of the 
drawing ; it was found under the root of a tree, that 
was grubbed up in the County of Rofcommon j it has 
been gih, but the gilding is worn off in moft [daces. 
It is in the coIleSion of the Mufcum of Trinity 

This Image has the appearance of an idol ; the 
hands hold the corners of the beard, like the Etruican 
Silenus in Gori's coUeftlon ; but, the pofition of the 
arms and feet have every ^pearance of its having 
been the ornament of a crucifix. 

The Irifh Druids, like their Scythian a 
permitted no image worfliip. The unchifell 
was the emblem ufed by all antient natiot 
Chinefe and Indians ftill retain this ftonc, 
their pagodas are crowded with images, and F 
declares that all the antient Greeks had 
wnblem of their deities. 


Maximufi^ Tytiiis faysj that before tfi€ rime of 
Mahummed, the Arabians had no other } and the 
Mater De6rum of the Romans, wad a bfeck fough 
ftone. The Etrirfcans dakn the art of making ana* 
ges 5 they eertainly learnt it of theiBgyptiand j btrt the 
Etrufcans were the firft that formed them afternatiitr e ; 
the jSIgyptians deferve no eulogium on this account, 
their figures are clumfy and unnatural ; thofe of the 
antient Etrufcans are as bad ; but the figures of the 
more modem artifts of that wonderful people, arc 
equal to the works of the mod celebrated Grecian 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for December 1742, 
is an account of two filver images found under the 
ruins of an old tower, which had raifed various con- 
jedlures and fpeculations amongft the antiquaries. 
They were about three inches in height, reprefenting 
men in armour, with very high helmets on their heads, 
and ruffs round their necks, and ftanding on a pedeftal 
of filver, holding a fmall golden fpear in their hands* 
The account is taken from the Dublin papers; the writer 
refers to Merrick's tranflation of Tryphiodorus, an 
jEgyptian (that compofed a Greek poem on the de- 
ftrudion of Troy, as a fequel to Homer's Iliad) to 
fliew that it was cuftomary with the antients, at the 
foundation of a fort or city, to confecrate fuch images 
to fome tutelar guardians, and depofit them in a fecret 
part of the building ; where he alfo inferts a judicious 
expofkion of a difficult text of Scripture on that 

^rhe defcription of thefe images correfponds exaftly 
with the Etrufcan ftatues, fee Gori's Mufeum Etruf- 

G 2 oum. 


iim, pL 40, 45, 108, 1 1 7a 
early half the height of the 

If any gentleman in Irek 
nages, the author of the 
imfelf greatly obliged, if hi 

fight or a drawing of them 




Th E horn from which this drawing is made, is of 
ivory, has fixteen fides, and is mounted with brafs, 
indifferently gilt. Round the mouth piece is the 

following infcription : ctgutaniuflf jflDlatjan me 

fecit Deo graciajBt, U % U Tlguranius O Lavan * 
me f^cit Deo gracias, L H. ۥ that is, Tiguranius 
made me for the love of God. It was the property 
of Thomas Kavanagh, Efq ; of Ballyborris, in the 
County of Carlow, who has generoufly added it to 
the College coUedion. 

ITie famous horn of York, h alfo of ivory, and 
like ours has fixt^en fides ; it is fomewhat larger 
than this, and is flung with a belt ; ours is made to 
ftand. Drake in his antiquities of York ftiles that, 
** the famous horn made of an elephant's tooth, 
" which is indeed the greateft piece of antiquity the 

♦ Probably O Laffan, and anceftor of the Laffan family, now 
T^dcDt ii) the County Kilkenny. 

" churcl> 


^' church ran f yhihit, having beea bellowed by king 
** Ulphus, the fon of Toraldus, who by rcafon of a 
** diflference like to happen between his eldeft fon 
^' and his younged, about his lordfhips when he 
^* (hould be dead, prefently took this courfe to make 
** them equal. Without delay he went to York, and 
^^ taking with him the J^ra wb^ein he w^s wont to 
^ drink, h^ -filkd it with wkie, and knaeKng down 
** before the altar, beftowed upon God and the 
** bleifed St. Peter, all the lands and tenements *.*' 
In antient times there are feveral ipftances of eftates 
that were paffed without any writing at all, by the 
lord's delivering of fuch pledges as thefe, a fword, a 
a helmet, a cap, a horn, a bow, an arrow. ** Nuda 
Ferba abfque fcripto yel charts, tantum cunj donn|ii 
gladio, vel galea vel Cornu,*' are the ei^prefs words 
of Ingulphus: Coi^nua nptse religlonis & fanditatJs 
erant, res & perfonis "peculiari fan^tate donatais, & 
reKgioftis obferrandas indieantia. Hence Keren or 
Koran in Hebrew and GJiaMee, and Cearn, Com, in 
Iiift, fignify a horn, • <?up, gJory, majefty ; whence 
kears, viftory ; kearn airdhe, a trophy ; keam duais, 
athletick laurel ; Jerem*. ii. and Hi. ^ he hath cut off 
in his fierce ^nger all the korin (glory) of Ifrael ;** 


T-^ ad^it ^oraua pauppri viaum. 

Hence horns were? ufed as marjv§ of religion, 
fanftity, ind of things* aud p.erfons devoted to religion, 
and an indication df; religious obfcrvations : they 
werfe dedicated to deliics, and often huiig upon the 
creann' naotnhtha, or holy trees of the groves. So 

• Sec alfo Camden's Britannia. 

' the 


tbe jEgyptians in their hieroglyphics exprcffed Ifis 
by hortis, and the Etrufcans and Gre^s orntmiented 
their deities with horns. Dr. Spencer fliavs, that 
long before the age of Mofes, the horn was the em- 
blem of ftrength and royalty, of dignity, and excct- 
Icncy. Amobius fays, rivers were reprefented by 
homed ftatues ; and Porphyrius, that every facred 
image had it^ particular horns allotted them ; but 
the learned J. Douglas (in his Anna!. Sacr.) proves 
that d)e altars of the antient heathens were made 
-entirely of horns ; miror & innumeris ftru^m de 
comibtts aram. (Cydippe, Ov. Ep. 20.) whence the 
Iriih words earn an altar, camac a prieft, fuit-ceamach 
a donation to a religious purpofe, and hence the Latin 
Cameus Apollo. Jupiter's nurfe Almathgea, (i. e. 
the Irilh Am-alt*itha or the mother nurfmg ItHa) was 
reprefented by a horn full of fruits and flowers, a 
cornucopia, which ftill paffes for a fymbol of plenty, 
though the fAyfical reafon and ground of the device, 
has been long^fwallowcd up in fable and romance, 
'while nothing more was fignified by it, than that 
plenty of the rich fruits of the earth is produced by 
the operationjs of the horns or rays of light, and one 
name in Hebrew for that fire at tihe orb of the fun 
was Ynn chriiiri, whciice the Irifli chrian or grian, 
'the fun, the folar heat, and the Latin Graiiheus 
Apollo ; hence alfo the Irifli Cruinne, &\e Mundane 

' There is a curious paffage in Inghiramius's Etrufcan 

antiquities, tranflated into Latin from the Etrufcan, 

• that not only points out the origin of our Anu •, 


. ♦ dtt Prc&cc. 



from whence the Latins formed Diana, but (hews 
that the great Meufe deer was common in Italy as 
well as in Ireland, but at that diflant age, was an 
.animal unknown to the Etruicans. The infcription 
was written on lead by Proi'perus Fefulanus in Ul- 
terranenfi Collegio Augurum Socius, and runs thus : 
•^-" poftridie, dum foderent in loco, ubi fjatura erat 
porta, inventa funt Cornua Cervina immenfa magnitu- 
dinify quae eum ad fex cubitos fepulta eflfent ; vifum 
eft omnibus prodigiujm ; cornua Di-Anae fblemni 
ritu & {acris ceremoidi^ dicata fure ; asdificata arce, 
Mutius MauTus primus cuftos, aure^ cornua eorum 
loco pofuit fuper aram, & qux inventa fuerunt fubter 
aram ad t res cubitos in tempio ipfms Di-Aoae/ ' Thefame 
is recorded byAIcus Filaccus; and the infcription con- 
cludes with thefe words, ^^ demum defperata falute 
hie ea repofui, quae ad Di-Anam pertinent, ne eis 
Romani potirentur. Profperus Cuftos Arcis.** 

Thefe horns were facred to Ana or Anu, who with 
Ith and Dagh prefided over the produce of the earth 
and waters, and were denominated Mathar, i, e. firft 
caufe, ,whence the Romans formed their unknown 
gods, the Deae Matres, that Spon takes for deified 
women, who while living, were thought to have the 
gift of prophecy, J but the Druids taught they were 
only the Adhbhan or Abhan, compounded oi abbar^ 
the caufe or inflrument of fertility, afting under the 
power of ^far (God) and hence they were deno- 
minated Aufanii. Bx^t* the etymology, of Anu is in 
the Irilh language fignifyi^ig ^ cornucopia \ a cup, 
plenty, &c. The fub-druids always carfied an Anu 
with them, and it was held facred, that every fpring 
in Ireland, fhould be fupplicd with a horn chained 



to a ilone. Sir John Chardin remarks, that the der- 
vifes of the eaft always carry with them the horn of 
a goat or of an ox. 

fti the third vol. of the Archaeologia of the London 
Society of Antiquaries, arc the drawings of fix horns, 
and a very ingenious differtation on the Charter 
Horn, by Mr. Pegge. The Pufcy horn (there de- 
fcribcd) i$ that of an ox, tipped with filver, and 
mounted with feet, like ours ; on the middle ring is 
this infcription in black letter. 

King Knowde geve William Pcwfc 
This Home to holde by thy Londe. 

The horn of Corpus Chrifti College Cambridge, 
is alfo that of an ox, and mounted with feet. The 
charter horns of Carlifle cathedral, as they are im- 
properly called, are fuppofed to be the teeth of fomc 
very large fifh; they were given by Hen. I. to the prior 
and convent of Carlifle, with a large eftate to be 
held per quoddam cornu eburneum. I^ord Bruce's horn 
is an elephant *s horn or tooth; it is a hunting horn, 
flung, and moft elegantly ornamented. 

The Earl of Ormondes horn is remarkable. In 
his will, dated July 31ft:, 15 15, he makes particular 
mention of it, as in this extrad, taken by Thomas 
Aftle, Efq ; from the regifter called Holder^ in the 
Prerogative Office, viz. *' I Thomas Butler, Knt. 
erle of Ormond do make this my lafl: will and tefta- 
mcnt, &c. Item I give and devife to my dar dame 
Anne St. Ceger — to my da^ dame Margt Bolin, late 
the wife of Sir Wm Bolin Knt, my manor of Newhall 
in Eflex — ^Item when my Lorde my father, whofe 


30 char:' 

ibul God aifoHe, lefi 

whjie borni of ivory, 
gold, and corfe tbcreu 
barres of gold, aod aj 
vas myn auacetours a 
tmaitr, and hath fytbi 
fame blode, for \<^yi:li 
coBimuided me upon 
my devoir to caafe ii 
as far furth as that m 
to the honor of tlie fi 
accompliftimcnt of m; 
is in me to execute th 
tors delyver unto Sir 
apparent of my faid d 
borne and corfe, he 
thiffuc male of his bo( 
lack of fuch iHiie the 
delyvered to Sir Geo. 
dar Anne, and to tb 
fliall come of the bod 
to contynue in the if 
fame dame Margaret i 
fortune any fuch ifliie 
faid daughters. And 
the body of any of ■a 
to remaine, and to be 
of my faid auncetoui 
in my blode hereafter, 
tyke as it hath done 1 

The antiquity of < 
letters I. H. C, whic 

! I 


Greek word IHCOC, or ftand for I. H. S. i. e. Jcfiw 
Hominum Salvator, The antieht Greeks ufed c for 
fj as in that infcription, 

e£OiC aCiaC kai ErpQnHC. 

And this continued to the firft tges of Chriftianity. 
In the Symbolas Litterariae Opufcula of the Floren- 
tine academy, vol. iii, are defcriptions of many 
antient croffes, where c often is found for f; indeed 
the / feems to be formed of r, foftened as in the 
mp4em Freivrh and Spetftiih f ; but on an infcription 
in the Bafilica Vaticana, ereded by Conftantine the 
great, we find both letters ufed on the fame marble, 
viz. HATAoC. pETPoS, tbat is, Paulos, Petros, and 
on a crucifix in the fame church 

ihCotC, xpiCtoC, geoV. tioC, Cothp, 

diat is, J^fus Ghriftus Dei iiiius Salvator. It is 
remarkable that Soter is here vifed in the fame 
fi^nfe as SeMihar in Irifii, meaning god, ftrength, 
Siviour. The author of the eflay concludes in thefe 
words, ^ (^asri hinc coeptum eft, in idco in 
fikcris ittteris inditum fit Chrifto fervatorb Y.»mi^%% 
nomen, ut conftaret Chriftum fi^tiis inter Deos, & 
faomfinea fenratbribus nuiiquam non opponendum, 
potiorque & optimo jure Dei "Zmrnitf & Regis £«T?(«f 
five A»«^v5 nomen obtinere ?** ♦ I therefore con- 
-dudie, tiiis cup was made about the fifth century. 

* p. Mr P»:i4>ui> til the fvn^e vol. p. gat. 







O F 





J. H E harp from whence this drawing was made, 
was handed to me with the following anecdote: 
" Brien Boiromh being- flain in the eighty-ninth year 
of his age, at the clofe of the mod memorable and 
renowned vidory he had gained, over all the united 
powers of the Danes, on the plain of Clontarf near 
Dublin, on Good Friday, in the year of our Lord 
1014 ; his two* fons by his fecond wife, viz. Tcige 
and Donogh, fucceded' to their father as Coregnants 
on the throne of the two Munfters (Thomond and 
Defmond.) Teig being treacheroufly flain at the in- 
ftigation of his brother Donogh, anno 1023, Donogh 
took upon himfelf the fole government of Leth- 
Mogha, and foon after became chief king of all 
Ireland j but, after great loffes and humiliations, he 
was dethroned by his nephew Turrlogh, fon of Teig, 



anno 1 064 *• He then went to Rome to crave the 
remiiCon of fins, particularly of the murder of his 
brother Teig, and carried with him the crown, harp 
and other regalia of Brien Boiromh, which he laid at 
the feet of the pope. The holy father took thefe 
prefents as a demonftration of a full fubmiflion of 
the kingdom of Ireland, and one of his fuccelTors 
Adrian IV. (by name Brakfpeare and an Englifhman) 
alledged this circumftance as one of the principal 
titles he claimed to this kingdom, in his Bull of 
transferment to King Henry IL Thefe regalia were 
depofited in the Vatican till the reign of Henry VIA. 
when the Pope fent the harp to that monarch, with 
the title of Defender of the Faitbj but kept the crown, 
which was of maflive gold. Henry fetting no value 
on the harp, gave it to the firft Earl of Clanrickard, 
in whofe family it remained till the beginning of this 
century, when it came by a lady of the De Burgh 
family, into that of Mac Mahon of Clenagh, in the 
County of Clare, after whofe death it paffed into the 
poflef&on of Counfellor Macnamara of Limerick. •' 

In 1782, it was prefentedto the Right Hon. Wm. 
Conyngham, who has depofited it in the Mufeum of 
' Trinity College. 

This Harp is thirty-two inches high & of extraor- 
dinary good workmanfhip : the founding board is 
of oak ; the arms of red-fally : the extremity of 
the uppermoft arm in front, is capped with filver 
extremely well wrought and chiffelled : it contains 
a large cryfial fet in filver, and under it was another 

* See AddaIs of Tighernacb. Chronicon Scotorum. AnnaU 
•f iDQisfalaot and Law of Taaiilry. Colledaaea, vol. 2, p. 540. 



ftone^ noir loft : the buttons or omamenial knobs 
at the fides oi this arm are of fiWcr. On the front 
arm at ay are the arms of tlxe O'Brien hmihf^ 
chafed in filver, viz« the bloody hand^ fupportcd by 
Horn : tbefe are reprefented as brge as the original 
in the comer of the ptate at a. On the fides of 
the front arm, within two circles, are two Irifh wolf^ 
dogs cut in the wood : - the holes of the founding 
board, where the ftrings entered, are neatly oma« 
mented with Icutcheons of bra£s carved and gilt : — 
the large foonc£ng holes have been ornamented, 
probably with filver, as they have been the objed 
of theft* This harp has twenty-eight keys, and as 
many firing holes, co^fequently tliere were as many 
ftrings* 11^ foot piece or reft is broken ofT^ and 
the parts to which it was joined are very rotten* The 
whole bears evidence of an expert artift* 

In Montfaucon's ^Egyptian antiquities, • is a wo- 
man playing on a triangular harp, about the fize of 
our Irilh Harp. Polyd. Virgil, fays,, the harp of 
the Hebrews, was in the form of a Greek delta a 
and had twenty -four ftrings f. Tlie fcibulous hifto- 
ry of the Chinefe informs uj, that Fou-hi took the 
wood of Tong, made it hollow, and formed a Kim 
(harp or lyre, lays Gouget) of twenty-feven ftrings 
of filk ; it was three feet fix inches high : this inftru- 
ment he called Li : he took the wood of Sang, and 
made a Seh or Se (harp, lyre or guitar) of thirty- 
fuc ftrings : But Niu-aua (the Eve of the Chinefe) 
made feveral inftruments of mufic. Seng and the 
hoang^ ferved her to communicate with the winds. . 

♦ Fontpe d'Mf| Vol. 4* f Dc ittvrtit. rer. I. f . e. ti* 



By the Kouene^ (he united all founds into one^ and 
made concord between the fun, moon and ftars. 
She had a Seb of fifty firings, whofe found was i(M 
aSe£ling, it could not be borne ; therefore ibe re^ 
duced them to twcnty-fitye. * 

Here are fo many old Irifh words iignifying mu-- 
fick, melody, harp, &c« one would be inclined to 
think, that the Chinefe had borrowed thefe termg 
from the Scythians. The antient Irifh had four 
names for the Harp, and probably each was of 9 
different conflru£tion, viz* i. Clar*feh or Clarieaclu 
l« Cionar, or Cionthar. 3. Crut or Cruit« 4. 
Crabtine Cruit or Creamtine Cruit, Clar, fignffies 
a trough, a deik, a table, a board ; and fi^, fighe 
and leach, is harmony, melody ; Arab, (hook, har- 
monious } fo that Clarfeach implies the melodious 
tables. Cionar is evidently the Hebrew and Chaldee 
M*Y)lO Clinura unde »i^«. Crut is alfo the Chal- 
dee or^ji^p Kithris, undd Cithara, iu%« & guittara ; 
but the Creamhtine Crut or Cream-Crutin, by ^e 
Aame, imports the harp ufed at potations or carou* 
ials ; whence Creamh-nual a noify drunken com« 
pany, which exadly correfponds with the defcrip- 
tion given by Midras Rabba in Echo, of the Chaldee 
ri^ffy^ Krut or Krutin ; it is, fays he, a profane mu- 
ncal inftrument ufed in drinking boufes and mufic 

Lomna is a cord or firing of a harp, whence 
Lomnoir, vulgarly, a Harper. Tead, is alfo a cord 
or firing, and tead miotalte, the firing of a harp ; 

• Chxncfc Hiftory by Lc Roux dct Hautci-Royc«, Royal 



becaufe made of wire, it is literally the Chaldce 
iriNW ttSDD nietallicum netum, or wire ; hence 
Teadidhe a harper, and Teadh-loin a harp ; that is, 
the merry making ftringed inftrument, from loine, 
merriment, cheerfulnefs ; loin-dubh, a black-bird, 
i. e. the black harmonift ; loineach, a chorus, a 
highland catch, (Shawe). Arab Ian placidus. The 
Irifh Teadhloin, pronounced Tealoin or Tclin, is 
certainly the etymon of the Welfli Teylin^ a harp ; a 
word I can fmd no derivation of, in that language ; 
and I think, proves from whence they borrowed 
both the inftrument, ahd its name. 

The Irifh diftinguifti very plainly between the 
ftrings of the harp and thofe of the fiddle ; the laft 
they name feith or feidh, * that is zjinew ; whence 
feidhlin, a fiddle; and perhaps the Englifh fiddle, 
phiol, violin. Feith is litterally the Phoenician and 
Chaldean ^j^q phetha, i. c. nervus ; Perfic phei. 
Feith in Irifh is alfo chord, a rope, and there is 
every reafon to think the Eaftern people made their 
firft chords of fmews, as we find in the Chaldce, gid 
fignifies a finew, and gidlim & gidal, a rope : iather, 
a finew and a rope : pheth a finew, and phethil a 
a rope, &c. 

Mr. Harrington in the Archaeol. Vol. HI. and Mr. 
Evans in his diflfert. de Bardis, think that the 
Crwdd or Crwd was peculiar to the Welfh nation. 
I believe the only honour they can have, is the in- 
vention of playing on this inftrument with the bow : 
yet this fcems to have been known to the Irifh alfo, 

* Hence the Latin fides, fidium ; the firings of a mufiGal in- 



ibf in our a>aunoa Lexicons we fui4 Cruit, a harp, 
^ fiddle, a crowder. Moutfaucon in his fixth Vol. 
collets upwards of twenty Latin and Greek names 
for haj^ ^and Ijre, and obferves that many of them 
.^goified the/sune inftrument. 

, The fecpufikind of, Britifh bards/* fays Seldcn, 

arc.thofe.thatjplay^ on .the harp or crov/d: their 

mufick for .the . moft ^pi^tt came out of Ireland 

with. Griffith. ap Conan, prince of North .Wales, 

^ about ,king Stephen's time. The Britons affeded 

,thc mind, compofing Dorick j which is. ihewed in 

- that .part .of an old author. (Marc. .Heracleft.) ^fErm- 
*ing ^that i^ipa;«^ ;^j«'p,,, i. e. to make thtfm gentle 
^ natuDcd, the wcAern people. of the world conftituted 
-the :ufe of. mufick in their aflemblies, though the 
/Irifh^from Mjhence they learned^ were wholly for the 

• fprightly.Phrygian." * 

In an ant|en^ -MSS.. in my peffeffion, called the 

- Romance of Cearbhall, i« this paffage, •* agus ro 
boi CearbiaU an tan fin ag orphideadh d* Aofar 

• cumtha idir and a codhlai : i. e. and at that time 

- Cearball was playing on his harp to the Almighty 
Aofar (God) after .his firft fleep." N. B. this paf- 
fagc occurred to me fincc the explanation of the 

• JEtrufcan Aefar in my laft number. 


t-A .*J 

The Crown here reprefeijited, is copied from an 
engraving given by the tranjl^tor of Keating in ' the 


« . J 

{lejns^rjkq o^ DrayCoii's Pol/olbion, p. 1759. 

y .Vol. IV, No. XIIL H frontit 


frontifpiece to his hiftory of Ireland; there oas 
been (fays the tranflator in the preface) a difpute " 
among learned men, whether the antient kings of 
Ireland, of the Milefian race, wore crowns of gold, 
after the manner of other nations. We are inform- 
ed by He£l. Boetius, in his 2d and 10th books, that 
the kings of Scotland, from the time of Fergus to the 
reign of Achaiiis, ufed a plain crown oi gold, mil- 
iar is valli formay in the form of military trench; 
and it is more than probable, that in this pradice, 
they followed the Irifli monarchs from whom they 
derived their defcent and cufloms. And this con- 
jedure, is ftill rendered more reafonable by a golden 
cap, (or crown) fuppofed to be a provincial crown, 
that was found in the year 1692, in the county of 
Tipperary, at a place called Bam-an-£Ii, by the Irifh, 
and by the Englilh, the Devils bit. It was difcover- 
ed about ten feet under ground, by fome work- 
men that were cutting turf for firing^ This crown 
weighs about five ounces ; the border and the head 
is raifed ia chafed work, iix, the forn^ here reprefent- 
ed,' abd it feems to bear fome refemblance to the 
clofe crcwxl of the eaft^rn Empire, which was com- 
pofed of the helmet, together with a diadem, as the 
learned Selden qbferv^s 4n his titles of honour^ chap. 
viii. page i . Some of the antiquaries of Ireland, 
have imagined that this was the crown worn by 
fome provincial kiiig under Brien Bpiromh : others 
are inclined to. believe, it belonged to the Irifli 
monarchs, before the planting of .Chfiftianity in this 
kingdom, and thty give this reafoijii>ecaufe it is^iot 
adorned with a crofs, which was the common en- 
fign of chrlftian princes.' -HoWcVery it is a Taluable 

- - . piece 


piece of antiquity, and would unavoidably have been 
melted down, had it not been preferved by Jofeph 
Comerford Efq ; a curious gentleman, defcended 
from a younger brother of Comerford, of the county 
of Stafford, who attended king John in his expedition 
into Ireland* 

Another clofe crown of gold fimilar to this, I am 
informed, was found fome years ago, on the eft ate 
of Mr. Stafford. A cow plunging in a bog, trod 
on the crown, and piercing it with her hoof, carried 
the crown on her leg into the gentleman's farm 
yard. The balls of this crown were not chafed, but 
raifed almoft globular, like thofe reprefented on our 
Vifcounts Coronet's. Mr. Selden remarks, *^ that 
teftimonies are npt clear enough in credit, that tell 
us Ihmvallo Mulmutius, king of the old Britons, 
and the old kings of Scotland, even from Fergus the 
firft, wore golden crowns ; but it feems from old 
Britifh monies, that the diadem or fillet perhaps of 
pearl, alfo was worn by king Cunobelin.*' 

OFlaherty in Ogygia, page 46 ; fays, the antient 
kings of Ireland, from whom Fergus defcended, 
wore golden crowns \ that the Irifh name of fuch 
crown was Aifion, and afterwards Coroin ; and he 
particularly mentions a gold crown of king Catir, 
who reigned A.'D. 174. Now Aifion inEtrufcan, 
is the name of the golden crown placed on the 
heads of the dead princes. Corona aurea nobiliores 
defunfti ornabantur, (Gori.) ppj^ afun in 
Hebrew is death, mors, exitium ; & aifion, in Irifh, 
is alfo a relick ; as, aifiona na naomh, holy relicks ; 
aiflihe^ a Ihroud. I believe O'Flaherty has mif- 
taken the diadem of the dead for that of the living 

H 2 prince. 


prince, for in all our Lexions, OBrien^s 6xctptcd^ 
we find coron, crun, fleafg, cruineacan, fynonimdus 
for a crown ; and I cannot help thinking that Gatir 
was a fiftitious name, from the Hebrew or'Perfian 
^P3 Kater or ^Kcter, for both Vafhti and Either, 
were crowned with Kcter Malcuth, that is, the 
crown or diadem, or enfign of the kingdom, the 
Citaris and iillet on it. Both the vuIgate and LXX, 
turn'thefe words diadema ; and fome will have Ceter 
in Efther, to be but the fame word from 'whence 
Citaris was firft made. However, the Hebrew com- 
pared widi die profane writers, fays Seiden, 
juftifies clearly that there was a crown of gold, as 
well as a fillet for a royal enfign in Perfia. Aifbn 
or afun in Irifli, properly fignifies any royal enfign 
as a fcepter, or ftaflf of dignity, (in Arabic Afa). 1^. 
Gr. foidis dino an tuafal Jacop Jofeph oimindte agus 
dfun in a laimh. i. flat in a l^mh, (Leabharbreacht) 
i c. Straightway the noble Jacob fent his fon Jofeph 
properly arrayed, and with a ftaflf of dignity in his 
hand : Here afun is explained by flat, a rod, a 
fceptre ; and this word in Hebrew, fignifies to go- 
vern. Saobhathis another Irilh word fcv a Druid's 
Hod, from the Hebrew gj^jjf fliebct, which mjilies 
Virga, fceptrum tribus. 


/ f 








Fig. I. ANP 2. are of Gold* 

i. HE oentex pieces or handles are folid, and 
the ends terminate in cups. Fig. z. weighs 
three ounces eighteen penny-weights, and is in 
the College Mufcum. Fig. a. weighed ten ounces, 
^d was fold to a goldfmith, who informs me he 
had melted down feveral of this form ; one weighed 
fixteen ounces : he found Ibme, the handle of which 
vcre of fdver chaied with plated gold. Fig. 3. and 
4. are alio of gold, but differ from the firfl in hav« 
ing the circular ends flat, and the handles or bow 
parts ornamented. Thefe are evidently fibula: the 
circular heads paffed through the button holes and 
lay flat on the body, and the chafed or ornamented 
part was turned to the eye. In the Archaeologia of 
the London fociety. Vol. IL are drawings of two 
of the larger infl:ruments, varying in the form of the 
cups, which of one, are perfedly hemifphericaU 

The late Bifhop Pococke, prefented thefe drawings 
to the Society, &c* by his memoir, we find he 



thought thefe aho were a fpecies of fibula. I am of opi- 
nion,Mr. Simon, (author of the effay on the Irifh coins) 
judged right, in thinking they were ufed in the religious 
ceremonies of the Irifti Druids. I think they were 
paterae : one of a moft delicate conftruftion. Fig. 
7. was fent to me fmce the former were engraved : 
this, from its make, could not have been a fibula ; 
it weighs exadly two guineas ; was found in a bog 
on the eftate of James Cuffe, Efq ; of the county of 
Mayo, and is now in the poflfeffion of Judge Hellen 2 
hitherto, nothing fimilar to thefe inftruments, has 
been reprefented or defcribed in any book of an^? 

Fig, 5. was drawn from an urn of baked earth, 
and of very rude workmanfbip ; it was fbund near 
Baalnamolt, on the mountains between Clonmell 
and Capoquin, under a fmall tumulus, with the mouth 
downwards, covering fome black earth flained by 
the burnt afhes of the corps, and part of the jaw 
bone and fkuU of a youth not burnt : it was prefcnt- 
ed to me by the Rev. Mr. Ryan, parifh priefl of 
Baalnamolt, aud is now in the mufeum of Trinity 
College. The Irifh MSS. mention, that in times of 
Paganifm, the dead bodies of Princes and Druids 
were burnt, but that thofe of chiefs and generals, 
were buried with their arms, &c. So that like the 
antient Etrufcans, * the Irifh ufed both modes of 
burial at the fame time. 

>Fig. 6. Is a drawing from a vafe of brafs ; it was 
found in a bog twelve feet deep, near the ruins of 
Grey Abbey, in the Ardes of the county of Down, 

* P. Bonarota. Epifl. Tho. Coke, page 35. 














on the eftatc of William Montgomery, Efq ; A. D. 
1 742 ; it is in the College Mufeum. The form of 
this vafe is much in the (tile of the antient Etruf- 
cans : I think it was a praefericulum ufed by the 
Druids in their facrifices. Montfaucon, in Vol. V. 
has an antique brafs vafe, a trois pieds, that much 
refembles ours, — ^he thinks that ferved as a praeferi- 
cuhim and for culinary ufes alio* 





PLATE Vn.- — ^Fig. h 

1 S the drawing of a muflcal inflrument ufed in the 
chorus of the antient Irifli : the circular plates are of 
brafs, and the brafs wire or worm part, round the 
fhanks, jingled, when the plates were (truck upon by 
the fingers. Six of thefe were found in 1781, in 
digging up part of the park of Slane, the feat of the 
Right Hon. William Conyngham ; one of them is 
in the College Mufeum. In the firft volume of the 
Academy of Cortona, are two plates of various kinds 
of Etrufcan Crotolse, " inftrumenti da fonarc, detti 

dagli antichi Crotala." " Crotola quoque dici 

fonoras fpha:rulas, quae quibufdam granis interpofitis 
pro quantitate fui, & fpccie metalli fonos edunt.** 
(Jof. Sarifber. Policart. 1. viii. c. 12.) This is the ex- 
aft defcription of our Samothracian rings, of which 
hereafter. Crotala is an Irifti word, formed of crot, 
or crut, the handj and ala to Jhake, Cibbual has 
the fame figniiication, viz. cib the hand ; biial to 



ftrike} i. e. inftruments ftnick with the hand. 
Corabafnas is formed of cor mii/ick ; and bafnas of bety 
exa^^ keeping time^ and nafc ^'ringj a circle, i. e, 
i. e. an inftrumeht wherewith to mark the time in 

The antieitt Irifli had alfd a bafe called coman,. 
viiigjo- cfbtian, • a ^ord formed of cor miifick and aar 
01^ a^an, - ba/^^ - chorus. Chaldee ^^^ . enan -^chorus^ r 
thiere was another named iachdar-channus^ Latin* 
Cantiis Baflus, of air which I ihall treat fuUj, when» 
defcribing the mufick of the antient Irifh. 

They had alfo a Cibbual or Corabas, compofed of 
inany fmail plate? of brafs, or of (hingles of wood^ 
faftened with a thon^ that was held in one hand and' 
firuck on the palm of the other, vulgarly now called 
^ clapper or rattle ; this was the antient fyilra of the^ 
Egyptians j named in Scripture menabnahim^.2JgreQzhl& 
to the Hebrew idiom, fighifying the Jhaiihgrjhaiing^ 
inftruments, tranllated by LXX itifJUx^ cymbals. 
David had this- inftrument, among, others, founded 
before the ark of the Lord, when he fetched it from. 
Keriath Jearim, 2 Sam. vi. 5* but he would not uib 
the fame that the ^Egyptians did j therefore ajs theirs, 
were of hr^ky his are faid to be of fir, with addition 
of thin plates of fome metals *• 

Whether our Irifli Corabas may ferve to explain 
the following, lines in Virgil, which Servios and 
Pierus think- were altered from the original, I leavQ 
my readers to judge. 

Hinc mater cultrix- Cybfele, CQrybantiajqjue aerea, 
Idaeumqae nemufr 


jSneid iii, v. 3. 

• Hollpway's Originals, vol. 1, p, 146; 



The Stoc or Trumpet, and cf its ufe in our 
Round Towers.— Fig. a. 

Reprefents a brazen trumpet of the antient Iriih, 
many of them are found in our bogs. This drawing 
was made from one in the College Mufeum. They had 
various kinds of trumpets, viz. the ftoc, buabhall, 
beann, adharc, dudag, corna, gall-trompa. Stoc is 
the Chaldee JTipp takuh (buccina) with / prefixed. 
Coma the Chald. Kjnp karna : buabhall, beann and 
adharc, from their names, betoken they were made 
of the horns of animals. Dudag, I conceive, muft 
have been a very fhrill trumpet of brafs, from its 
name, dud (ignifying the tingling of the ear, whence 
the poetical compound dudaireachd the noife of horns 
and trumpets. GalUtrompa implies the foreigners 
(Englifh) trumpet. 

The conftrudion of the Stoc here reprefented, is 
Angular, the mouth hole is on the fide, and fo large, 
no mufical note could be produced. It was a fpeaking 
trumpet, ufed on the tops of our round towers, to 
affemble the congregation, to proclaim the new moons 
and quarters, and all other feftivals. The takuh of 
the Chaldees and Hebrews was for the fame ufe. 
Buccina incurva : ufus ejus multiplex erat ; ad con- 
vocandum ccetum Ecclefise ; ad indicandum feftum 
Sabbathi ; novilunii ; pafchatis, &c.— -/fr//> erat bene 
pojfe injlare. (Buxtorf.) 

Virgil, Statins, Silius Ital. and many others, give 
the invention of trumpets to the Etrufcans. Tuba 
primum a Tyrrhcnis invenu (Ifidor. 1. ii. Etym. c. 20.) 



Tubam Tyrrheni primi invenerunt ; laudatoque 
Virgilio deinde addit : banc a Tyrrbenis prsdonibus 
excogitatam dicunt, cum difperfi circa maritimas eras, 
oon facile ad quamque pracdae occafionem voce aut 
buccina convocarentur, vento plerumque obftrepente. 
Hinc poftea bellicis certaminibus adhibita eft ad de^ 
nuncianda figna bellorum, ut ubi exaudiri praeco 
prae tumultu non poterat, fonitus tubae clangentis 
attingeret, (id. 1. 17.) denique dividendis vigiliis, 
ineundo praelio, &c, &c. in all which fervices, I believe 
the fpeaking trumpet, not the mufical, mud have 
been ufed. 

Acron will give the honour of this invention to 
Dircaeus, from thefe lines of Horace, 

Pod hos infignis Homerus 

Dircaeufque mares animos in martia belU* 

J)ircaeus, I believe, was a horn-trumpet maker, and 
took his name from the Irifli adarc, a cow's horn* 

Thefe trumpets being found in the carn3 and raths, 
(fepulchres and forts) belonging originally to Irifh 
chiefs, Dr. Molyneu^ attributes them to the Danes, 
with much the fame fuccefs as Dr. Plot does the 
brazen Celts found in England to the Romans. The 
figure of that given by Molyneux in his Natural 
Hiftory of Ireland, differs from this, in having two 
rings near the fmali end to fufpend it. 

The Earl of Drogheda has one, with four finall 
brafs pins or fpikes within the mouth or greatefl end^ 
feemingly to hold faft a fecond joint, that probably 
terminated in the form of our modern fpeaking 



lardie fecond voL of xbc Arch^ogia of the Londoft 
Society, is a diilertation on- the round towers of 
Irdaady by Mr, S. Brereton, that perfeftly defcribes 
not only the ufe of thefe towers^ but of the trumpets, 
his words are, ^^ When I lately made the tour of 
Ireland, I faw feveral of thofe buildings called Peni- 
tential towers ; not one of them had either belting or 
gffting, nor the leall fign of there having been any. 
room in them, tiU within ten feet of the top ; that 
room had windows exa£Hy facing the cardinal points, 
from thence downwards to the entrance, which is 
about fifteen feet above the furface of the ground, 
only a few flits were cut, jufl to give light to perfons 
going up or down flairs. Theiie towers are all built 
of ftone, and exceeding flrong, the flones and mortar 
remarkably good ; and in general they are entire to 
this day, though many churches, near which they 
flood, are either in ruins, or totally deflroyed." 
•* I think them rather antient Irijhj than either PicKA 
or Danifh flruftures, having never heard of one like 
Aem in Denmark, or any other part of Europe, ex- 
cept in Scotland ; I faw one at Abemethy, near 
Perth, which exaftly refemblcs thofe in Ireland. Upon 
looking into Gordon's Itinerarium Septentrionale, 
I find his opinion is, diat it was the work of the Pids •; 
what reafon there is for fuch a conjefture, I do not 
fee ; I rather think we may conclude, when the-Irifli 
made their incurfions into Scotland, they built the 
two towers there, after the model of fo many they 
had left behind them in Ireland. However, I deem 
their antiquity to precede the ufe of bells, cafl ones 

• Of the Pea^ai a Thracian colony, fee Preface. 



at leaft , in that country ; aif d ' fronv thoir finiatioft s 
near churthes, and having a 'floor and windows oitly 

-zt the top, I verily believe their principal ^nfcto 'have 

' been to receive a pcrfon to call the people to wofihip 
with fome wind inftrument, which would be heard 
from a much greater diftance than fmall uncaft bells 

' pollibly could : one of thefe towers at Drumilkin, is 
at this day made ufe of as a belfry. In Mahometan 
countries, the voices of their Muezins, or callers to 
prayers,' Vs^ho ftand for tfiat purpofe on turrets, much 

' higher than their mofques, are heard to a very great 

" The JEgyipfianr tit this • day, protlaim ;rhe :time-t)f 
worfliip with fome wind iiiftrument from a high 

•place } which I rather takenotice of here, Ijccaitfe 
the Iatc1&ifliOp*Pocotke often mentions :the amazing 
conformity he had obfeirved^between the Irish and 
the Egyptians in many inftances." 

The trumpet lAd the horn were founded on the 
tops of the hills and of the towers, on any approach- 
ing* d^ger ; and on the declaration of war againft a 
neighbouring' ftate ; on this^ccaiion the Druid liglMied 
a number of fticks called crois*tara, at ^d'hdy ^e, 
with thefe, the people ran frbm place to ^lace, -aiid 
followed the homsr to the hills. Croiftara, 'fays Mr. 
Shaw, in his Irifli Lexicon, is a- fignalto takeAip 
arms, by fending a burning ftick from ^laeeto^pJace 
with great fexpedition. 'This word *i« 'of tlhaldee 

. origin, D^n chris, the folar fire, and \nr^ tara, an 
aflembly *. 6abikara was another Irifh -name of 

"* Hence Tambarj the reatofthe'ISiflnnonarchBy'inKl'iained 

TKkA^httwSxL cl thrtiiensml-^eoiblj' of tM ftate»thtrc. 



this ceremony, from gabaly burning with great flame* 
Whence the Phoenician and Irifli Uilegabal and the 
Arabic Algabil, unura efle e Dei epithetis..(Bochart) 
and the Greek Heliogabalus, the prieft of the SUN, 
a word that originally had not one Greek letter 
in it. 

The troops being affembled together by this 
means, as foon as they came within fight of the 
enemy, they fct up the war cry, the CRIOM-ABU, 
two words of Chaldee origin yfy\ DT^^n chirom- 
ubau ; the firfl fignifying bellum, internecio ; the 
fecond exultare, and then rufhed on to Catha, Chal- 
^^^ ttn^niS* See Job xxxviii. 23* In latter ages, 
each tribe had their particular abu, but the anticnt 
general term, is preferved in the Leinfter family,. by 
the motto, CROM ABU. See Criom or Griom 
further explained in PI. XL 

: Fig. 3. is the drawing of a brafs fwojd in my pof- 
iieflion ; \t is twienty-two inches long :. Jin the College 
Mufeum is one about three inches longer. Many of 
thefe arc found in, our bogs, that from which this 
4rawing was made, was found* with about two hun- 
dred otj^ers of the feme kind, in the bog of CuUen, 
in county Tipperary. The handles were of wood 
or bone,, and were rotted away^:the rivets only re- 
maining. . ^ . . . 

The weapons of the antient Irilh were all of brafs 
or copper, mixed with iron and zinck ; fo were 
thofe of all other antient nation^ j . for.sflthougLthey 
had iron, it being a metal rery. . difficult to be ex- 



trafted and fdfed, they only mixed fuch a quantity 
-with the coj^er as to harden it ; this metal^ lays 
Montfaucon, became as hard as iron, all kinds of 
cutting tools and inftruments were made of it, but 
the art of tempering this mixture is now* loft. 

Where with our brazen fwords- 

"^ (Drayton's Polyolbion) 

The Author (fays Selden) thus teaches you to 
know that among the antients, brafs, not iron, was 
the metal moft in ufe ; their little fcythes where-- 
with they cut their herbs for inchantments ; • their 
Priefts razors, plow ihares, their mufical inftru« 
ments and fuch like ; how fpecial this metal was, it 
is with good warrant delivered. Nor with leis how 
frequent in the making of fwords, ipedx and armour, 
in the heroick times. As among other authorities, 
that in the encounter of Diomedes and Hedor 

'^XtiyX^n y^Tl xUXic^i y,n,'KM%. Ulad A« 
-brafs rebounds from brafs. 

And iGoIiah had an helmet of brafs upon his head, 
and he was armed with a coat of mail, and he had 
greaves of brafs upon his. legs, &c. 

Sed prius IExi% erat quam ferri cognitusufus. 

Lucret. 1. 5. 
g gratum quatiens^ Tarpeia fccurem. 

^^n* xi.. ver. 656. 
^rataeque micant pelta^;. tnicat 0;reu&.ea^. 

•. jEn# vii. ver. 743. 

• Sec oneof thcfc, PI. X.. Fig. 4. 


4 ■ 



54 B* R A vS S '. S 'W O yR;D S. 

, I 

iT^ Ipears of ^e (.ufits^mans^^iays Strabo^.were 
: .poiaUd with brafs ; the Cimbrians - 0fid Gatds > had •{ 
' brafs for th^iij weapons; 1 the Danes ;m^cvtheirib£«t 
Ts&^qirdsy arrowi pomts,'ipur& and kmvje&of bi^^ * 
When, iron became kaown, and. its iAipoior bacd* 
nefs acknowledged, it was f^arce. The Sarfnatians 
hadf no ixpn in all tjieir country, f The Germans 
"^ had none in Tacitus's time ; and in Britain, iron 
'^jwa*' very, (carce, as" Gaafer fays, fo that it isw no . won- 
••^ridiat antiently theiv ^vieapona were. made ofhtafs. 
^IFhe Caledonian heroes :o£ O S S Iv A N, ihone in 

•^Acao)rding to the .Arnfidelian. Ai^aibles, iron was 
'^ Bot found out till i88;yaarSi before ihe.war:of Trioy. 
«^ Some of our bFaft«&rbtds.were.ient to goi^crnor 
c'^j^whall,' ^o has given ^^^£>Uowing ^accurate .de- 
t'-fcf iption^of^them, in theArchstologiisL^ YoL iii*>page 
'^ 5*55; ***Aat-the foeiety- might- have a ^vecife.and 
philofophical defcription of the metal^L applied: to 
the i^aiten of the^mint j and by his direftio n, Mn 
Alchorn, his Majefty's ^ Aflay^tiRAfteryom^eL an ac- 
. curate aifay. of the-m^tal.. It^ appears, fay^ be,. to be 
i .chiefly. cfQpper,* intejfpcrfed with particles of iron, 
and perhaps fopie ;sinick,.but without containing 
either gold or filver : it fcems probable, that the 
mcit^ w&s calt' iuiite /pr^fjant; il:ate,.^jaod lafteiiwards 
• reduced td its proper figure by filing. The iron 
might either have be6iKX)bti^nedi j«itb-^he~copper 
•*ficom»the orev or added afterwards in the fufion, to 
give the^neceflary rigidity^ of a weapon ;.;.jbtft I con- 
'Jfeft myfelf niniible to determine any thing with cer- 
tainty.-— Thcfe fwords are as exaSlly and minutely 

* Worm. Mon. Dam 48. f Paufaniat, Attic. 1. i. 




i « 

^ 1 


I - 


to every apparent mark, the fame with thofc of Sir 
William Hamilton's collcdion, now in the Britifh 
mufeum, as if they came out of the fame armoury : 
the fonfier Ibund in the fields of Cannae, are (aid to 
be CARTHAGINIAN: thefe, therefore, by 
parity of reafon, may likewife be faid to be of the 

fame people. It does not appear, as far as I know, 
that the Romans wer£ ever in Ireland either as 
foldiers or merchants. The Carthaginians, or at 
leaft theGADITANI, certainly were there." 

To this accurate account of the Governor's, 
(which perfeftly agrees widi the Irifh hiftory) I 
ihall only add, that the Irifh name for a fword, is 
cliy cliabh^ cUath & clidamh ; ^\l oriental words^ 
as in Hebrew t^^ cli, Phoenicean ftljj claph, an, 
axe, nSjk clath, a fword j Coptick kekbin, an axe : 
— -from cliabh or cliav, 'is derived the French glaive, 
and the Welfb klodhw, a fword } and probably ca- 
Kburn, t;he name of the fwqrd of the Britilh king 
Arthur. The Irifli had ajfo the fcymeter or crook- 
ed fword, named airfepn j fo called from its repre- 
fenting the form of airbfe a rib : I have not yet feen 
one, but this is certainly the Thracian harpe or' 
harpen, i. e. brevis gladius in arcum curvatum. 

(Juftw tipfius) 

m t 

" 4. -• i '< 

Vol. iV. No. XHI. 1 PLATE 


FIG. I. 

1 S the bitt and headftall of a bridle^ both of brafs; 
it was found in the county of Rofcommbn, and is 
now in the College mufeum. The bitt is of extra- 
ordinary nesct, and curious workmanlhip: a cele- 
brated artift of Dublin, affured me, that it was im- 
poflible to make a better joint, at this day, than that 
of the center of the bitt. ' The curb and chains were 
of gold, but were fecreted by the peafanl; that found 
it. On the top of the headftall, an elegant pillar of 
brafs- is erefted, to which a plume of feathers was 
fattened. ' ^ .: 

Fig. 2i Ifll a brafs fpur neatly wrought j in pof- 
feflion of the Rev. Mr. Archdall. 

Fig. 3. A furprizing large fpur of iron, in the 
College mufeum. 

Fig. 4. A brafs fpur of the College mufeum, the 
fliape is Angular, and by experiment, this fpur muft 
h2Lve been worn low on^he heel, in the ilq>ing po- 
firion here reprefented, the circular part being 
chamfered off within-fide, for that purpofe. 



Tuagh Snaighte — ^ — Chip Jfxei. 


Represents- feveral- tools of brafs found in 
our bogs, called by the antient Irifli Tuagh-fnaighte, 
6t Chip Axes, from the Chaldee f^\r^ tuach id ftrike, 
whence the Arabic Tufti, an iVxe. Multitudes of 
ftiefe inftruments arc daily dug up in Ireland, In 
this plate and the next, I have given the drawings of 
every fpecies I could coUcft. Some are in the Col- 
lege mufeum, but the greateft collcaion is in the 
polTeffion of the tiev. Mr. Archdall. Sdme were 
ulfed with handles, part of the wood adhering ftill to 
the bottoms of the fockets ; and thefc had loops for 
the convenience of taking them off readily to be 
ground; Thefe are all drawn of the fize of the 

Fig. I . Has a fquare focket ; this refembles fig. 
2. taken froni' a drawing in the chief d'Ouvre d*un 
inconu ; fome peafants digging in Normandy, 
found as many of thofe in one fpot, as loaded a 
horle. Morif. Dela Roque, the Antiquary, was prc- 

1 2 fent. 


fen;, he thinks they were Roouai ; £or^ tufB be^ ia 
hi^ letter to Mr. Hearne, ** you have juftly obferved 
thefe are neither arrow heads, or Britifli axes, or the 
heads of Roman Catapuks ; they are neither Gaulijhy 
Saxon or Danijhj nor yet facrificing hatchets ; and 
you juftly conclude, that although thefe kiftruments 
were not military arms, they were carried by the 
Roman foldiers for the exprefs purpofes of afhler- 
ing and chifleling the ftones, with which they faced 
the intrenchments of their camp.'* 

Fig. 5, and 8. Are gouges or femi-circular chiffels; 
the fmall one has no loop, nor has the fmall flat 
chiflel ; thefe were for flight work, and had fuflici- 
ent holding on a wooden handle. Montfaucon^ 
properly claflbs all thefe* with implements ufeditt 
in architefture. 

With fubmiflfion to Mon. Dela Roque, Mr. Hearne 
and Dr. Plot, thefe inftruments. are not Roman i 
they are neither Gauliflx, Saxon or Daniih, noc 
Britifli or Welih ; but the manufa£bire of an anti-* 
ent people that poflTefled thefe iflands and the Con- 
tinent, long before the Romans were a nation, or 
the. Welfl) arrived in Britain. For, as the ingeni- 
ous I)>r. Haviland obferves, * the migration of the 
Gpmerites, (the anceftors of the Welih) into Europe, 
i$ not^ related, as. planting colonies, and furnifliing 
th^.with inhabitants, but as a warlike expedition, 
as an invafion and irruption. They are reprefentB4 
as conquerors, fubduing and driving the former 
inhaj)it^;s oijt, of their pofleflTion^^ or wjiere there 
was enough, incorporating with them j ai^4« 

• ^ Dfffcrt. on the pepplW of Britain. ArchacoL V, i. 

• ' ' as 


^ is always ufud with conquerors, tompelling them 
to obferve their laws and coftoms ; to learn and 
fpekk their language, and take their name. This 
feems to Mr. Havilatid, to be the cafe of feritain and 
the neighbouring continent. They were invaded 
and fubdued, and obliged to take the names of their 
conquerors, and to quit the original name of theii* 
family ; which, being by the fifence of hiftory wholly 
loft, was abforbed in the appellation of Celts, Gauls, 
Germans, &c. who having gotten poffefBon of the 
countrv, afterwards aflumed the claim t6 be the 
ahoripnes of it j whilft thefe who were really fo, 
might be induced to rcfign willingly their plreten- 
fions to it, and to change their names out of a va- 
nity, either of being thought the defcendants of the 
eldeft branch of Noah*s eldeft fon, rather than a 
younger ; or elfc from iniagining the appellation of 
a conquering, more honourable than of a vanquiflied 
hation And he further obferves, that Javan and 
his femily, c<ime into Europe ^bout four hundred 
years at feaft, before the Gomerians began their 
migration ; a period fufficient for ftocking all the 
fouthern and weftern parts of Europe with inha- 
bitants; he theft proves them to have migrated 
from Thrace and Italy to Britain, agreeable to the 
antient Irilh hiftory, explained in the Preface to this 
Work. Thefe are the people, thefe great Welfh an- 
tiquaries Lhwyd and Rowland, diTcovered by the 
names of places to have exifted in Britain before 
the Gomerites ; and thefe are the people, thruft 
by the WeMh into Mann, Ireland, and the Highlands 
rfiStotland; defttoying their records and monu- 
ments of antiquity, aud leaving them to cut each 



pthers throats, in the idle difpute of which natioii 
defcended from the other. In fliort, thefe are that 
inixture of Scythians, Phoenicians, and ^Egyptians, 
known by the Greeks by the name of Pelafgpi, who 
gave the name of Bruttan, to Britain, becaufe it 
jibounded in Lead ; and of Korn bhuabhal or Corn 
yuaval, to the promontory of Cornwall, becaufe 
formed like an ox*s horn ; who named feveral other 
pitDmontories in Ireland, lheep*s-head, wolf-head, 
mutton- ifland, cow and calf, &c. &c. . and the de« 
fcendants of thefe people are now fettled in Ireland, 
Mann or Mona, and thie north of Scotland ; fpeak^r 
ing their primitive language, and itill adhering to 
feveral oriental cuftoms, unknown to the reft of 
the weft em world - they are the ancien peuple pcr^ 
due of Monf. Baily. 

Dr, Borlafe defcribes many of thefe trafs inftru- 
meiits found in Cornwall : he rejeds the opinion of 
their being Roman chifTels for cutting ftone, and 
fidopts Thprefby's of their having been the heads of 
offenfive weapons, originally indeed of Britifli in- 
vention and fabrick, but afterwards improved and 
ufed by the provincial Romans, as well as Britons. 
I believe the Britons did not trade with thefe to 
Herculanum, or to Carthage ; at both places they ar^ 
found in great numbers. The Doftor piques him? 
iclf on his obfervation, that none of thefe inftru? 
ments had been found at Herculanum: fmce the 
Doftor publifhed his hiftory of Cornwall, they have 
been difcovered there ; Count de Caylus, faw them 
and has given drawings of them, by which we are 
convinced of their form and fize, being exafi- 
ly the fame as thofc found in thefe Iflands. 







li in- 
, be- 

. with 
en of 
^es of 

as if 
f that 
: Ro- 










ins ' 

the ' 



i t. 










Mr. Lort has given a great variety of brafs 
inftruments found in Britain, in the 5th Vol. 
of the Archaeologia, he calls them Celts ; he fays. 
Dr. Borlafe faw plainly, that, as heads of ofFenfive 
weapons, they were too aukward to have been in- 
vented and fafhioned by Romans, and too correft 
and fhapely to have been the work of Britons, be- 
fore the Julian invafion. But as they had been 
often found in Roman ftations, accompanied with 
Roman coins ; he fuppofes them to have been of 
Roman workmanfhip, after the old Britifh models. 
Dr. Borlafe and Mr. Lort, had feen brafs cafes of 
Chefe inftruments, which fitted them as exadly, as if 
they had been the molds in which the inftruments 
were caft. I cannot conceive why thefe gentlemen 
hefitate to call them molds ; as a certain proof that 
they were manufa£hired in Ireland, where the Ro- 
mans came not either as friends or foes, the molds 
are found in our bogs : they are of brafs aUb, mixed 
with a greater quantity of iron, or in fome manner, 
tempered much harder than the inftruments : half 
of a mold is reprefented in the next plate ; it \% much 
tmrnt by conftant cafting of the hot metal. 


Tuagh Snaighte^ ^Chip Axes. 


Fig. I. 2, 3, 5^ 6. 7, 8. 9, 

Represent diflPcrent forms of thefe brafe 
inflruments found in our bogs. Fig. 3^ and 9. are 
fmoothed at the fides, and formed to fit tbe hand, 
being ufed without handles ; the reft were handled 
with cleft (ticks, part of the wood remained in the 
bottom qf feveral fockets. Fig* 4. is a fhtall iecuris, 
called by the Irifh a Searr^ to cut herbs^ acorns, 
miiletoe, &c. it has a double edge very fliarp. 

Fig. 10, Is the half of a mold, ddcribed in the 
foregoilig Plate. 

Fig. II. Is a chiflel of that fpecies of black ftone, 
called by the French piere de touche, or touch 
ftone J beiiig ufed by the Goldfmiths for trying the 
colour of gold and filver. This is in the College 
mufeum, moft of the others are in pofl'effion of the 
Rev. Mr. Archdall, in whofe coUeftion is alfo, the 
Coopers adze or axe, of brafs, reprefented at the up- 
per corner of the plate \ it has been much ufed, 
but from its form I do not think it is antique. Our 
Coopers ufe the fame inftrument, in barrelling up 



















Omeis GhAomr^Implements of War. 

PLATE 3a. ^Fig. I. 

1 H E head of a javelin or dart, formed of a very 
bard black ftone^ very (kilfully wrought with a too! ; 
it is drawn of the fize of the orighial, in the College 
Mufeum, and is the largeft I Imve feen ^ fined to a 
fpear and thrown with force, this weapon muft have 
brought more certain death than a malket ball. 

Fig« 2. An arrow head of the fame, oif the fize of 
the original ; thefe are found of the fize of one third 
of this ; the peafants call them Elf arrows, and fre- 
quently fet tliN&m in filver, like this figure, and wear 
them about the neck as an amulet agaii^ being 
aithadh or elf-fliot* The fcale will (hew the fize c^ 
the reft. 

Fig. 3 and 4« Brafs fkians (fcians) knives or dag- 
gers } the handle of 3 is broken ^ 4 is caft in one 
piece, the rivets being either ornamental, or to ftop 
againfl the top of the fcabbard \ \y(0 fcin^ a knife ; 
Prov. xxiii, 2, 

Fig. 5. The brafs head of a hunting i^ar> very 
jieat, c^led in {riib bugbean fealgach. 



Fig. 69 7, 8, 9 and ip. The brazen heads oF 
Laineach-catha, or military fpears. Chaldee ^^^ lanek, 
a fpear. Another Irifli name for thefe is Roimhne ; 
thefe were thrown at the enemy, fo named from the 
'Phoenician rima, to caft, jacere, whence nD*1 rimahh, 
a lance, Greek ^v^«(f«, Arab, rumh, and Latin framea. 

Fig. II. The brafs head of a Tuagh catha, a 
general name for the war axe, from the Chaldee niD 
tuach to ftrike, whence the Greek thuein, the French 
tuer, to wound, to kill, and the Arabic tawur, a 
battle-axe or halbert ; the Irifh cath a battle, ikimiifh, 
compounded with arbhar, a hoft, forms catbarbbar^ 
commonly written catharb, as if contfaded of cath 
and treab, a tribe, bat it is undoubtedly the Syriac 
and Kioenician ttaiyrO catharba ; turiha mixtionis, 
is a bad tranflation of this word hy Botbart ; hence 
the caterva of the Romans. Perfic kaw^ warlike ; 
Khefh, war ; Arabic ketal or katal a iG^ldier ; whence 
the Irifh prefer name Cathal, by which they tranflate 
Carolus, quafi Cath-areolas, expert in war. 

The Iriih had three names fior the Tuagh catha^ 
or battle axe, whether they were different weapons, 
or feyeral names for the fame, I cannot determine. 
2(1, Tuagh deilfgiathanach, i. e. hipeimis. 2d, Tuagh 
deilbhealach, literally the axe that kills at the meeting 
of two roftds, before and behind, having two edges, 
and is probably the pic-meallach or mbealach, or 
Lochaber axe of the Erfc. The large rivets of this 
>veapon, ffiew it was mounted on a very ftrong fhaft. 
it was an excellent weapon for the defence of an 

As the Irifh cath, is derived from the Hebrew 
rnrUK agioth, bellum quod ante urbem geritur, fo is 


O F W A R. 63 

griom or criom, from the Phcemcian and Etrufcan 

ti(Z3*^n cherme, i. e. bellicofo, e lo crede un fopranome 

date dagli Etrufci a Perfeo * i hence the Iriih grim- 

earbady cumis falcatus. Grim-cliath^ hurdles ufed in 

iiegcs. Griamhuil, martial. Griamht, grit or greit, 

a champion ; whence the proper name Garat. 

^ Sronzi dc {Ircolano, vol. ii| p« 133. Goriy t. li^ p. 347. 



Purin. — Seic Seona« — Cloch Tag, 


1 T is "with great rcludance this and the following 
plates arc introduced in this work : they were rcferved 
for a complete cflay on the religion, philofophy, and 
fuperftitious ceremonies of the Hibernian Druids, for 
which the Irifh MSS in my poffeffion, afford ample 
materials ; a fubjed moil defirable to the literati of 

Purin was a fpecies of divination by fmall ftones 
or bones, in number five, fo called from the Chaldee 
•TID pur, lot, (fors) in the plural ]^li\Q purin. Eflher 
ch. ix. And they call pur to confume them ; where- 
fore they called thefe days Purim. P«r, a confrigendo, 
ex ufu Perlico, unde phors, fors & fortuna. (Plantavit.) 
This kind of divination, is known in Arabic by the 
word Makton, i. e. Ariolus, qui glareae, iUicumque 
ja&u vaticinatur. (Caflelus, p. 22 1 2.) It is now played 
as a game, by the youths of both fexes in Ireland. 
Niubur faw it pradlifed by the boys on the banks of 
the Nile, and thought it worthy of a full defcription. 
3«hU Voyages. 



It -wss named Scic Seana or Scoaay wfaea bones 
were ufed. 5^ is a bone^ a&d &aaa or feona^. di^ 
vijiationy chajrms ; he&ce feona a charm for peotec- 
tion ; feunta eiichaated ; fean'-aim, an ocder of the 
Hibernian Druids, or Diviners ; whence the Ladui 
Senones ; Chaldee 1^ fhiniu Arab, fenat, a myAery,. 
nvvacle ; Perf. fen holy. Gcarog is another IriA, 
word for Sora, and hence I believe the Calabdaa 
ZiAgari^ (i. e. Seangearog^) Gypfies, who are 
iuppofed to fpeak an Onental dialed * ; but certainly^ 
their name for a bag-pipe^ vijs. Cormali, is thelriflu 
cora mufic, and mala a bag ; the muiical bag. 

'fhe Iriih Seic Seona^ (Shec Shona) was readilf 
turned inio j^ck-ftones,. by an £nglifli ear, by whick 
name, this gwkc is now known by the Englifh im 

Cloch Tag is certainly the ftones of the Etrufcaa 
Tages ; it has another name amongft the vulgar, viz. 
gob ftones, becaufe one part of the ceremony is, to 
convey them into the gob or mouth. 

In the memoirs of the Etfufcan academy of Cortona, 
is the drawing of a pifture found in Herculanum, 
reprcfenting a marriage ; in flie front is a forccrefe 
cafting the five ftones : this writer of the memoir 
juftly thinks flie is divining : the figure exadly cor** 
refponds with the firft and principal caft of the Irifh 
purin ; all five are caft up, and die firft catch is on 
the back of the hand, the drawing is here copied ;^ 
on the back of the handftahds one, and the remaining 
four on the ground ; oppofite the forcerefs, is the 
matron, attentive to the fuccefs of the caft. 

*^ Swinbum!9 Tra?cl3)iotix Sicily. > 



Ir the royal edition of the Antichi Monumenti di 
Ercolanoj vol. ii, is the copy of another marriage, and 
by the fame hand, Alexandros Athenaios. The 
attitudes of the figures differ from the former, and 
the forcerefs is calling five fmall bones, one is on the 
back of the hand, two in the a&ion of falling, and 
two are on the ground. The author informs us, the 
Etrufcans named this kind of divination AlioiTo and 
Tallone, in Irifh Ail-afe, ilones of divination > Tallon 
or Dall-on, has the fame meaning ; fee dallbhadha iii 
the didionaries. Afej Etrufca voce, fatum, fors, 
(Gori in the Eugubine Tables,) hence our Afer- 
lagbachd, and AU-neis^ &c. &c. This had dwindled 
to a game with the Grecian women, and is defcribed 
by Julius Pollux in his Onomaftici under the name 
of Pentalitha ; but from Valerius we may learn, it 
was a fpecies of divination ; no marriage ceremony 
was performed without confulting the Druidefs, and 
her Purin, 

Aufpices folebant nuptiis interefTe. 

Juven. Sat. xi« 

The Etrufcan deities fuppofcd to prcfide over thefe 
matrimonial ceremonies^ were Pilumnus and Picum- 
nus ; the firfl is Latinifed from the Irifh phal or faly 
an omen, and muin oracle ; the fecond from pife, a 
diviner, and muin ; but, fays Gori, when Picumnus 
prefided at the marriage folemnity, he was named 
Pifo, probably it fhould have been pofa, the Irifh name 
for matrimony* The Irifh Pife, is the fame as the 
Syriac n»Dfl> the Chaldee KD**B» or KM' pifa, piifa, 
piza, i. e. fors ; Gr. **frr9% calculus, fcrupus luforius. 




Homer fays, that the princes and chiefs who demanded 
Penelope in marriage, employed thcmfclves before 
the door of the houfe, at playing wu-0%t (Od. «.) The 
antient Etrufcans always were married in the ftreets 
before the door of the houfe, which was thrown open 
at the conclufion of the ceremony. The Druids of 
Ireland employed ftones on this occafion ; but on 
more ferious bufinefs, bones were employed ; the 
divination was then called Maitheas, that is, fay the 
gloflaries, Mait-fhios, or the fcience or knowledge of 
Maith. Chaldee FID math, pytho oifium cadaverum^ 
qui nempe magiam cum illis exercet, & fiitura ex 
iis prsedicit. (Buxtorf.) 

N. B. Tages, was a proper name common to the 
antient Etrufcans, and to the Irifh ; as Tages an 
eminent Druid, father of Morna, mother to the 
famous Fin Mac Cuil or Finn Mac Cumhail. 




PLATE Xm.-^ — Fig. I. 

1 HESE golden ornaments of the Hibernian 
'Druids, are frequently found in our bogs : they rcpre- 
fent the moon at the firfl quarter, whence the name 
cead firft, rai quarter, or divifion. Re Moon. They 
were carried in the hand by the Druids in many re- 
ligious ceremonies, particularly when in proceilion 
to cut the facred mifsletoe, which was always per- 
formed on the firft quarter of the moon's age. Pliny 
fays it was on the 6th day of her age, ante omnia 
fexta luna, quas principia menfmm annorumque his 

This ornament is extremely well expreffed on a 
bas-relief, found at Autun, and was engraved by 
Auberi in his antiquities of that place. Auberi died 
after the firft book, and part of the fecond had been 
printed off; the work being then imperfcd, was fold 
for wafte paper ; there are very few copies now to 



be found of what wa& fiiiifhed. Montfaucoii had one, 
which he thoagki the only com{^e copy in the 
wovtd : he has coined the engraving of the bas-relief^ 
and thus defcribes it : 

^^ Her^ we fee two Druids ; one crowned with 
" leaves of oak, agreeable to Pliny's words^ Dniidias 
** fine ea frondc nulla facra conficere ; this is pro- 

baWy the arch Druid, hspving a fceptre in his hand; 

Near him is another Druid, not crowned, holding 

in his hand the figure" of the moon, fuch as fhe 
** makes on the 6th day of her age. I think no one 

can doubt, that thefe figures reprefent the Druids 

proceeding on that ceremony. They were great 
^^ aftronoiAers, an^ as it was efientially nec^flfary to 
*' perform it on the fixth day of the Moon'aage, an 
'^ aftronomical Druid here holds a crefcent,t0 fignify 

that th^ &IUfval is arrived. This explanation of a 

monum'^nt, ' hitherto undccyphcrcd, I expeft will 
•* meet no Von^adidion.*' 

So for fr^pi contradifting the Reverend Father 
and Antiquary, I, perfeftly ajgree v^ him, and have 
copied the figure, cartym^ the ctefcent at Fig. 2. 

The fcrupulous, awful regard, which the Druids 
paid to a few plants, as the Mifletoe, Samolus, and 
Sclago, which they accounted facred, and the extra* 
vagant opinion they had of their virtues, may be 
reckoned amoijg.the, greateft abfi^rdities of 'their 
fyfteni : yet in this they imitated the antient Perfians 
and Maflagetes,^ who thought the Mifsletoe fomqthing 
divine, as well as the Druids *. 


♦ Borlafe's Cornwall, p. 147. Hyde, p. 249, 255. 

vVoi. IV. No. Xni. K: There 


There is another kind of golden crefcent often 
found in our bogs, much refembUng the former, 
except that they have fmall buttons at the extremi- 
ties, and the blank part is radiated with a tool. I 
have feen one, that inftead of being tooled, vnt plait- 
ed like a lady's fan into nidii from the center. 

The following figure will explain the firft kind. 

One of thefe is reprefented in Moutfaucon, on the 
head of the great Sphinx of the Egyptian Pyra- 
mids; • another brokenon an Egyptian head. Vol 3. 
Plate 14; — but a perfed one may be feeii in that 
author on the buft of the Apotheofis of the emperor' 
Claudius, drawii from a Roman marble.; f the head 
is here copied at Fig. 3. 

t Vol. 9. plate 119.. 



Thefe were worn on the head behinch the terg, 
and by the Druids in their facrifices and other cere^ 
monies behind the oak-leafed crown, and f aliened 
with a ilring behind, looped to the buttoiis^ I have 
tried one of thefe oh the head of a man fix feet highy 
and it fitted well in that pofition. Xehophon^in' his' 
Cyrcpsedia fays, the Tiara was fomedmesr encom- 
pafTed with, the diadem, at leaft in ceremonies, and 
had frequently the iigufe of a half moon on it : 
others are of opinion, that the diadem was^ iii figure 
of a whol^ moon, aikl that from thence the Tiara 
wa3 called Lunetta ; Others again^ that the Tiara 
was in form of a half-moon. Pafchaliiis,. de Coronis^ 
diftinguiflies no lefs than five different kinds. The 
figure here r^refented, was probably the form of 
the Tiara, and might be defctibed by.fome as a half* 
moon, and by others as a full moon. 

On this Plate, at Fig. 4^ is the drawing of a l^esiu- 
tiful brais vafe, dug up in the barony of Inis^ 
Owen, and county of Donegal ; this and the Lu- 
netta, are of the fize of the originals* The Rev* 
Mr. Marihall^ of the pariih of Fahan, thus defcribes 
the yafe 5 " In the year 1 769, in deepening a ditch 
along th,e highway, about three hundred feet from 
the church of Fahan, I found an urn of brafs open at 
both ends, with two ears of fnakes pretty v/ell wrought, 
about two feet under the furface of the earth, and 
near it, a ftratum of human bones about eighteen 
feet long and eight inches thick, and of uncertain 
breadth^' as', ^e did not open more than five feet 
wide/' This urn is now in poffeflion of the Right 
Hon. John Beresford; the outline of it is in 
the true antique Etrufcan tafte ; the ej^tremities of 
^ • 1 K 2 the 


the haadtles are horfes heads^ extremdy well exe- 
cuted; it had three feet» formed of the beads of 
animals ; two are broken off; but has neither top or 
bottom. I conjedure it was ufcd, to coTer the 
burning incenfe on the . akar at lacriiices : it is cer« 
tainly the workmanfbip' of an expert artift* 

The urns defigned to contain human bones, were 
of gold, filver, brafs, marbie or glafs, but general* 
ly of [tottery ware : among daiefaarfaaroiiftnatips^tbc;^ 
were of rude * fafliion^ andcoarfe clay^ and. rathos 
ftaoked than burnt, fudi as je^efeBM^ in Plate VL 
PaJTQclus's was of gold,.* .Corineus's of brafs, f 
but the ftetaluycurgus,. confined the. SpurtaAurat 
to die more fober drefs of dive and noyrtlei From 
^ elegant form of our brais urn, I attribute it to 
ijie Etrufcan colony feom Cortbna, mentioned in 
the Preface. 

The handles of this Vafe, are very fimilar to tfaofe 
of the brafs Lamp dug up at Herculanum, a city diat 
ende was pofieffed by the Etnxfcans*— On voit des 
morceau^ de chainettes tenant aux ailes de deux 
Aiglet adaj)tee« par le moyen d*une piece de m^lal 
aux deux cot^s de cette lanterile ; laqiieHe a auffi 
fon anfe en forme de col & dtt t^e de CixevaL— Cette 
Ville ayant €x.€ habitue, d^ Ics fi^lcs les plus an- 
ciens, par les Ofces^ & occupee depuis par fes^ Eiruji 
ques. I 

*- U. 2.3. Tcr. 255. f ifin. a. vcr. '»ai$. 
t Rcc. Gen, Hiftorique Sp Crit. d' Herculao«, p. jSaad Hi. 


, / 

« ». 


t : I 

\ I 

' !'■ ' ' I'r.' 


- 1 






Fainidh^Draoieach*--— -— Tair-Faimh. 

Boil-Reaan, &c. 


JN O author^ unacquainted with the language of the 
£rfe and Iriih, and with the records of that amient 
people^ was better qualified to write on the tenets, 
rites and fuperitition of the Druidical religicm^ than 
the late Dr. Borlaie ; to great claflkal learnii^ and 
extenfive reading, he joined a knowledge of die 
Cornifh, Welfii and Breton dialeds, and his fituation 
was in the center of monuments of dut wonderful 
fe£k of Druids^ the wifdom of the common people, or 
veneration for the architeds that built them, have 
left undifturbed to this day. How infufficient the 
language and writings of the Welih, are to explain 
thcfe monuments, is plainly jH-oved from the Dodor's 
Hiftory of the Antiquities of Cornwall. From the 
authority of Caefar, he piques himfelf, on the inftitu- 
tion of the Druids being firji invented in Britain. 
Csfar was right ; Druidilm originated from diat 
mixed colony of Phoenicians, Pelafgians, Magogian 

Scythtaiis, Etrufcans and Thracians, we have fliewn 



in the courfe of this work, to have formed one co«- 
lony in the Britifh ifles. From them it defcended to 
the Gomerian Welih, who having conquered and 
expelled the primitive inhabitants to Scotland, Ireland 
and Man, retained but the debris of that religion, 
they fo much admired in their enemies. This will 
account for the Dodor's furprizc, that though the 
Welfh were of Celtic origin, in common with the 
Swedes, Germans, &c. &c. he was not able to find 
the lead traces of Druidifiu in any pther branches of 
the Celtic tribes. 

Thefe primitive inhabitants, who gave a name to 
Britain, from words in their own language, fignifying 
a country abounding in lead, and to Cornwall, be- 
caufe a promontory, in form of a cow's horn, were 
not afhamed, (like the Britons) to promulgate the 
tenets of a religion, they thought pure and undefiled. 
Like the antient Phoenicians, ^Egyptians and Scy- 
thians, they acknowledged one true God, Creator of 
all things, omnifcient and omniprefent ; forbidding 
the ufe of images, they worlhipped the fun and moon, 
as the good and evil fpirits, and as the Cad-maol or 
facred minifters of Acfar, the living God; and under 
them they thought there were innumerable genii, or 
aerial beings, empowered to rule and govern all 
fublunary matters. This was the religion of the 
Phoenicians*, Scythians, &c. and this was the religion 

^ We are very much inclined to think the fun and moon were 
the two great objedls of the worfhip of the Phanician^; 
they certainly once had a knowledge of the true God ; 
their idolatry and fuperftition were borrowed of the AflyrianSy 
Babylonians and Perfians ; how far they retained, or lofl, a due 
fcnfe and notion of the true God, is hard to determine ; and of 
their idols we know nothing particular. Eng. Un. Hift.v.ii, p.333. 



grew out of that mixt body, the firft inhabitants of 
the Britifh iflands, which had in fome meafure diffufed 
itfelf with its colonies into Gaul. It was not fur- 
prizing therefore, to find die Gauls in Caefar's time, 
referring to Britain in matters of a religious nature ; 
but from Britain, the appeal was made at that period^ 
to the heads of that order, the WeUh had thruft into 
Ireland and Mona, (iile of Mann.) Hence, when the 
Saxons, in their turn, had conquered the Welih, and 
driven them to Anglefea and Cornwall, where their 
Druids had re-eftablifhed academies and feminaries 
of learning, the conquerors declined feeking to them 
Ibr inftru£don, but fent their youth to the fountain 
head, to Ireland, for education. 

Dodor Borlafe, was furprifed at the great confor- 
mity in temples, priefts, worihip, do&rines and divi- 
nations, between two fuch diftant people as the Britifh 
Druids and the Periian Ma^i. *^ Whence it could 
proceed, fays he, is very difficult to fay ; there 
never appears to have been the leaft migration, any 
'^ accidental or meditated intercourfe betwixt them, 
** after the one people was fettled in Perfia, and the 
*^ other in Gaul and Britain ; and whether the Celts 
^^ (much lefs the Gauls and Britons) can ever be 
** proved to have been one and the fame people with 
** the Perfians, fince the general difperfion, (which 
is a time too early to produce fuch a minute con- 
formity) is much to be quellioned. ITiis ftri£l 
agreement betwixt the Perfians and the Wcftern 
" nations of Europe, was too obvious to cfcape the 
notice of the judicious and learned Pellouticr j 
therefore he takes it for granted that the Celts and 
" Perfians were one and the fame people : — but this 

** union 



'^^ union mud have )>eea fo early, (for we have no 
^^ tracks of it in hiftory) that it can only account for 
^' an agreement in the eflentials of religion, which 
'^ in the firit ages of the world were few, fnnple and 
*' unadorned, and fpread into dl parts, and there 
^* continued in great meafure the fame as at firft. 
^^ We had our inhabitants from Gaul, as the neareft 
^^ part of the continent to Britain, and with the in* 
^^ habitants came the Celtic language, but dac Druids 
^< had no beii^ when this ifland was peopled, their 
<< difcipline being invented afterwards^ as is plain 
^^ from the Gernnans, Danes, Swedes, and Ruffians, 
^ who were branches of die Celts, and yet have no 
^^ Druids^ ; they were a regular order of priefts, not 
^< fetched from abroad, but inftituted and £3rmed at 
^^ firft, eidier in Britain or Gaul, and peculiar to tbefr 
^ two nathns'^ an order gradually £ftftioned and 
fliaped, pardy by their own inveittion, and partly 
from the adopted precepts of fome philofoj^rs 
" they converfed wiA, incrcafing in learning and 
" authority, age after age, till by its luxury in both, 
^^ it attraAed die eyes and admiration of all the 
" curious and learned. To fix the aera of their an- 
*' tiquity, would be a vain attempt, and therefore 
«* I ihall only make diis general obfcrvation, that if 
** the Druids were really Celtic priefts, they would 
** have fpread with the feveral divifions of that 
mighty nation, and their traces would confequently 
appear equally ftrong, and lively in every country 
" where the Celts fettled, but as we have no warrant 
from hiftory to fuppofe this priefthood fettled an- 
ticndy any wherebutinGaul and Britain^ they cannot 
" befo antient as they arc fuppofed by the Germans. 




*^ TbcDiwds were probably ol^ged to Pytlu^tasfot 
the define of tranfmigration and fome other 
particulars, aad as that great {diilofopher had been 
^ a dMciple either of Zoroaftres, or fome of that 
^^ Perfian's immediate fucceflbrs, there can be no 
^^ doubt but he was leaned in all the Magian reli« 
'^ gion which Zoroaftres prefided over, regulated 
^^ and ^tabliihed in Perfia ; it was with dus Magian 
^^ religion, that our Drutds maintained fo great an 
^^ umfonmty. Now we can well imagine that fo 
^^ curious a traycHer as Pjthagoras, could foe induced 
^^ to trarerfe almoft the then known globe, in order 
^^ to converfe with Brachmaas and Druids. I would 
^^ only obferve, that what is faid here, is agreeable 
to die general diara&er of that indefatigable phi- 
losopher. He firil travelled into ^fgypt to converfe 
with their priefts ; thence into the £aft, to bear the 
^^ Brachmans,thepr]efts of India ; and it is not at all 
^^ improbable, that his iniatiable curiofity would not 
'^ let him reft till he had feen alfo the other extremity 
^* of die world, to contserfewith the Druids; gather- 
** ing every where, what he thought divine, good 
^^ and wife, and communicating the dofhrines he 
^^ treafured up, where he found the people docile 
^^ and willing to be wifer. 

" ABARIS formerly travelled from an ifland 
^' of^fitc Gaul, and moft likely Britain, into Greece, 
*' and renewed the antient league of fricndfliip with 
** the Delians. Now this prieft of Apollo is reported 
•' to have been very indmate with Pythagoras, who 
^^ made no fcruple to communicate to him freely 
^^ (what he concealed from others in fables and 




enigmas) the real fentiments of his heart, and the 
deepeft myfterics. 
** In the next place it may be obferved, that the 
** Phoenicians were very converfant with the Perfiam^ 
<^ and notfaingis more likely than that the Phoenicians, 
^^ and after them die Greeks, finding the Druids 
*^ devoted beyond all others to fuperftition, fliould 
•* make their court to that powerfnl order, by bring- 
*^ ing them continual notices of the Oriental fuper- 
^^ ftitions, in order to promote and engrofs the 
•* lucrative trade, which they carried on in Britain 
^^ for fo many ages. The fame channel which im> 
ported the Perfian, might alfo introduce fome of 
the Jewifh and Egyptian rites : the Phoenicians 
traded much with ^gypt, and had Judaea at their 
^^ own doors, and from the Phoenicians, the Druids 
^^ might learn fome few Egyptian and Jewifh rites, 
*^ and interweave them among their own ; this is 
much more probable than that the Druids fhould 
have had their whole religion from iEgypt, as fome 
think, or from the Jews, as others with as little 
** reafon contend." 

This extrad from the learned Dodor's work, 
fupports the Irifh hiftory, whilft in my humble opi- 
nion, it tends to confute his own fyftem of the origin 
of the Druidical religion. Partiality to the Comilh 
and Welfh Britons, has carried the author to fuch 
a length, as to aiTert, that the Druids were an order 
of priefts peculiar to Britain and Gaul ; at the fame 
time, and in aln^oft the fame page, when he produces 
a long firing of fuperftitious ceremonies, in order 
to fhew the very great refemblanc^ betwixt the 
Druids and the Perlian Magi^ he is obliged to borrow 






moft of his traditions from the Irifh and the Scots ; 
yet not one word of the Druids of diofe countries* 
He firft (hews yery plainly that the Gauls and 
Britons were the only Celtic branches, that had this 
order, and dien carries Pythagoras to inftrufi the 
northern Nations.-^Would not the dodrine have 
been common to them all in that cafe ? would the 
ambition of Pythagoras, have permitted him to have 
been filent of fuch a journey; AbarUy we have 
proved was an Hibernian Druid, acknowledged by 
Pythagoras himfelf, capable of inftru&ing, inftead 
of being inftru£ted. Abaris was a Philofopher of 
an order eftablifhed in Ireland, ages before Pytha* 
goras was born. Pherecydes Pythagoras prsceptor 
primus publicavit Druidarnm argumenta pro animac 
immortalitate. * Ceterum cuilibet vel modici per« 
fpicad patebit Druidas philofophatos plus mille annis 
antequam Eruditio Pythagoras innotuiflet in Italia, f 
Plus odingentis ante annis Philofophati funt quam 
Grasci elementa literarum Cadmo fuerint aiTecuti. | 
Ariftote avoit ecrit en fon Magicien (felon que 
Laert le reconte) que la Philofophie a pris fon 
origine de Semnotheis des Gaulois anciens. 5 

The learned Doftor faw thefe evidences againft 
his fyftem, and therefore candidly acknowledges, 

* Hoffman's Di£t. (in verb, page iH.) N. B. Phearcadach 
or Fearcadachy vas the name of an Irifh Druid. I do not fay he 
was the maftcr of Pythagoras, yet not impoflible. He is faid to 
have been the Author of an Uirecheacht, or Grammar. 

f Step. Forcatulusy de Gall. Imp. & Philof. page 41. 

X Jo. Picardi Celtapaed. 1. 2. page 199. 

$ Coutumes des ancicns Gaulois La Ramee par Caftlenau» 
page 52. 



Aat it is extremely probable, that there were Dnikb 
remarkable for their learning, and even antiquitf , 
before die time of Pytlragoras, who Inred 600 years 
before our Saviour ; and in another place, he iay^ 
Druid is formed of the iriih draoth or dmith, wife 
men, magi :-^^ad the Do&or been acqoaitted 
with the Irifli MSB. be would hare found many 
other fynonimous general names for this order, viK» 
Bolgith, Dadanann, Maght, &c. &c. and that the 
Drddical Oracular Stone called Logban^ which yet 
retains its name in Cornwall, and as he con£efies^ 
is not tx> be explained in that or the WdAi dialed, is 
the Irifh Logh-^nn, or fione into which the Druids 
pretended that the Logh or divine Eflence defcend«> 
cdp when they coofukcd k as an Oracle. Nor can 
I think with the Dodor, that fuch wife and [^lofe» 
phic moi as the Britifh Druids, did ever worfiup 
ftones and Rodiu, as Gods* It is true, that in oui* 
modern Irifh Lexicons we find Art a ftone ; and to 
fignify alfo God ; but Art, God, is a corruption 
of the Chaldee snnK^ Ar-aritha unum h Dei 
nominibus apud CabbaUflas notarice fignificans 
unum principium unitatis fuse ; principium iingula- 
rttatis fuse, viciiTitudo ejus unum: quo fignificant 
Deum eOe unicum, immutabilem, & fibi femper 
(imilem : hence 'ApiIJi divina potcntia (Hefych.) Many 
fuch miflakes are committed through want of know- 
ledge in the antient language of thefe iflands : for 
example, thofe Porticos of great ftones, in Ireland, 
formerly the Adytum to the Dabir-Granu or Oracle, 
now called the leaba or beds of Darby and Granny. 
'X^ dabir, adytum feu Oraculum,pars lempli verfus 
occafum in qua erat area & thuribulum. p;i Goren^ 



Aresu Some have thought, with great plaufibffity, 
diefc Dabir granu were cells, m which the Druid» 
inftruded their diicq>les. Docent Druidss molia 
Bobiliifimos gentis clam 6c dm, viceiuB aimis, lA 
fpccu, aut in abditis laltibos. The Druids teack 
the firft of Ac nobility, long and fecretly , for twenty 
years together, in caves, cells and the m^ hidden 
receffes oi woods. (Pomponius Mela.) 

Neither the Irifh or Britains, owed any of tbcfe 
fuperftitions to Ae Greeks, is plain from Stfrabo, * 
who quotes Artemkiorus, to prore that the Samo- 
thracian Orgia, were eftabliflied (in infutam propc 
Britanniam) in an ifland near Britain, eedem^ritu 
quo in Samathrace. Now Artemidorus wrote ift 
the time of Ptolemseus Lathynis, when aR the 
(earned agree, the Greeks had not navigated into 
Britain. A cargo of Egyptian and Jewtft cef eno- 
nies, would have been but an indifferent traffick for 
lead, tin and copper ; and the Greeks 1 bdieve wonM 
have eftcemed thfe a contraband trade. 

Where did the Doftor read of this commerce, 
betwixt the Greeks and the Bnttanic Ifles. Orphetw, 
or rather Onomacritus, indted, mentions Ireland; 
"but, fays the learned Bochart, he learned the name 
and fcite of it from the Hioenicians : the Greeks at 
that time had not failed into thefe parts. Nempc 
cdoftus a Phoenicibus. Graecis enim tnm tempori- 
bus haec loca erant inacceffa. Onomacritus lived 
560 years before Chrift. Polybius who lived only 
1 24 years before Chrift, acknowledes they knew no- 
thing of the northern Nations. Itaque multa po- 

* X'ib..^. BochnrtPhal. page 722. 



tuifle illis efle perfpeda de occidentalia Oceani haftt'^ 
lis quae Polybius ignoraverit ; fays Bochart, fpeak<» 
ing of the trade of the Phoenicians to thefe Iflands^ 
Caifiterides^ as I have faid before, was not a Greek 
name, the Greeks borrowed it from the Phcenidans^ 
\T\Wi gafteron, id ipfum eft quod M^rin^^r (Bux- 
torf). In Arabic Hiafdir ; and in Irifh keafda, tranf- 
lated by our modem Leziconifts, iron inftead of 

If the great affinity here produced betwixt the 
Iriih and the Phoenici^ui languages ; if the many 
authorities of the ancients here quoted to prove the 
inh^^bitants of the Brittanic ifles, could borrow no 
accompUfhments in arts and fciences of the Greeks i 
if the acknowledgments !of the beft WeUh antiqua- 
ries are not fufficient to prove that the primitive in- 
habitants of Brittain, were Iriih) if the authority of 
the Iriih hiftory, agreeing in all points with the 
writings of the Orientals, does not prove, that the 
antient Iriih, received Colonies from the Eaftera 
Nations, feated in their firft ftage of migration, in 
the Mediterranean fea ; I muft conclude with the 
old adage, ** there is no one fo blindy as be- that will 
notjee.*^ — ^Britain and Gaul, looked up to the nor- 
thern hive ; the modem Iriih hiilorians, have erro- 
neoufly followed their example* ** Cavar un chiodo 
& plantar una cavicchia ;'' it was cutting down an 
oak and fettting up a ftrawberry. Ireland knew no- 
thing of the northem nations, till over-run by the 
Danes and Norwegians. 



SOILFEAC H.— Fig^ 1. 

Is an amulet of brafs, commonly called Soilfeadi : 
this was worn on the arm : it may be feen on all 
the Etrufcan ftatues. 


The Druids ring or Ainic Druieach : they are of 
brafs and hollow : are found in our bogs of van- - 
ous diameters : the largefl I have feen, and from 
which this drawing is made ; is in the coUedion of 
Trinity College. The Irifli Druids never walked 
abroad without the ring and ftaff. . The firachmans 
of India do the fame,—- geftabant annulum & bacu* 
lum ;* — N'oublions point Ics Brachmanes, qui por- 
toint toujoura un anneau & un baton. Artemidorus 
calls them the hollow brazen rings of* Samothrace, 
for divination : In his Oncirocritica, he fays j it is 
unlucky to dream of them. Annuli vacui enim 
cavique & qui divinum ac facrum quippiapi intra fe 
habent, dolas & infidias fignificat, ob id^ quod in 
fc continent occult at um*. Montfaucon fully dc- 
fcribcs them, as a rings ufedin divination VT)ut he 

♦ Philoftrattls ' in vita Apollon. Tyan.' L 3. PliotiiM, ^ 

p. 1006. • ' •' ' •'•.-* *' * ' ■ 

f OnelTOcritica, 1. 2. c. j.^—Danet's Greek and Roman 

Aniq. * 

^ ' had 


had not feen them ; erant etiam annuli incantati, 
tefte CIcmentc Alexandrine, (Strom, i. page 399.) 
quibus futura proifMcieahantur : tales erant duo an- 
nuli Excefti Phociorum Tyrranni, quibus utebatur 
alium contra alium impingendo, ut ex feno quid 
fibi agendum^ & quid fibi- obventurum effc e^fcerct. 
nie tamen infidiis opprefTus occifufque fuit : annuli 
namque illi incantati, qui ipfi mortis tempus indica- 
veranty ejus vit?!ndan moAum non.docuerunt. * 


> • * • « 


• • • • 


Thefe Chain-rings of the Druids, chains of know- 
ledge,, or chains of divination, as the woirds e:q)refs ; 
are of brafs, hollow, and united by a flender plate 
of brafs. ,They are found in our bogs in great 
plenty '^ (owe are in the College coUedion, Ibme in 
roy poffeffiori, and many in the colIe£lion of the 
Rev. Mr. Archdall. They confift in general, of one 
large arid two fmalL' rings : fig. 4. reprefents one 
that piXibably had four finall rings annexed to it. 
Some Imagine thefe reprqfented the fun, moon and 
earth, and that the large ring in the center was the 
earth: Others that they reprcfent the Sun, 
Venus, and Mercury ; but all agree, that iow/^ 

* Montfaucon^ Vol. VI. page 2a6. . - 



T E R A P H 1 M. 85 

of the planets were intended to be thus repre- 

The Jews had fome Talifmen of this kind, aa 
we learn from Rabbi J. Karo>— figurae folis & lunae 
& fiderum tarn planae quam prominentes interdidse 
funt. At vcro, fi fiant difcendi, doccndi, refque 
dubias decemendi gratia^ licitse funt omnes, idque 
etiam prominentes. * The Thracians and lUyrians 
had the fame mathematico fa£lum. Kimchi, Selden 
and St. Auguftine, think the Teraphim which 
Rachael ftole from Laban were of this kind. 

The Teraphim of the Bible, which we tranflate 
Godsy all the Jewiih Rabbies own to be a word 
of no Hebrew Etymology. The 70 tranflate it fome- 
times an Oracle ^ and fometimes vain idols. Some 
think it to be an Egyptian word and the fame with 
Seraphis: but it is moft probably of Chaldee 
origin. The name certainly pafled to images of the 
human form : fuch was the Teraphim, Michal put 
into David's bed, to reprefent him there, — that 
which Rachel ftole from her father Laban, was 
fomething fo fmall as to be concealed under her as 
(he fat in the tent. Laban was a true believer ; 
we can fcarce think he had images of the human 
form. Oenef. xxxi. ver. 37. they are called the 
injirumenfs of his temple, ver. 30. his Gods- — 
Judg. xviii. ver. 5. they are confulted by the 
Danites,'iand a true anfwer returned from G(?rf, which 
induced them to take them away, and fet them up 
for public ufe, which they continued pofleiTed of, 
even under Samuel and David : furely thefe were 

* In Shulcan Aruch. lib. Jorc Dca. c. 141. 

Vol. IV. No. XIII. L not 


not images. Hofea iii. vcr. 4. The children of Ifracl 
fhail abide many days without a king, and without 
, a prince, and without a facrifice, and without an 
image and without an Ephod and Teraphim. 

The Teraphims were afterwards univerfally known 
by the name of Talifmen, as they are to this day 
all over India. The Perfians call them Telephim, 
a name not unlike Teraphim. They were made of 
different metals and fizes, caft under certain con- 
Jiellatiom^ with figures of fome planets^ and magic 
charafters engraven upon them. Such is that at 
figures 9. and i o. They were to be confulted and 
prayed to at certain times, under particular afpedis 
of the planets, from which the Jews aver, they partly 
received that power ^ and partly from the characters 
engraven on them. ♦ One Rabbi goes further, and 
pretends that they gave anfwers viva voce^f and 
attempts to prove it from the words of Zechar. 
*' the Teraphims have fpoken vain things." chap. x. 
ver. 2. 

Sanchoniatho, fays, that the firft idol made to be 
worihipped and the firft moveable Temple in Phoenicia, 
were made in the ninth generation: thefe, Philo tranf- 
lates ^s-^p iipo^^f. Now let us confider the words of Amos, 
chap. V. ver. 26. But ye have borne th© tabernacle 
of your Moloch and Chiun, your images, thenar 

of your God, which ye made to yourfelves ; 

this is again recorded in the Afts of the Apoftles, 
chap. 7. ver. 43. Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of 
Moloch, and thenar of your God Remphan, figures 
which ye made, to worfhip them : — ^from hence I 

* Kimchi. f R. Eleaz. c. 36. 


T E R A P H I M. 87 

conjefture the firft Teraphim was no more than 
fome fuch thing as our Druids chain or Tair-phiam, 
introduced by the Phoenicians, and reprefenting cer- 
tain planets ; Jacob probably forefaw, that thefe 
would one day become fuperftitious inftruments of 
idolatry, and therefore, Ivhen he made a reformation 
in his family, he buried them and all their ear- 
rings under an oak, which was by Shechim. Genef. 
XXXV. vcr. 4. 

Berterus is of opinion the Serapis, and Talifmin^ 
were of the fame kind ; inde Teraphim, & Arabum 
Talifmae & -Sgyptiorum Serapidcs, & AppoUonii 
Thyanaei, Annuli quibus fpirit^us familiaris inclufus 
fuerit-* Hottinger proves that the Syrians and 


* Page 19^. M. GebcHn, thinks the Greek Telefma is de- 
rived from qSV Tfeleniy a refemblance, a portrait ; images 6ti 
DieiiSL ; that may be, for the Phcenicians and our Druids, £•>> 
gured the Deity by a circle, the ^Egyptians by a ferpent curled 
10 a round ; the words of Sanchoniatho in the Phcenician Ian* 
guage coined by Hutchinfon or fome other, are, 

Ztts hu afphira acranitha meni arits chuia ; 

Tranflated by Hutchinfon. 
Jupiter is a feigned Sphere, from it is produced a ferpent* 

The correfponding Irifti, is, 
Sos 'ha afpeir acreannaith miana airfad chua, i. e. The Om« 
nifcient of the w^ll formed firmament, is ezprefied by a circle* 

Afphira hu chia} d'Alha dilh la ilrura ula (hulma ; 

Mr. Hutchinfon. 

The Sphere fhews the divine nature to be without beginning 

Vr end. 

L 2 Irifli 

88 10 GH DRAOACH. 

Chaldaeans had thefe Teraphim before the time of 
Abraham, and that they were of Chaldec origin ; 
Et fane Ifraelitas non ab -^gyptiis ut vitulum au- 
reum, fed a Cananeis & Amorrhaeis accepiffe, et in 
^gypto iiituliffe/' What feems to confirm Berterus's 
opinion, is that paffage in xx, Exod. ver. 23. " Ye 
fhall not make with me Gods of filver, neither fhall 
ye make unto you Gods of gold.** here the Chaldee 
Bible has tD^fl^jj;^ D*3D1K ^tophenim ou Seraphim , 
i. e. wheels, circles, rings, or fcraphim. Munfter 
tranflates aophanim angels; but m^ is a wheels 
circle or ring, and is always ufed in Chaldee to cx- 
prefs the celeilial circles, as the zodiac, xquator, &c« 
in the fame language 'y^ Tair fignifies divination, 
fors; whence the Irifh Tair. — t£)j{n»o Tairaphin 
might have been the original word, formed by the 
Hebrews, in to Tpraphim. j^-^j^ tara, in Chaldee is 
vinculum, catena^ a chain. 

But what, in my humble opinion, fets this in a 
clearer light, and proves that the BtfutpCtt were a kind 
of chain, compofed of hollow brafs rings, is a paffage 
quoted by the learned Sclden ; in his difcourfe de 
Teraphim, he quot6« the Chaldee Paraphrafts in 
thefe words, " de iis autem oracula Chaldaica ita 
praecipiunt inpyu wtftl-batlifU c^i^«xey here he would 
change ekatinon to ^u^lixif and thus tranilate it, 

. . , .. operate 

Afpeir 'ha ciul d'Alla^ duile la ftara uile ifhuilmor. 

The firmament is the circle of God, the elements vc thereia 
fufpended in all fplendor. 

N. B. "TBiy, round, is the only word in Irjfti for the fir- 

T E R A P H I M- 89 

operare circa Hecaticam fphccrulam. Hecate was cer- 
tainly a Chaldean Deity, under the name of ^'^^ 
Achad, by which they lignified the Moon^ as Millius 
has well explained j* but if the word is to be chang- 
ed, I beg leave to read it K^liut*^ that is a chain, f 
a word formed evidently from the Chaldee ^yy 
ghadan. Catena pretiofa, unde Hifpan. Cadena. \ 
And rfi^mXif is the fame as ^p^^^'xiyj, gyrus, a circle 
or ring, and this might have been written in Chal- 
dee Sy^ niOC^ l*lVn» ^* ^' Catena circuHs inflatis ad 
circumferentias : the exaft defcription of our chain 
made of hollow rings : Again, the Paraphrafts ex- 
plained this by irrrAX an Egyptian word, corref- 
ponding with the Irifli jogh, ince, jonga, a chain. 

Bifhop Cumberland, in his remarks on Sancho- 
niatho, page 270, explains a paffage much to our 
purpofe, " To prevent miftakcs, fays he, it muft be 
noted, that Inachus here mentioned as the fame with 
PofidoTij and father of Mgialetis^ is about 250 years 
before that Inachus who was founder of the king- 
dom of Argos. And to mc it is no wonder that 
this name, or rather title, (hould be given to feveral 
men, becaufe I believe it is derived from the eaftern 
p5j; anak, and fignifies Torquatus, a man that wore 
a chain as a ba^ge of honour. The Anakims in 
Phoenicia long after, were called fo on the fame ac- 

Anak is the root of the Irilh ince, a chain : 
whence muince, a chain or collar, worn about the 

♦ Differtatio vi. dc Idolo *fnit> 

f Meurfii GloiT. Graecum. Theodorat. Hlft. Ecclcf. I. 2. 
chap. 8. 
X Plantavlt. Lex. Synon. Chald. Hebr. 



(muin) neck : Ince feems to be the root of many 
things wrought in metal as ionga, a nail ; ionang an 
anvil ; ingir an anchor ; ingleid a hook ; ionga 
an ingot ; and henger in old Perfic. is a fmith ; — 
whether iEgialeus, was fo called as the fabricator or 
wearer of our jog-eolas or chain of knowledge, and 
Pofidon, from our Pifa-iodan or Urim and Thum- 
mim, I {hall not pretend to determine. 

In tlie preface to this number, I have faid, that 
the work of Sanchoniatho, muft appear a forgery to 
a perfon fldlled in the Bearla-pheni dialed of the Irifti 
language : indeed, it rather appears to be the work 
of an Irifhman, ill explained by a Greek. Mont- 
faucon has given his opinion of it in the following 
words, " Fabulam putant eruditiores effe, quidquid 
Eufebius poft Philonem Bybl : refert, & Sanchonia- 
thonem nunquam extitifle. Nee defunt qui fufpi- 
centur ipfum Eufebium & Sanchoniathonem & inter- 
prctem ejus confinxifle. Non puto autem banc frau- 
dem poffe in Eufebium conferri, quandoquidem 
Porphyrins ab Eufebio allatus, p. 485, de Sanchoni- 
athone loquitur ejufque aetatem adfcribit. Expeftat 
fortaffe leftor, dum quid de Sanchoniathone ejufque 
interprete fentiam, expromam: meam fententiam 
paucis aperio : Sanchoniathonem puto nunquam ex- 
titiffej fed decernere non aufim utrdm Philo Byblius 
fefe Sanchoniathonis interpretem confinxerit, ut 
fabulas proferret fuas : an vero quifpiam alius falla- 
cise auftor. Philonem Byblium ementitus fit, qucm 
quam quidam, ut diximus, nunquam extitiffc ut ncc 
Sanchoniathonem putant.*' Vol. iv. page 385. In 
fine, Aftor-ith, Derc-ith, Eag-ala-bal, & Gealach-bal, 
are Irifli names for the moon ; Uile-gabal, & Mea- 


T E R A P H I M. 91 

lach-bal or Moloc, are Irifh names for the Sun, 
words which could have been introduced by that 
nation only, that worihipped the moon under the 
names of Eafc, (i. e. Ifis) Aftorith, Aflarte, Derccto 
& R^ ; and the Sun under thofe of Elagabalus, Ag- 
libolus & Malachbelus. The vulgar Irifli at this 
day, retain an adoration to the New Moon, croifing 
themfelyes, faying, ** may thou leave us fafe as tbou 
bq/i found us^** — ^imo ipfi Lunam ut deam adora- 
bant : hi Lunam adorabant ut deam, alii Lunam 
ut deum*. 

As a proof that our Irifh Druids did not borrow 
the terms of their religion from the Celts, but ^om 
the Egyptians, Syrians or Phoenicians, take the fol- 
lowing examples. The great fpirit (God) is ex- 
prefied by the word Ti, as Ti-mor ; or Fo-Ti ; i. e. 
the great fpirit ; the prince of Spirits : it is the fame 
as the Chinefe Ti ; the Phoenician ^r\Q phta ; 
the -^Egyptian <pim, phta. The wicked or evil fpirit 
is named CISEAL ; it is the Phoenician ^{j^pj, He- 
brew S'OVy chifel, i. e* blafphemavit.f So likewife 
the Iriih Magb and Maghan, an epithet of God, is 
the Hebrew ijq magon, nomen Dei, i. e. the fhield 
or buckler. Eilegabal in Irilh, expreffes the reli- 
gion or fedk of fire worfliippers. J ^^Jl nSs cla- 

* Montfaucon, ver. 4. page 391. 

f Do lodar uile re Cifeal, they were all led by Satan. See 
the Didion. of O'B. and Shawe ; hence Chadl is the name of 
the Locufl in the Bible : faAum ell a verbo SOfl cl^afal> quod 
confumere fignificat. (Jonath.) confument te uc ChefiK Na- 
hum, ch. 3. vcr. 16. 

X Eilc, in Irifli and Arabic, cxprefTcs not only a people, but 
their Religion. 



gabaU Sacerdos Solis inter Phoenices. (Bochart). 
Algabil, unum effc e Dei epithetis inter Arabes, 
(idem). Re the moon in Irilh, is the -Egyptian 
p„ the Sun. There are very many words to be 
found even in our common diftionaries, exprcffing 
Divination, that cannot be explained in the Celtic 
language, yet are all found in the Oriental tongues. 
Such are Adhab, y^ — Seona-faobhtha, Afar- 
lachad, Garl-lachad,— Thefe three are evidently 
Hebrew words j i Kings chap, i o* ^^Xff ^3^*1 
VD^iS ou ilacad fliebet Benjamin, & cccidit fors 
tribus Benjamin, the 70. Sortitum eft rxS^fpf Ben- 
jamin ; or, capta efl; Virga Benjamin, according to 
Schacchus, who obferves, that wherever the Vulgate 
has fortior, fortiris, the Hebrew is always expreffcd 
by ^3^ lacad, a word that imports to take in the 
hand ; to lay hold of.* ^s in JoC chap. vii. i Kings, 
chap. X. and xiv. 

Rings and fuch trinkets ufed in Divination, might 
have been imported from the Eait, and with them their 
oriental names ; but when I can prod^oe upwards 
of three fcore other words on the fame fubjeft, that 
cannot be explained in any of the Celtic diale&s, 
can there be a doubt of a communication, in former 
days, between this Illand and the £aft. In the a- 
bove examples, you have Goral, this is not Celtic, 
but it is Chaldee ^nij gural, fors; -This again is 
compounded with/eany a charm, in the Irifh and the 
Perfic languages j and in the Irifh forms fean-garal, 

* Arcanorum Sacr. Script. Myrothccium, chap. 13. Inagu- 
rationis Oraculai qua forma ab Ifraelitis fortibus qaaererentur, 


T E R A P H I M. 93 

contrafted to fean-gearrog, fean-gaire, bona for- 
tuna, bonum omen : hence I fuppofe, the Zingari 
or Gypfies of Calabria. So Coic an omen, a mi£- 
tcry ; bau the palm of the hand ; Coiche-baisj Le- 
gerdemain ; Pcrlice choko-baz, whence the vulgar 
£ngliih Hocus Focus ; — the laft is Celtic, and it is 
Perfic, the former are not. The Phoenican words 
Adonai and Adonathadh, iignifying fovereign, and 
fovereignty, were never admitted into the Celtic 
diale&s, or we fhould meet with them in antient 
Authors, as we do Ric^and Bren, &c. &c. but the 
former words occur frequently in the Brehon laws 
of die antient Iriih and in the common Didiona* 


nes. ' 

That great luminary of learning, Monf. Gebelin, 
has given the original Celtic, fo great a fcope, that ac- 
cording to him, we might fay, every word is Celtic 
and Hebrew : however, when he comes to detail 
the remains of the Celti, he omits (very properly) to 
mention Ireland, as if he was fenfible, he could not 
rank the language of this country with thofe of 
Wales, Bas-Breton, or Cornwall. ^ The Celtic,*' 
fays he, ** was the fame in its origin as the Eaftem 
** tongues : it was the firft language fpoken in 
Europe, where it foon fplit into various dialefts, 
in proportion as Europe was peopled, and as thefe 
became a roving or fettled people, or had more 
" or lefs communication with each other.** From 
hence, it mufl be concluded, that as Ireland was at 
the extemity of Europe, it was laft fettled, and confe- 
quently the language of the people moft corrupted, 

* See BrehoR's Laws, vol. J. and Shawe^s Irlfh Di&ionary. 





mod different from the Eaftern original : but that 
is not the cafe ; it is the moll pure, moft like the 
original, and confequently, there muft have been 
fome communication with the mother tongue, to 
have reftored it to its primitive roots. Again, our 
learned Author fays, ^' from the Celtic fprung the 
antient Greek or Pelafgian, before the days of 
Homer and Hefiod — ^from the fame fprung the 
Latin ; the Etrufcan ; Thracian, Phrygian, or 
•* Trojan ; the Teutonic ; the Gaulifli, which in- 
** eluded the Alps, France, Paybas, Switzerland ; — 
the language of the two Britains (I fuppofe he 
means Ireland and Britain) the Cantabrian or 
Old Spanifh ; and the Runic. It is true, that 
*' France was at one time over-run by a Scythian 
people named Alani or Teifaliani, headed by 
their king Goar ; thefe almoft fwallowed up the 
name of Gauls and their language ; the remains of 
thefe Scythians adually exifted in the 1 1 th cen- 
tury, on the borders of Poitu and TAulnis : 
** Moft of the Gauls mixt with thefe conquerors, 
*' and formed one people, infenfibly lofing all traces 
** of their origin ; fome few retained their liberty 
and language : ift, Thofe that fled to the extremi- 
ty of the great Peninfula called Brctagne : ad, 
ITiofe who dwelt in Britain, the country after- 
** wards poffcffed by the Englifh, who forced the 
Gaulifh Britains to the mountains of Wales, and 
to the rocks of Cornwall, oppofite to Bretagne in 
*' France: thefe again reunited with the Bas-Bretons. 
Thus difperfed in inacceflible mountains, and 
amongft barren rocks, their conquerors did not 
^^ think worth iharing with them, this ihadow of 

" the 



T E R A P H I M. 95 

** the great Celtic nation, retained their antient 
cuftoms and fpeak a dialed: foreign to that of their 
conquerors ; but this is again fplit into three 
^^ other diale&s, the Welih, Corniih, and Bas- 
" Breton/' ♦ 

I believe Monf. Gebelin, will find many learned 
authors, to oppofe his fyflem of the Pelafgian and 
Etrufcan languages being of Celtic origin : and as 
to the Irilh, I muft here obfervc, that fo far from 
the antient Iriih allowing themfelves to be of Gauliih 
origin, they have uniformly ufed the words gall, 
i. c« ghoi-eile, gallna, & gallda, to expreis a fo- 
reigner, or one fpeaking a different language, al- 
ways diftinguifhing the Erie and Irifli by Gaodhlag. 
Heb. r|3 ghoi, a foreigner. Chaldee ^yf}f\^ Chiluni, 
foreigner, jj^j gala migrare. 

The ingenious Mr. Cleland, faw clearly that tho 
antient Druids of thefe iflands, had a correipondence 
with the Eaft : it was fuddenly cut off, fays he, by 
the intervention of fome powerful nations,butatwhat 
period is uncertain : it might have been hiftorically 
or figuratively exprcffcd in the Egyptian annals, by 
ATLANTIS, an ifland of immenfe extent, be- 
ing fwallowed up by an earthquake, with all its in- 
habitants, which probably means no more than a 
natural or moral feparation of Britain, perhaps both, 
from the continent, f The following affertion of 
this author, requires to be authenticated, — it feems 
to open a new light to northern hiftory, if a fad. — 
** Not more than twenty years before Julius Caefar 

* Gcbelin. Prelim. Difc. to his Etymological Didionary. 
f Way to words by things, and to things by words, p. i f . 

^* invaded 

96 A I S I N. 

^* invaded Britain", one ODIN or Woden, had 
** raifed a party in Britain, to fliake off the yoke 
*^^ of Druidifm, and to put the civil power into the 
hands of the laity. But he was fuccefsfuUy re- 
iifted by the majority, whofe attachment to their 
•' old laws, engaged them to rejcd the innovation, 
** WODEN and his partifans, being over-power- 
** ed, retired out of the land, and made their efcape 
to Germany, where they obtained a fettlemcnt, 
and preferved the Britifh manners and language, 
among the lefs cultivated nations, which furround- 
*^ ed them. Woden did more ; he propagated his 
** new ideas of government, and drew the whole 
** north to his party ; and I have fome reafon to 
** think that the E D D A or Icelandic records, con- 
*' tain Woden's fyftem of innovation." 


FIG. 6.— Is of Brafs. 

I take it be a triangular Talifman ; one of the 

ftar-like ornaments is loft, i t r r a z, un ^m^^m^ 

•f # 



Thin plates of gold joined together by a fcmi- 
circular piece : thefe were fufpended by a ftring 

* Obfopoeuf^ de Oraculis Chaldaicis. 


A I S I N. 97 

round the neck, and hung at the breafl : they may 
be feen on the Etrufcan Tages^ and many ftatues of 
their Augurs, which Gori and Dempfter have very 
good naturedly turned into Gods and Goddefles. 
On the external plate is a finall loop, into which 
was fixed a flender golden wire, on which perched 
the Augur's favourite bird : The Hibernian Druids 
fixed on the Wren^ an Engliih word derived fi-om 
drean, i. e. Draoi-en, the Druids bird ; it was alfo 
named Draolen, i. e. Draoi-ol-^n, the fpeaking 
bird of the Druid. Toithen is another name, fig- 
nifying the bird of Toth or Thoth. The Druids re- 
prefented this as the king of all birds, hence he was 
called by the vulgar Breas-en, king bird ; Righ- 
beag, little king ; Ri-eitile, flying king ; and laftly, 
Briocht-^n, the bird of witchcraft. The fuperftiti- 
ous refpeft fhewn to this little bird, gave offence to 
our firft cfariflian mifSonaries, and by their com- 
mands, he is ftjll hunted and killed by the peafants 
on Qiriftmas day, and on the following (St. Ste- 
phen's day) he is carried about, hung by the leg, 
in the center of two hoops, croffing each other at 
right angles, and a proceffion made in every village, 
of men, women and children, finging an Irifh 
catch, importing him to be the king of all birds ; — 
hence the name of this bird in all the European 
languages, Greek Tp«;t:»A®-, icmXiif- Trochilus, Bafi- 
leus ; Rex avium. Senator ; Latin, Regulus ; 
French, Roytelet, Berichot ; but why this nation 
call him boeuf de Dieu, I cannot conjedure. — 
Welfh, Bren, king; Teutc.;ic, Koning vogel, king 
bird ; Dutch, Konije, little king. 

FIG- 8. 



Solid rings of brafs : they arc found fingle and 
double : they paffed as money in the Brittannic 
Illands. Caefar makes mention of iron rings and 
pieces of brafs, ufed by the Britons as money. In 
Irifli, they are called Boillreann^ to diftinguifh them 
from other rings. Boill^ roimd, circular, a ring ; and 
reann^ bargain, fale, covenant : from boill, probably 
the Latin obolus ; which Plutarch, from affinity to a 
Greek word, thinks to have fignified rods^ and that 
the firft money was in that (hape. Some of thefe 
may poflibly have had the value engraved on them, 
^3^i^2 biliona Chaldee, Hgura vel fculptura annuli. 
The Greeks had alfo ring-money. Annuli iis pe- 
cuniae facculi & cibi obfignati. * 

There is a paffage in Ruth, chap. iv. ver. 7. gives 
room to think the ring was ufed by the Jews as a 
covenant : the words in the Englifli arc, ** Now 
this was the manner in former times in Urael con- 
cerning redeeming, and concerning changing, for 
to confirm all things : a man plucked off his ptn*li 
narthik, and gave it to his neighbour, and this was 
a teftimony in ffrael: and therefore the kinfman 
faid unto Boaz, buy it for thee, fo he drew off his 
narthik •/' the vuigate have tranflated it Shoe ; 
Drufius Ihews the word is Chaldee, not Hebrew^ 
and implies a cafe j fo he tranflates it a Giove^ and 
Arias leaves you in doubt what he means by vagina. 

• GronoYius Tkcf. Grxc, Antiq. Vol. 6. page 169. 


R I N G . M O N E Y. 99 

In Iriih, Nuirt is an amulet worn on the finger or 
arm, a ring, Ollamh-nuirt, an amulet, or bracelet 
given by the Ollamh, to be worn as a charm. Sphaera 
folis eft Narthik, fays Buxtorf, in his Chaldee Lexi- 
con. Quando egreditur fol e ptfi'lj Narthik fua.f 
it there fignifics the horizon. That the Jews ufed 
rings and amulets for this purpofe is plain from 
Hettinger. Sunt nempe Amuleta, Talifmae & alia 
id genus, quibus Oriens ita fcatet,— plerique cnim 
tales nummi in fcriphone habent. Nummus facer 
eft & Ecclefiafticus, vel politicus & civilis, vcl kab- 
baliflicus, vel denique magicus & fup€r/iitiofus.''''^X}x 
ferrum adhibebant, ftannum, orichalcum, conchylia, 
lapides, ofia demortuorum. In like manner, rings, 
amulets, bracelets, and even houfehold fluff, was 
ordained to pafs for money in fmall occurrences, by 
the Brchon -laws of the antient Irilh. \ 

FIG. 9. 10. 

Arc drawings of a medal of brafs lately found 
in a bog at Allenftown in the county of Meath : the 
drawings are the fize of the original : there is a fquare 
hole pierced through in the middle, feemingly to fit 
it on fome other apparatus. On the fac« Fig. 
I o, is an infcription in old Syriac characters ; the 
bottom line feems to be compofed of Olaph (capital) 
k Oiaph (med.) Cquoph, Lomad, Tau. On the 
reverfe fig. 9. appear to be Aftronomical charafters. 
I take it to be a Talifman, and can give no further 

t Joma, fol. 54. X Colleftanca, Vol. i 


loo R I N G - M O N E Y. 

Plate X.IV. was engraved and worked off, when 
another fuedal or talifiuen, was put into my hands by 
the Rev. Mr. Archdall. It is of brais, and in fize, 
exa£Uy the fame as that reprefented at fig. 9. and i o. 
in the 14th Plate. This was alfo found in our bogs- 
The infcription on one ftde, is the fame as that at 
fig. 9, which I believe to be agronomical chara£ters. 
The infcription on the other fiicj, is in two lines 
as ia fig 10, aud that over the fquare hole is the 
feme, which I read P U R, i. c. Sors : but the in- 
&ription under the fquare hole, is totally different, 
from that under the fquare hole of fig. 10. The 
letters may be found in the various Syriac alphabets 
of Claude Duret, and Dr. Bamards tables, but they 
do not all cxiit in any one alphabet. The infcrip- 
tion on this hcs is exadly delineated in the follow- 
ing figure ; an explanation is eameltly entreated 
from the learned. 


A. fmgle medal with an oriental infcription, be< 
ing found in any part of Ireland, would not have 
eftablilhed its currency : one piece of that kind 
might have been dropped from the pocket of a cu- 
rious perfon j but, when a fecond is produced, fimi- 


1^.3. fij.4- 

^S7' ^s- 

R I N G - M O N E Y. loi 

lar to the firil in metal and figure, and a third is 
found in Dublin, of copper, with the fame infcription 
as at fig. XL on one face, written apparently in the 
Mendean or Tartar charaders (which feem to have 
been formed from the old Syriac) ; and all have the 
Hke charaders on the reverfe, which feem to be 
Chinefe ; there is great probability, that thefe are 
Chinefe medals imported to this country, by our 
£aft-India fhips. 

It is not furprizing, to find a Chinefe medal with 
a Syriac infcription on it. The learned Kircher 
has fhewn, that infcriptions on flone, in Syriac 
Eftrangelon characters, interlined with Chinefe, are 
to be met with in China ; and he has explained a 

remarkable one of this kind, in his Vrodromm Cop^ 
tus : from whence he thus argues, '^ An illud for- 
^^ (itan quod e Syria in ^gyptum & iEthix^am 
** utpotc confines regiones tradudlae Colonise & 
** Linguae Syrae & charaderum fiierunt traditrices? 
** certe argumenta quamplurima conjefl:urac faftae 
**^ vcritatem coraprobare vid^ntur.— -Verutn opersc 
precium faciam, fi hoo, loco ^yriacam infcrip* 
tionem iifdem charaderibus Strangelicis, quibus 
** in China exprcffa fuit, una cum interpretationc 
5* ejus exhibeam.'* 

Haec tibiGogque,Magogqueialiifque exordine.cdndUs* 
Marfon ajtque Aggon tibi quot .mala fata propinquant. 

Sibylla. L carm^t 

(See his chapter De expeditione ^gyptiorum Yeu 

Coptitarum in India, China & reliquas Afiae regiones 



» * 

* LcsChmoisa'ont qu\ine feule monnoic de mauvais cuirre, 
qu'on appcUe cache \ elle offre un trou quarrd dans le milieu, qai 
fcrt a Tcnfilcr. Sonarat Voy. i La Gfctnc. f. %6.- *• 

Vol. IV; No. XIII. M I muft 


I mnft take diis opportunity of begging Father 
Keating's pardon^ for &yiaiig at page t. tiiat 
O^Flaherty had not mentioned Moran: hi the 
Ogygia page 300^ at A. D^ 90^ (inftead of A* D. 4^ 
as Keating has it). I find Moraa named, and the 
lODHAN MORAIN ot Breaitplate of 
Judgment, there transformed into a Ring : a ireih 
iftftance of the miftakes of our Iri& antiquaries. 

I now fubmit this inveftigation of the antiquities 
of Ireiaiftd to the judgment of the impartial public. 
Senfible as I am withal, that the natuie of the fob- 
jed is rather curious, than entertaining ; the little 
reafon I hare to anticipate any thing better than a 
cool reception, or, total dafregard of the many, can 
be but a recommendation the more to ^ few, in 
whom a b^re of literature is not the lefs, f6r the ge- 
neral negled and ilate of languor, in which they fee 
it in this kingdom. 

If in the courfe of my refearches, I hare failed in 
etymology, I have done no worfe than Pbto-, Cicero, 
Voffius, libdore. Perron and Bullet, have done be- 
fore mer The antient hiitory of Ireland, had been 
mifreprefentcd ; its monuments of antiquhy unex- 
plored ; i^ my readers think, I have mifempleyed 
my time and trouble ; I cm only fay, that? I am 
forry I have not been able to offer more than a rufli 
light, inftead dF the torch I propofcd to carry for 
them, into the dark depths of the Mffiory of a remofti 
and antient people ; and I am unhappy in that I can 
only (hew what I have been aiming at, and not what 
I have hit. 

. P O ST^ 


The reader nmlljind a further Wujlrationrfthe hollow 
brafi Ring, fig. 2, 3, 4. and of the hollow Ring- 
Chain fig. 5, Plate XIV. In the following Authors^ 

1 N Sonnerat^s voyage to the £afl-Indies and to 
China, Vol. I. Plate 73, • is the figure of a Tadin^ 
a religious mendicant of the k& of Vichnou i he 
is dancing and finging in honour of his Deity ; with 
one hand he beats time on a fmall tambourin, and 
with the other on a brafs Crotal^ (before defcribed)* 
On the ankle of each leg, is fixed a hollow brafs ring^ 
in which fome round pebbles have been introduced 
to add to the mufick. The Indian name of thefe 
Rings is Chelimbou. " Le Tadin va mendier de 
^^ porte en porte en danfant & chantant les louanges 
** & les metamorphofes de Vichenou : pour s'ac- 
** compagner, il bat d'une main fut une efp^ce de 
^^ tambour, & quand il a fini chaque verfet il bat fur 

* Voyage aux lodes Orientales & a la Chine, fait par ordre 
du R019 depuis 1774 jufq'en 1781% Par M. Sonnerat. a Pari8» 
X7S29 3 Tom. 4to. 

Ma ** un 


^* im fUoeau de cmvre vrtc line baguette qu'il dent 
'^ dans ies deux premiers doigts dc I'autre main: 
^ ce plateau lui pend au deflbus du poignet, & 
** rend un fon trcs-fort & trcs-aigu. Sur le chc- 
^* yUtt dt§ pleds, il pblte des arineaax de cuirre 
que l*on appelle Cbelimboui ces anncauz font 
creu & remplis de petits calloux rond qui font 
beaucoup dc bruit/* (Vol. I. page 258.) 
Plate 77* reprefents another fed called Poutchari, 
devoted to the worihip of Manarfuami^ which is for- 
bidden by the Brahmc^s as being idolatrous. This 
fed go in groupes, commonly dnrec together. 
Whilft they iing their hymns, one rings a fmall 
hand bell, another beats a tambourin, and a third 
ftrikes two hollow brafs rings together, lifting the 
right hand high above his head, and, holding the 
other neat his center. (Vol. t. page 259.) 

Of the ftmo-CHAiNs, Kircher has treated largely 
in his dEdip. JJgypt. thcat. Hierogl. Vol. IV. dus 
extraft is made from page 563. 

Catmiartmi (Juas ^yras Tocant, Origo. 

" Symbola Hieroglyphica liti ex oitinibUs ttiuii- 
** djJium rerum claflibus affumpta fueftitit, it^ 
** magnse quoque virtutis & efficaciae, ob itiifam & 
** occultam cum fupramundanis caufis cdnnexionem 
^* fuiffe, ex iEgyptiorum opinione ample in hoc 
" opere dcmonfiratum ex omnigena erudif ione fait : 
^* nequc enim quisquam fibi pcrfuadeat, primos 
^* hujus leteraturae ihftitutorcs temere & fortuit6 
quarumlibet obviarum rerum imagines ad facrac' 
fculpturee ii^itatum adhibuiflfe, fed eas (ibi po^ 
potiilimum, quas longo ftudio & cxperientia ex 

^^ abditis 

P Q 5 T 5 C It ! l^ T, los 

^* abditi$ natur^giB cliar^^erif nKHiffiK figiyM) ad 
** iQuiKlamip gegioirum <;9HR^ B»gBa» Wi*^? fi- 

^ Quae quidem taotp putabauatur efikaci^res 

^ quaoto majorsm ad n^nduue aUcujufi Catena nu- 

^^ men clipiagum fimititttdiiiftcnxflqMiincfcaiU) ut pro- 

^' inde hinc, misiiaum C^tUna^ quas fkfok vocant^ 

^ origiasm tcazerint} ad quas om&iB ea, qmaefive 

^^ in Sidcf-eo, five HjrlaK) muado, in quadr^jpedi- 

^^ bus, voladliluis 7^etabiii|)Utf» miaeiii^SbuSy ad 

numen cdFt» Qatefue cyju^aiH praefidein, aijL^lo- 

giam quandam ylrtuti^ui &is^ pr»&ferra videbaii- 

tur^ tanquam numini iftius Catenae tutelse com- 

** mifla, affumerunt." 

Hoc pafto Catena Ofiriaca, Hermetica, Ifiaca, 
Serapica, Memphtaea, atque innumerae alias, quas 
in AJirologia & Medecina adduximus, erant certae 
quaedam rcrum ex diverfonim mundorum ordi- 
nibus afliunptarum claiTes, in quibus fingulae res, 
quantumvis etiam difparatas, Numinis Catenae 
alicui prefidcntis virtutes & proprietates expri- 
** mcbant." 

This learned author in Egyptian antiquities 
reckons various kinds of chains from three links or 
rings, to feven : this accotmts for that of five rings 
in our plate XIV. Thofc of three rings he thinks 
were dedicated to Oiiris, Ifis and Ammon. 

To this we will add the explanation of Joga by 

*^ ivn^ enim multae afcendunt lucidos mundos 
^^ jn^liept^s & in quibus fummitates tres funt, fub- 
^^ je&um ipfis princcps, fub hoc aliae, quae patris 

*• opera 




^' operaintelligentes intelligibilia fenfibilibusopcribu^ 
** & coiporibus rcvdcrunt/' (page 481.) ** Quas 
** quidem catenas tantae eflfccaciae ^ potellatis efle 
** credebant, ut mox ac myilici eorum charaderes, 
^^ juxta legum facrarum pradcriptionem, fimuladiro 
-^ fuiflent infculpti, . hoc ipfo virtutem acquirere ad- 
^^ mirandum contra onmes adverfarum poteftatum 
^^ machinationes putareot/' (Kircher.) . 

This accounts for the multitudes of thefe chains 

being found in Irdand. I have in my pofTeiTion a 

.£lver ring for the Jfinger ; the device is one of thefe 

jring<bain$ : it was found in a bog near Athlone,--? 

[ it contains alfo fome iEgyptian charaders. 


A ft 


I C . 

' i . 

.'.:f • r 

T H I R t> 


From Charles O* Conor, Efq ; /• 
Colonel Vallancey. 

S I R, 

Your favourable reception of two letters of 
mine, on the Pagan (late of /r^A^Tit/, encourages me 
to offer you a third, and I offer it with fomc confi- 
dence, as what I have written, and what 1 have now 
to add, will be found to receive no mean fupport 
from your own learned rcfearches on the origin and 
literature of the antient inhabitants of this country. 
Your knowledge on this fubjed, was drawn from va- 
rious, but clear fources : mine muft be more con- 
fined, as it has been extracted chiefly, from the 
documents fHU preferred in our antient language* 
In the darkncfs which enveloped our earliefl domef- 
tic accounts, I found fome objefts vifible, and in- 
deed diftind: enough, to enhance expedation, that 
thofe on which time had caft a fuller light, would 
be worthy of attention- I have endeavoured to 
ihow, that many fads expofed in our more antient 


io8 Mr. O • C O N O R • « 

reports, are not the iiiventioiis of our old BardSy 
but the remains of fome memorable tranfaftions^ 
oyer which poetic licenfe had fpread a garb of fa- 
ble, in the times which preceded the more en- 
lightened periods of civilization. In labouring to 
feparate the true from the felfe, I had the exam- 
pie of many able antiquaries to juftify me, as I had 
the example of others to guard againfl, who on the 
prefent fubje£t, publiflicd little el£^, bcfides their 
ignorance and confidence. In the mofl celebrated 
countries of Europe^ as well as in this detached 
ifland, many important truths regarding the early 
ftate of mankind, have been obfcured in the fables 
of the poets, our firfl hiftorians. It was thus even 
in Greece^ whofc old inhabitants borrowed the ele- 
ments of their knowledge, from nations they after- 
wards flyled Barbarians* Their eartieft accounts 
are (brouded in fi^ion and mythology, and to ftrip 
off that covering, has given employsient to (bme 
great namfis of the kfl and prefent century. They 
laboured with great advantage to literature, and 
added to the fum of our knowledge. Th^y would 
fUU add mor^, had they undertaken th^ prefant 
fubjed, and previoufly ftruck out for themfelvec;^ 
the lights you have ftruck out for other$9 who may 
hereafter eipploy their ^bilitie^ upon it, to difcover 
the antient courfe pf governnxent and manners in 
hreUtndy through the ff veral ftagei of youtb» matu- 
rity and decKne^ Bqt thk fobjeflt IhouW be under- 
taken in the prefent age, befpre the documents we 
have left are loft, or rather b^ore the few who can 
rea4 4nd explain them, drop into tb^ grave. 



8<m€ oi thofe materials difper&d ia Ef^land and 
trance^ cannot readi)y be confulted. Some t^ I 
l^Ye been coUe^ng for many years are valuable i 
and ci fome equally valuable, put intp my hantjk by 
CoL Ctmningham and ypurfelf, I have (I thifUt) 
made fome good u^. I wm far from heisf dif* 
counted by an idea induftrioufly propagated, tbtf 
tbe old aim^ of tlw country, are ui^odu&ive of 
the inftrudi<m which hiilpry ihould affords for rec- 
tifying civil legiflation, or fecuring the juft rights of 
i^dividugli^ in every degree of fub<^dinationf i was 
as Iktle Qb(bFu£^d by another idea» whieh undo^- 
edly has plauftbility to countenance it. Many fen- 
fible mea cannot conceive, how a natim rfijlanders^ 
cut off for many 2^ges, from inteUediial intercourfiss 
with Greete and Rmey could aateced»^tly to the re- 
ception of Chriftianity* tranisnit any hiftorical me- 
Biorials of themfelves, while the other mnrdiem na- 
tions of Eurepe trasfmitted none, 'till inftruded by 
the example of their Raman conquerors. This ne- 
gatiTe argument, and the great pains taken of late, 
to Ihew its fuificiency, might have weight with your- 
felf, fir, on your revolving this uncommon circum- 
ftance firft an your mind. But on reflexion, you 
did not think it enough, to reft upon a hare nega- 
tive, and you found no difficulty in fuppofmg, that 
this nation undifturbed through many ages, by 
fareign invaiion, might in their Pagan ftate, obtain 
the elemoits of arts and literature, from inftrudors 
different from thofe of Greece and Rome. On ex- 
amination, you difcovered ftrong marks of fuch an 
.event, and they kd you to conceive, that this fe- 
queftcred peojde, might in ^vourable conjundures, 



Mr. 0*C O N O R's 

improve the rudiments of fdence they fortunately 
received ; and that once poflefled of the meansy they 
did not neglcfl: the praSlicCj of regifteriug the opera- 
tions of their own minds, on every fubjed that oc- 
curred to them. Examples of fuch improvements 
in other countries, and in early times might be pro- 
duced, and fatally, fome examples alfo, of a relapfe 
to the favage ftate, through conquefts and extirpa- ' 
tion. But fuch calamities, in the extreme, were 
never experienced in Ireland* 

On this fubjed you have been almoft (ingular in 
hitting on means of inveftigation, the moft effe&ual 
for obtaining the certainty which removes doubts, 
and filences controverfy. They are means which no 
Britifh Antiquarian, before you, the excellent Mr. 
Lluid excepted, had the patience to employ. To 
your knowledge of the Hebrew^ Syro-CbaldaiCy and 
other oriental tongues, from which the Phtznician 
was derived, you have with great labour, added the 
knowledge of our own Iberno-Celtic^ as prcfcrved 
in our old books ; and thus enabled to compare the 
latter with ^t farmery you could on finding in the 
language of Ireland^ a much greater number of 
Hebrew and Punk terms, than could fall in by mere 
accident, conclude that the tradition among the old 
natives, of early intercourfes between their An- 
ceftor$ and the Orientals, is well-grounded. You 
made the trial, and, very probably, fucceeded be> 
yond your expectation. This led you to examine 
whether the writings which contained the wordsy 
had retained zny fads alfo, which might be quoted 
• as additional proofs of thofe early intercourfes. In 
this refeorch Ukewife, you had fuccefs : Prepared by 



no prejudice in favour of our domeftic reports, you 
have examined them with the circumfpedion^ and 
with the doubts alfo, of fevere criticifm. On more 
than one capital point, you found their evidences 
conMent: You found them fatisfadory alfo, and 
the lights you received impelled you to feek for 
more. In the ancient religious rites of Ireland^ you 
found fome that were not of Celiic^ or pure Druidic 
extra&ion, but in oriental hiftory, you immediately 
difcovered the fource, from whence thofe religious 
rites have been borrowed. 

On fuch foundations, the confronting of domeftic 
with foreign teftimonies, mufl be found ufeiuL 
Some confronted .by myfelf in former eflays you 
have not rejefted ; on the contrary, your fuperior 
erudition brought additional force to fome of the 
ia&s I have paralleled : and doubtlefs, it is not a 
little extraordinary, to find feveral reports of our 
oldeft bards, confirmed by old Greek writers', 
though it could not appear fo, but that we know, 
the reporters on one fide, could not poflibly hold any 
communication with the reporters on the other. 

By comparing the langiia^es of nations, you could 
trace the fpeakers of each, to their true origin. The 
language of the Pbosniciansy you found to have a 
clofc kindred with the Hebrew ; — ^that of the an- 
tient Iti/h to be Scytbo-delficj derived from the pri- 
moeval language brought into Europe by the Celtes and 
Scythians. How, therefore, the language of Irelandy 
(a country vafUy remote from the neareft parts of 
Afia) could be mixed with a great number of orien- 
tal terms, you have accounted for. — You have proved 
from authentic hiflory^ that in an early age, a fwarm 


JI2 Mr. P*C O N O R * 8 

of Scythians have £pttle4 themfelves on the con- 
iUies oi Paiijiiw 9lld f^b^nkia^ whptt tb(9y h^ ^m 
ep^nu&ity of »4eptiftg icnne ritc^ of the Hebrew 
Theology, anid of l^rfiing fonie ori^nt;^ Ait|. 
Wh^ftay they nui4e in tltofe partis b^^e tbof 
look ^ootfcpr flight h «* l(aQiv9, bv« ^^ <hey fai^ 
grated w^wwd» IJ|4 <r^verf€4 v^i^ipug r fg^pns i|roq^ 
tifRje tp tjni«, wUch hoir4«re4 oa ^ fde^^r^rnqn^ 
Tyrrb0j^,Bfii Mgem fegs, yo» Iw^ve fe^aep^y (bew^. 
That a party of the& ^eyfbiqn rovers 4^0^14 ia 4^ 
courfe of ages, find their w^y to the Brit^^nic-ififis^ 
V€ ae^d not deny, t$ the f^ i^ pp$hl^ i and 
denial vf\\\ he vajin, when the fa£^ )s prov«i4 tr)if» 
It wiljl reduce fiw9 modern hypoth^efiBa iiH9 sl he^^p 
of ruins. 

SeveraJ of tjhefe fnfts $xtr^£t^d fejr yoji, gr* fr^^m 
foreign docvunents, are p^l^i^ by ^^i^^ P^^f^g^ 
in our book rf Migr^i(msn Therein ire \m% % re- 
cital, that the leaders of ths h^ he^|^9 Colcmy^ 
who poflefied Inlandy were of Scythian ^^txadio^, 
^nd yarned th^mfelyf3 JUinea Sfuii^ i. ^. deicendanfs 
of S^ytbUru. Thskt iii the eaft, they learned tl^e 
ttfe of iqcteen letter^ from a celebrated Pbeniifs^ from 
whoni they tpok ^he n^me of Pbenii or Pheniciam ; 
th^t the d^cend^ts of thf^ Pbinitu trs^verfed fev^- 
ral coiitttries, particul^rlys thiofe bor4efil^ on the 
Me4iferr^nean and Gntk le^s, t|>at t)^y fai}i34 
through the ftraights of H^rc^Sj landed on tl^ 
iiland of Gadir [Cadiz^> 9a4 bavi^g failed along 
the weftern cpafts of Sf^in^ fettled t^re among the 
Celte^ of that country , and particularly in Brigantuf : 
th^ fiQally, they fail^ from Spfin to Ir^lamfy where 
tl^y have put ^ end t9 ^ir pfsregr^tion^ and 


tHlkD LEttfiRi 113 

driers, ilhd mmdt a laftii^g {ettlement. I need not 
inform you, fir, that thefc accounts arc fwdlcd with 
the fabulous and maiVdlous: It is enough that 
feme of the p i incipal (ads are fupported by parallel 
relations from foreign hiftory. - 

Of this origin of the Scots from Scythians^ and of 
their mixture with Ae Celts of Spain^ and of their 
arrival ki Ireland from that country, Ae tradition 
ha^ been inrariable. It has been inYariable among 
ike • Scots of Britain alfo.f Nennius the Welfti anti- 
quary has recorded it, and the excellent Mr. Lluid,| 
has from refearchcs on our Celtic tongues, de- 
clared the expedition of the Scots from Spain to 
Ireland, an indubitable fad. In my former letters 

♦ Of the ezpedltioQ of the antient Scots from Spain to Ire* 
Idndf and of their eftablifhing colonies in future timesy in North'* 
Britain^ aU the hiftorians of the latter country have been fiilly 
down to the (eventeenth century. John dc Fordun, Heftor 
Boethiufl, Biffaop Lefly, and Chancdior Elfinfton, hare been 
unanimous on this head. So conftant a tradition amongft the 
old CaUdonians was far from being rcjeded by Buchannan. 
Thus he begins his fourth book, " Cum noflra gent is hijioriam 
aggrederemur^ pauca vifum ejl fupra repHere : ea patijimuftty qu^t 
afahnlarumvanitatc ahefenty et a vetujfis rerutnfcripipribus nos 
SJhstirent. Primum ommum conftans fama eftj quam plurima 
etiam indicia confirmantf Hifpanorum fnultitudinemj five a poten-^ 
tiorihus domo pulfam^ fwe abundante fihole vltr$ profe6tamy in 
Hiberniam tranfmijijje : ejufque infuU loca proxima tenmjfcy &c. 

f NoviJJime vineruiit Scoti a partibus Hifpanix ad Hibsrmam, 
ITtn, edit, per Bertram. A. D, 1757. 

X Ninius and others j turote many ages Jtncey an unquejiionahk 
truth nvhen they ajferted the Scotijh nations coming out of Spain* 
See Mr. Uuid's tranflation of his letter to the Welfh, in Bifhop 
MichoUbn's Irifh Hiftorical Library, page 228. 


114 Mr. 0*C O N O R^s 

to you, fir, I have examined this matter more in de- 
tail, and to thofe I refer. 

I (hall now take a fhort view of our infular af- 
fairs, and begin at the commencement of the Revo- 
lution now mentioned. After fome fharp confli£ks, 
the foreign invaders brought the old natives to fub- 
mit to their authority, and to a monarchical form of 
government eftabliihed, under very limited powers. 
It is remarkable, that the Scytbo-Cehic dialed intro- 
duced by thofe ftrangers, was fo intelligible to the 
old Belgian and Danan inhabitants, as to require no 
interpreters between them. This fad ufeful to hif- 
tory, is of ufe in chronology alfo. In the times an- 
tecedent to the Roman conquefts in Gaul^ the feveral 
Dialcfts of the Celtic^ or Scytho-Celticy underwent 
no great variations in the weft, from the fhores of 
the Baltic to the pillars of Hercules. It was only 
when nations quitted the roving ftate, for fixed fet- 
tlements and regulated government, that thofe dia- 
lefts were formed into diftinft tongues of different 
fyntaxes, and that the copioufncfs and ftrength of 
each, was in proportion to the degree of improve- 
ment made in the civilization of the fpeakers. Of 
thefe Celtic tongues of different conftruflion, only 
two remain at this day preferved in old manufcripts ; 
one in Ireland^ and the other in Wales ; the lattery 
formed from the old Celtic of Gauly and the former 
from that of Spain^ mixed with Phoenician or Cartha- 
ginian terms. In both, we find a community of 
Celtic words, both being certainly derived from the 
primaeval language of the greater part of Europe \ 
but the different fyntaxes of thofe words, prove dc- 
monftrably that the old Scots of Ireland^ and old 



Cambrians of Wales ^ originated from different Celtic 

The firft inhabitants of Ireland being fwafms. 
moftly from Britain^ fpoke the Briti/h-Celtic un- 
doubtedly; but they fpoke it in its original iimplicity^ 
and with fmall variations — confined to a few words, 
as the fpeakers were to a few ideas, it was adapted 
to the rudenefs, and accommodated to the igno- 
rance, of the earlier ages. Until the introduction, 
or rather unprovement of literature, the primoeval 
Celtic was a language of great fterility. It fplit firft 
into dialeds ; and when civilization and letters were 
introduced, thofe dialeds (as I obferved before) 
were gradually formed into di£Ferent tongues.-^- 
The dialed brought into Ireland by the Scots j took 
the lead (fo to fpeak) in forming the language of 
Ireland : But it took a long time, undoubtedly, be- 
fore it arrived at the energy, copioufnefs and har- 
mony we difcover in fome fragments of the heathen 
times, which are ftill preferved. 

In fad, the tongues of Wales and Ireland on the 
Introduction of letters, and in the firft ftages of 
improvement, were no better than the uncouth dia- 
lers of a people emerging from antient rudenefs. 
They muft expire with the caufes that gave them 
eziftence; and had they furvived in monumental 
infcriptions to this day, they would be no more in- 
telligible to us, than the Latin jargon in the days 
of Numa Pompiliusy would be intelligible to the Ro- 
man people in the times of Augujlus. 

In this, and my former letters, I have been, per- 
haps, more minute on this fubjefl: of the antient 
languages of Britain and Ireland, than an epiftolary 


li« Mr. O^G O H « R*8 /' 

corre^txmdeiice t^nirei. With youir ItAve^ 1 
thought it proper (as another opportunity iftight 
not footi offer) to oppofe itSt^y to fomt late hjrpo- 
thefes eftabliflied on rery precariow authorities^ and 
i^etidered Toluminous by loofe conjedures and ez« 
tended declamations. I have been eqtxally rnxnute 
on the origin of the lad heathen colony that poflefled 
Irtfandi and the nwre, as in their poftcrity, they 
bfrcame a molt diftingmihed nation in the ireft, by 
the name of Scots. Their arrival from a Scytho^* 
Celtic province of Spain, as well as their delcent 
from Scythians, who travelled in an early age from 
Syria to Europe^ are ^ fads which required to have 
ftrong lights dirown on them, as the excellent writer 
of die hiftory of Mancbe/htj has jfironounccd thofe 
h,€i% fabulous. In ihewing his miftake, I owe much 
to your ailiftance. 

Though this laft pagan Colony hayc arrived from a 
country long poflefled by the Phcenicians and Car- 
thaginians, and imported hither the elements of arts 
Imd literature ; yet it muft not be forgot, that they 
alfo introduced the courfe manners of their Scytho* 
Celtic anc^ftors, and that on their arrival in Ireland 
Aey mired with a ftill coarfer people than them* 
fclves. The arts in which they were initiated were 
yet in their infancy, and often negfefted in the 
cradle. We are told, that after the conqucft fhcy 
made of Ae old inhabitants, their chief occupation 
conTifted in cutting down woods, and making room 
for themfelves in a country almoft covered over widi 
forefts. That they alfo employed a part of their 
time in building of Duns, ftruftures of more than 
ordinary convenience for the hjibitations of their 


¥hIr1) tEttER. 117 

leafing pnhtes.'— This account may be i«reH credit- 
ed. Without fuch occupations, thofe Nfe'A*'-corHcrsf, 
would foon degenerstte into a nation of hunters and 

■ The clearing the couritry 6f 'fc^oocfe, ffiews flisfe 
agriculture was not neglcfted : But the fortn of gb- 
vemmeht mfuft prove a great iihpcdJfrtent io the 
hhprovetaeht of arts. Gn the demife cjf HerenioH^ 
cfcnotninattd tbejirjt kitt^ if Scots ; we mett irith a 
catafogde of fucccffors, taken occaiSonilly' from one 
6r dt'Bef of the four families who claimed a rJgKt 
io regkl rf^atiori. Efefiron became t?re fottfce of 
Moody coiit6ntit)ns, aAd^a monarch rather intruded, 
than chbfen, was h6ceffitatcd often to govcfn, shrd 
to be' g6verhed, by a fadion. Scarcely stay came 
io th^ throiirfe of Teamof , but thtotigh thd bl66d of 
life hnHtcdiirtt*? predeceflTor. The cdnrfittrtioiir in 
fomt periods^ bicame a fpecies of military gofvcnt- 
m^\ We me^' with princes of legiflative genius, 
i*ho' toixgtd a rtmcdy to fo great an evil, but ob- 
ftru6fed by cuffoiiis too* prevaltnt to be' removed 
thorbiiglSiy, they ottly could appty paffiativeS, and 
the temporary advani!ages adminiftefed in a long 
feign, under a wife and populai* prfaice. Such ad- 
ranta^gies' under fuch a goverrimerit come butf (tU 
dotir. The borfy of the jM^opIc im]{)rcired with their 
own inipbrtente, in t*h^ frequency of e!e£fions, 
eouIA Act be bl^ought to paYt \*ith' a rutoois^ liberty, 
•v^h^eiti thfey could no^, or >frbuld not fee the flavifii 
dependence on ^hich they held it. fa the excefe of 
the diftempcr, an tJttotiion prince named Achaj^ 
emphaticalty ftyfed OiyiH-Fodld mounted tlie thrbni, 
Jri thd riiataiet of his predeceffors f 6u't what ife 

N obtained 

ii8 Mr. 0*C O N O R'g 

obtained by riolence, he merited by his admirable 

He reigned long, and as one of his inftitutes had 
a happy e£Fed in tempering the manners of the peo- 
ple through the turbulent times which followed, a 
few obfervations on his condud as a legiflator, may 
not be improper in this place. — Through an in- 
fluence which military power can never obtain, that 
martial prince prevailed in the inftitution of the 
Teamorian Fes', 2Xk aifembly of the dates, to be 
held triennially, for promulgating laws, and repref- 
(ing the crimes, which generate from civil aflbda- 
tion, after quitting the favage ftate. Of the parti- 
cular ordinances of this firft Teamorian Senate^ we 
have very few memorials : They muft be imperfe£k 
no doubt, as neceflarily conformed to the prejudices, 
and adapted to the manners, of a people emerg- 
ing from barbarifm, and perhaps ftiU agitated by 
by the malevolence, which commonly fubfifts be- 
tween an old nation and its recent conquerors. In 
the convulfions attending divided interefts, and in- 
truding ambition, OUam-Fodhla, foreiaw infrac- 
tions of his laws ; and in confequence, a fre-* 
quent fufpenfion of the Natianai Fes^ or fenate, 
which he inftituted; Senfible, moreover, that le- 
giflation would be hurtful from ignorance, and rui- 
nous from the partialities of a faction, he applied 
the bed remedy that could be devifed in fudi cir- 
cumflances. He ftudied with affiduity, and he 
brought others to ftudy the extent and proper ufes of 
the mental faculties, as preparatory meatUy for ob- 
taining the ends of good government. In this idea, 
he erefted the Mur-Ollavan at Teamr^ a receptacle 



for the order of Fileas, under whom die principal 
youth of the nation were to receive their education. 
His own example fumifhed a rule, and his patron- 
age ferved as an incitement to philofophic exertion, 
in this college of the Fileas. He endowed diem 
alfo, with inalienable property, and obtained immu- 
nities for them, which fuperceded every care, but 
fiich as attended the duties of their profeflion. 

For a long time the conduft of the Fileas was ir- 
reproachable. They began with fimple, but folid 
maxims, fuch as fearchuig minds eafily difcover. 
Happily they departed not from fimplicity in the 
progrefs of their improvement, but taught what to do, 
and what to avoid, without entering into metaphy- 
fical refinements, which oftener darkl^n than en- 
lighten, the knowledge we ftand moft in need of : 
They foon became refpe&ed by the chiefs 6f the na- 
tion, and their privileges, like thofe of the Druids, 
were held facred. Even in the fierceft domeftic 
hoftilities, their diftri£ts were fpared, as any viola- 
tion of their property, or infult to their perfons, was 
attended with indelible infamy : a moft happy im- 
preilion this on the public mind, which in particular 
communides fecured the advantages of civil fo- 
ciety, amidft the . horror of domeftic warfare, and 
prevented the evils of univerfal depravity. 

Under Ollam-Fodhla^ and his fuccelTors, the Druids 
had their feparate fanftuaries alfo, for protefting 
others, as well as their own order from polidcal 
perfecution. As minifters of religion, their authority 
with the people was great, and crimes which hu- 
man laws could not reach, they in fome degree pre- 
vented, or at leaft leflened, through the fan&ions 

Na ' Qf 

120 Mn. a«G Q N O 1^*8 

of futiare puAifhrnonts,. in a {tAture Aat^. They^ 
preached; the rewards of virtue alfo in, another iife^. 
when attended with no reward in the prefent* In 
this fervicc -the Druids were aflifted by the Fiieas ; 
the truths o( natural' reUgion were the lefs departed 
from,^ and probably the wife OUam-fodla intended^ 
they fhould. be a check alfo^ on> an order of men. 
who {hewed a ftrong difpofition to ftremgthen their 
power over the people,, through the effefturi means 
of fuperftition and ignorance^ That in the, pcogrefk 
of time^, great corruptions took place SMnong the 
Druids, fome of our old annals ixiform us, and that? 
they have been oppofed, and oppofed with fomA 
fuccels, by. the Fikas^weaxe ailiiredalfo. 

The, compodtions of the Fiieas^ hiftcvical and 
moral, were delivered in poetic numbers,. adapted' ta 
th^r variatiosLs: in the compoTitions of their Orfidiesv 
as^the-^ufipi^ms.were. denominated* — W^iatever thb 
luhje/^;' the. hesoic,. the mirthful, or thedolorouay 
cotrsfpondont mufic wa& prepared. In thein pub^^ 
lie entextaijEmvenls^in privat&.aiibciations^ in funeral 
m^eetioga^ vefffi&. ai^d foug ia ujiion, exdcedthe pafr 
fiop6 intai4^d ta.rbe raifed* The foul wias. either 
fwelledto afi enthufiaAic imitationof a, martial aa«* 
c,e(by, or humanized, by ^ attending to thediftreifea 
of unfuccefsiUl heroesi la r no nation had the unioa 
of poetry and mu£c more powerful effe&s^ and they 
operated to-<tbe times near our own. Spd&fev, the 
bed p!oei,.aadconfeqAiQntly tbebeft judge of poetry of 
the fixteQnifa'i^entucy) acknowledged the excellency 
of our Imih comppfitions, and as to our mafic the 
thfiee-, fpeqies^' of it were^ admirabliy! fupported i» 




llieprefiEsiit oentorf hy Core/lan, a fine natural gehius, 
who died in 17^8. 
The mfthution of the^orderof 'Pileas wnsfhe ¥€ftfH 

of profontid nSteOicMky undoubtedly. Wliedier^hey 
difcov€rod a csifitaX trvaky or occafionally Itoi^cfok 
error for it^ in didr int^tgaiion of ll^ ^PventEd 
pomnensi ^we raazf conclode ftckn dieil- 'tftt&ftut^ed 
rlspok^ Ikat r their cfibrfis w^re vigomKs^^d fo mc^ 
kJkanoefi ibcct6fuL*-^We am toreve^ kifomitd, 
thkt AH t>»iirie d£ tbiiie, tlicy deviated ftom fheii* tm^ 
gihal prisjcipbes; . From bdng thftru£k»6 it^ifk^ 
ready toaUpairtiss jand neliaptbrs In Aeit* {)UUit 
contiifU, tfaey. became inceiidiarlefr, ^nd jftcen£a<- 
ritf5,oftlK^worftidnQ) from jdie ififhicbce t^^Si^ 
eloqufciice. In the £rft oeattry df oifr c*ra, diey 
were eicpdled^ as mjahadt^ ottt 4»f ifoui* ^ our 
jMrovjiBoes. Tbrougb the ^cnmr and 4ntet7>cffitSoA 
0f Cojttifvar M^c N^ffh^ kiAg of iHjter^ Hity ^ert 
reftor^d to: their former knmunitieS) bift put W^er 
a new refotm» oh the firfl: principles iC)f iferdt iiilllitu^ 
tioB, which-fer. a confiderable time had a good -^StSt. 
In &0 third century, during the,T€4>gn of the "philb- 
foj^c C^niac Cuhm^ they afifted ihiat n>enarch in 
his conteft with the Druids, and edified ^ pcAyKc 
by dietr condtid^ from that tim^ dow^ to the re- 
c^ieii of the gbj^l, and fat a ^\i<A& century ^er 
that ha^y chaise to true r^diigMMi. In the ftxth 
o^ntury du^ relapfed again to tfi^ old corruptions. 
Th^ inflamed domeftk cont^fiti^d by virnrlent in- 
ve£kivds, and invididui panegyt^ci^ Piiblic srdhii- 
niftradon was iifiilted, and its miftakes 4t«rc exttg- 
gcirated ; private, charadnrs ^^e inva^d, and H16 
)>eace of frmilies pablic and pdVlite^ tra^ equkS^ 

\ deftroyed. 

laa Mr. O'C O N O R's 

deftroyed. ~A remedy was applied in the great 
Council of Drumkeaij A. D. 590. Through the in* 
terpofition of fome princes^ affifted by the celebrated 
Columb Kills J the Ftleas were again reduced to order. 

Ollam-Fodhla died at Teamor. He was fucceeded 
by three fons who reigned one after the *^ other in 
regular fuccefCon. The wifdom of their adminiftra« 
tion kept a turbulent people in quiet ; but the fpirit 
of their father's government, did not defcend to his 
grandfons. One confpired againft a rdgning uncle, 
Sind ufurped his throne. The ufurper ' fell in the 
war raifed againil him by another of thole grandfons, 
wha likey/ife feized on the government of the king-» 
dom, avenging a father's death, and gratifying his 
own ambition at the fame timd. Thus did Mifrule 
commence, in the family which laid the foundations 
of law and of a regular civil conftitution. The third 
grandfon of Ollam-fodla^ who waded to regal power 
through the blood ofhispredeceffor,wascift off in turn 
by his fucceffor. The poflerity of the Ultonian Ic- 
giflator was for the prefent excludedfrom the throne 
of Teamor. The Heremonian line was reftored to 
its former regal authority in the perfon of Siorna, 
though advanced to a great age. . 

This revolution which brought about a change of 
family, had good confequences during the life of ^ 
wife and old nxonarch. But after a reign of twenty 
one years, public peace was difturbed by the aitt^ 
bition of RoibeaSa]^ prince of the Momonian He- 
berians* He made war on Siorna^ kxHed him iit 
battle, and had his Yi<3:Qry rewarded^ by being cle^ 
Arated to the throne of Teamor 4 This new rcvolu- 
tiqn involved fatail confequences. The claims of 




feur iamilies, who formerly had a right to regal fuc* 
cei&on, were revived. Through a period of near 
two hundred years, the nation had hardly any re* 
pofe ; the greater part of the time was wafted in 
bloody conteftSy nor have we now any documents, 
which make a proper diftindion between the legi- 
timate monarchs of the nation, and the intruded 
monarchs of a fa^on. We have before us only a 
catalogue of kings, moft of whom were fet up, and 
acknowledged, by their feveral parties ; princes of 
whom nothing is recorded, but that they killed one 
another in battle, and obtained power from violence, 
rather than law. Their civil diibrders offer us no* 
diing but confiifion and obfcurity. 

Civil evils brought to fuch an excefs, neceffarily 
produce fooner or later a change for the better. 
In die inftance before us a remedy was applied by 
three able and popular princes, whofe names deferve 
to be recorded. Aodb roe^ Dithorba and Kimbaotbj 
of the Ultonian line. They fet up a fpecies of Re- 
publican monarchy of which we have, I believe, no 
example in hiftory. With the fenfe of the nation 
on their fide, they agreed to rule alternately by 
feptennial adminiftratibh. Kimbaoth was the laft, 
and the ableft of thofe adminiftrators. He erefted 
noble buildings at £/?/»^r»/tf, which thence forward 
became the feat of the provincial kings of Ulfter ; 
feveral of whom are much celebrated by their good 
government, and their patronage of ufcful arts. 
Kimbaoth J the founder of die Eamanian regulations, 
was fuccceded in die throne of Ternnor^ by Macha^ 
his queen, a moft extraordinary heroine ; who to 
the amiable qualities of her own fex, added every 


ia4 Mr.. p*G O Iff O R't 

<^y to pppulafity ^d affedioit. S^ fr^ thjt 
Qflly fcmalp t|i5jt fbe ihW9S ev«J pefimtt64 .^ ppijpa 

Tl«^ q^pea, cpulpn^ly lyifh her ^ufbj)A4 Kimr 
hjf^by p|:pferve4 tjic Her«ifmim }^ (yhj^ be«tjm« 
sdiflpft pxtii^a) ui the. fiprfeflv pf y.<>)ii|g Huf^vy, 

¥»» Wl^y of tlje |S(:lH9^tK>9 th?y gf^p hiip. AfK»;^ 

^ {>!riivcfb wi ^injg it) Ip^cU^* «M«d her rngii 
.glofioviny. Ifw adYsrfikry ftsised <>» h«f thr-oi>«, 
and diftinguifhed h^aa|^f by )IW(iaJ M«sqmre» iA 
^jTrHft^ Britain, tfugopya hiYV^g anjivtd fK fUU ma- 
tm-ityt ca)l^ ^ boo^ to de^d by vn&it tbc thfe 
^ d[>$aiaf:d W ar»f > Rfo^btq f«ll is l;ti$ digagfr! 
9^ iRitb this jmv^ adwgBfeFyf i3ri(J/wjf r«v«nged 
the d^th' of his prote&reis, a^4 by ^ gf ner^l aitopf! 
tion pf the people, wa^ pFG|dain>ed v^fiXO^ik of the 

Yrhple i^4 

'fhifi Ji?as a> gr?at rcTplvi^, hp^^&t. U wftf pras 
4u£Uve of great a^iopq. Befofe I eOAeroA the 
changes njade by ^ugvfy, .1 ib*M» with your leaYie, 
t^e a retrpfped of tb? aatecedent ^$a«$ fifQi^ Htrt-i 
ititm to ^imbaotb, and Id^ adppted fop, f^ir&afJIt* 
9i\d 9^? ^tiqufuics b?,if^ pr^n^Ufl^Qcl 0W aecouata 
^ thoffi ti|ne§ fuifert^i^ ; ^4 thu« if ^ detubtkfs, 
ia the i»fe^y pf all pfp^^ hiftpry. Q\jr antient 
gf tte^gies of th? foiir rpy^l fsffiiilie^ pf tb«: Af/t 
/^a?f Rac«t vary (r(w ^agh oth^ r, ^d aj-? vpry 
inacguta^ »R tbe pppi^s. Several gqiiefatiejij «ro 

£cuft«d)9» tP $QV>m9A»Q§f) the i(b^m§ ^ tech9i$Al 



dbi|}UihiQg ^ higbPT i^nt^^iuity of d^ Ir^fl^ ippa^rehyt 
tl)^ is i;x>zUiileat w^h th|B iUte of arts ^nd dyili^r 
tion in Europe )>isfore ^ .comijfifafVieinisPt of the 
P^^^ empirCf Tigen^ff/j tb^r^efpre, fiad fchf i©ti. 
quarks I tave n^cmioa?4i arc in ^ g«|erftl view, 
very right ia t^eir j^dgm^x^t : yet m (he phfcurityof 
t|ie e^lierr pjeripds of our ^ary, (qmi^ f^ni&ers 
appear witji briUi^mcy. Jfnergin^ m^ of the Indcr^ 
<ll the colpay qf 5^0^^ from 3p»i}l> h$is bfcea dirough 
^ thp fiiic^ejdiag tigios, oeli?t>r^t«d for hji^ H^pwlodg^ 
evpn ift tbe infancy of fcii^pce. U(h(idan e£ Ciurfm 
I|^ bera c?let:ur^t^d alfo for his flail iii n^ec^gjrgyt 
su)d his er^£^Qg his fpioltii^g forges oa the \)9^ 
of the liflfcy. In the fa^i^ early age» we re%4 of 
^e art of dying clo^t^s* in the r^gp of the xftOfi 
9^reh Ti^ernmas^ vf\io difg^jK^ed him&lf by thq 19-1 
trQ4H^oH of i4platry ipto the Prnidi^ r^i^giep} 
Qu9Uy> we re^d of Qllafthfodblap confpicaous idJ 9 
particular manner, through his legillation, zfk^ hilt 
ei)dowi)cv?nt> a$ well as r^gulati9n pf th^ ord^r of 
Fileas« Such inen s^re vifible in the darkn^ fur-* 
rounding theni : Uke be^uns pf fun ihw^% whidh 
throy^h the opens of a dark iky, en|igh|^n ^ 
j^ts of ground they fall upon^ 

Hugony began hi? r?ign hy bringing the fts^^s of 
the n^tipn to cbnfent tb^tfpj the futupc,the monarchy 
fiiould be confined to one royal family only ; s^ 
fhey all have boi,ind theinfelves by th^ mpft foliemn 
religious tefts| to (pntinnP t)ie regal anthoiity in 
Hiigonfs pofterity. It wa^ fcemingly s^ w^^e inftitVI-^ 
tion in a country long torn by inteftine diriAons, 
ocq^fioned by the claims of feveral families to a par- 

126 Mn. O'C O N O R*« 

ticipation of regal power: but through the negled^ 
or perhaps the difficulty of eftabliihmg the right of 
fucceflion by primogeniture ; this conftitution of 
Hugony failed in the third generation. 

The art of navigation introduced by the Phoeni- 
cians, and by a colony from Spain^ was not loft for 
a confiderable time in Ireland^ nor exchanged for 
the wicker veflels (of later ages) covered only with 
cow hides. With a well appointed fleet, Hugony 
failed along the coaft of Gauly where he landed, and 
foon efpoufed the daughter of a Gallic prince, by 
whom he had a numerous offspring. Thence he 
iailed into the Mediteranean and Tyrrhene feas, and 
from this voyage we have a proof that the people 
of Ireland had ftill kept up intercourfes with Spain 
and with the Carthaginians j who were matters of a 
great part of that country. Had we the detail of 
Hugony^s voyages, they would doubtlefs, throw 
very confiderable, and ufeful lights, on our antient 

Before Hugony^s time, Ireland was divided into 
five provinces, each governed by a prince of great 
family and connedions, with privileges and powers 
alfo too great, for the proper exertion of monarchical 
authority, over thofe fubordinate ftates. To remedy 
this evil, Hugony had fufficient influence to diflTolvc 
thofe provincial governments. He parcelled out 
the kingdom into twenty-five diftrifts, l&med from 
twenty-five of his own children he appointed for 
their goverment. On thefe diftrids the revenues of 
the mbnarchs, were for a confiderable time cefled, 
and collefted. 



Tliis change from an Oligarchical, to an Arifto- 
cratic monarchy, had at worft, a better effeft than 
the former conftitution ; and durhig Hugony'^ own 
time, it produced the good intended. On the mur- 
dcr of that great prince, by die hands of a brother, 
Laogary Lork^ a younger fon of Hugony^ feized on 
the throne of Teamor^ in prejudice to his eldefl: bro- 
ther Cobttuhi A civil war was the confequence, 
and it defcended fatalJy to their pofterity. The na- 
tion diftrefied by their contefts, fought a temporary 
relief, at kaft, from recalling to the throne, the fa- 
milies excluded, by the late law of fucceflion. Mo- 
corb (Grandfon of Reada Ridarg mentioned above) 
was favoured by the people in making war on Melga^ 
the reigning monarch, and had fuccefsr. On de- 
feating and killing his fovereign again in battle, he 
was proclaimed monarch of the whole ifland. 

Between MocorVs pofterity and thofe of Hugony^ 
civil wars for dominion were continued ; and the 
people fenfible, too late, of fighting for the heads of 
parties only, called the Ultonian Race of Ollam-Fodla 
* to the throne. Ruderic^ king of TJlJiery by defeat- 
ing and cutting off the Hugonian reigning monarch 
Crimthan Cofgrach^ took the general confequence of 
fuch vi&ories. His troops led him to Teamor imme- 
diately, and was there (about eighty-five years be- 
fore the chriftian era) proclaimed king of Ireland. 

On this laft revolution, the Hugonian lucceffion, 
ratified in its • inftitution by the moft folemn, civil, 
and religious tells, was utterly fufpended, and in 
appearance abolifhed. Aftef Ruderic^s death the 
government of the kingdom was contended for, be- 
tween the families of Uliler and Muniiter, through 


128 Mr. O^C tf R's 

fix mgpe* ^cA^ftl #siifn4e m»dc m^ ^itvdljry for 
the rfiftpr^^koa /qF <the HugoniaM ifk, thfi> .p^ea i>f 

Achay owed Ixis ele«?|tk)4]i tplu$ coodud Mod cmi« 
ra^e^ tt^ougb his viclory 9ver Fachtna^ the v)e^gniiig 
XJitoni^xi lUQixarcfa; v4tQ like Jus predeceflbr^ 
\^ovl4 mot QUftliv^ the lols pf Jiis 4ilkdein : hm fdk 
Ui battle* His fucceflbr begm ius reign, bf a (traw 
of policy, which to us srt t;his diftwcie^ ;aj>pear3 u«w> 
countable. He utterly abgljifbed the Hagonian Ari* 
ftoqracy, and redored thf: nutient {xroviocial gov^ra* 
lAQiits. By entering uito matrimonial ;alliaiifcw 
iivith fome of the new provincial kings, .wbd ibnengtb.- 
ening the Def/id Hugani^n fsonily 19 the ^ovemmem: 
of Muniler, he provided for <h^ x}uiei of Jus ovm 
reign ; and if he obtained regulations for keeping th^ 
governors -of provinces, vithin bounds confiftra/t 
with monarchical nutbority^ it is certain that they bad 
no long duration. Aitier the happy reign x>f his fuo 
^elfpr Cpaary (A. D. 60). Crimhan Nia Nary^ 
gained renown in his foreign expedition, at a time 
when JulmAgricola fucceeded in fubduing the PifZx^ 
allied at that time, with the Irijh S4:ots. Notwith* 
Handing the great fuccefs of the Roman general, yet 
our old books infpriU us, that . Crimthan returned t9 
his kingdom laden with fpoiU. As he kept his 
court at * Ben-hedar, he probably^ had fome fuc- 
cefs againft a Roman party in the neighbouring ifle 
of Angkfey^ . then called Mona^Conain. 

The death of Crimiban (A» P. 90) by a fell from 
hifi horfe, wes fucceeded by a revolution, which 

* Now the PcBiafuk of Howthy netr DubKiit 



tiireatentd deftrUftidn to tliid rofal Uiief vhidi- go- 
lecned Ireland for foreral^ agesw. Tho princes of tbc 
MilefiatLRace^.cBidsacfoixiGi at, tins^ jkoriod^ to tt^^ 
duoa the Bjil^ns^ and other tribes of the old Britifl^ 
]ahabtiakit»9 to . a^ ftatle of Icrvitude ; a pcdicy the* 
laore eaUraordinaryv aa*tho like, wift never attempted; 
belbrety in .thii) or in any other nortfaeA coiindy* 
k wsn" intolendblfi to the: Be'pam^ whd^ ftill iKte 
poffisfledof a powtr in^LebifterzadConfagbij and ia 
aK the pf orintxs • had &nned' the majorkyi of the 
geoi^e; The wadteft parties anoi^ them^ thongb 
ftrif^ted of po'wtr^. had ahsrays prefenred^ perfonalr 
liberty^ anddnttprovfaig the G^jpoctunityi for a general 
revoke theyv akx)ie under Carbrf^^} bold and' fkilfiit 
Ifiader^ and fubduing all oppyaiitioa^. they* feated him 
QA-theftone of Deftmyat Teamor, and proclaimed hid 
kifig.of Ireland* After this fuccefs^ Carbrj r^ned 
QVCT the* Irifii nation for five yeats, and died on hia 
{oHoW'^a^ end which was felcbm tlzerfate of any of 
bk Milafiim predeceflbrs» 

M^franihe^ioBioi Carbry did not mount a throne 
vlud^ his^ father obtained by an ufufpalion^ juilified 
by the neceflity of the times^ By a greatnefs of 
foul:, of which little men aire incapable, Moran pre- 
vailed in diipeling the people to caU Feradach^ fon 
of' the late^ monarch Crimban to the throne of his 
Anceftors. Feradacb was not ungrateful ; on hi& 
acceilioii, he put hisreftorer at the head of his. coun- 
cils, and between them was experienced, one of the 
happieft reign% recorded in Irifli hiftory. Under Acir 
admintlbation^ a good ufe was itiade of the Jhdhan 
Morainn of which you give fo clear an account in 

your learned refearches. 


130 Mr. O^C O N O R'» 

In a few years after the deceafe of Feredach (ftfr*- 
named thejujf) the body of the people, headed by 
the provincial kings, hoftiie to the Hugonian line, 
began another infuri'edion, and placed £//>it, king 
of Ulfter on the throne of Teamor. Tuathal^ the 
fon of Fiacba^finola^ and grandfon of Feradach the 
juft, was obliged to fly into North Briton ; where 
he was protefbed under his grandfather king of the 
Pi£ls, 'till parties at home were formed for refto- 
ring him to the dignity, and to more than the power 
of his royal Anceftors. In the year 1 30 (as I have 
noticed in my former letters) Tuatbal^ with a body 
of forces, landed in Ireland, fabdtied all his ene* 
mies, and reigned during a period of thirty years* 

The lights which you, fir, have from your orien- 
tal erudition, caft on the origin, religion, and litera* 
ture of the antients of this wefterp country^ incited 
me to refumej and I truft will incite others to hegin^ 
inquiries into the internal ftate of manners and go** 
vemment among its inhabitants, from the times; 
wherein they were obliged to truft folely, to the im- 
provements they could make on the elements of 
knowledge, which you have demonftrated to be im- 
ported hither in an early age* I have in a particu- 
lar manner been attentive to the laft Pagan people 
who took poffeflion of this ifland, and brought its 
old Britifh inhabitants to fubmit to their fupremacy. 
This colony have denominated themfelves S^«// or 
Scots J and in the progrcfs of their power they were 
known by the fame name to the Romans. The 
Epocha of their arrival cannot be afcertained with 
any precifion, through the inaccuracy in our regal 
genealogies, and through the vanity of fome Senz^ 



dues alfoy who to gain a high antiquity, have made 
no diftinftion between intruders and legitimate mo- 
narchs, but put them in regular fucceflion to each 
odier, as a fon ihould fucceed to a father in a 
courfe of hereditary right. This catalogue has been 
juftly rejeded by Tigemachj and other of our antiqua- 
ries, from the reign of Heremon down to the Eama- 
nian sera \ and of the monarchs who fucceeded to 
that era, Tigernacb mentions but a few from the 
reign of Kimbaoih^ to the revolution under Tuathal 
the acceptable. We may therefore reft fatisfied, that 
the Irifli antiquaries, who date the arrival df the 
Sc^/j, from the time which followed the commence- 
ment of the Perfian empire under Cyrm the great, 
come neareft to the truth. 

In this, and in my former two letters, addreiTed to 
you, fir, I have endeavoured to convey fome ufeful 
idea of the (late of this ifland through the revolu- 
tions anterior to the fecond century of our chriftian 
era. From the beginning, one monarchy was efta- 
blifhed on principles abfolutely necefTary to civil 
aflbciation. But our government was originally de- 
fe£bive, through the omiiTion, or perhaps the diffi- 
culty, of putting liberty itfelf under proper legal fe- 
ftraints. In a word, the antient date of Ireland 
may be compared to one, by turns thriving and 
fickly in his infant ftate, gathering ftrength with hi.s 
growth, but fubjeft to convulfions, though with fom(: 
intermiilions, in his molt ilourifhing flate. The firil 
part of this defcription regards chiefly the times an< 
tenor to the fucccffion of Tuathal the acceptable, 
the fecond relates to the three ages which preceede<l 
^e miffion of faint Patric, by far the moft inftruftivc 

pa: t 

tyi Mr. 6^6 O M feS 

pattt of ItUh Mllo^ ; df tlia^ eAfightAi^ i^tfrxA I 
pwpofe to tifoubk you^ "tv^Hb a fourth letf er^ fliould 
yotY tUftk ^6 wertfey of a plac^ in ^e Cdlkt- 

You know,- fir, fr6m what matefials 1 hive bor- 
rowed moft of wfeat I have hitherto ac^aricet^, on 
Ae pagan fta«e of Irelahd. Iti an atdtertifcincht pre- 
fked to itfy firfli letter ^ the chtefdft atf e enumerated, 
anid ftwtte of my defficiencies tftay be accounted fof , 
dirough want of aicecfe to crfhey vahiabFe documents 
fcattered te France and Engtarid^ written in thfe ari- 
tient language 6f this country ^ inteliigible btit to a 
few, and I may fay negfcfted by the far greater 
A^umber of iky ceuhtryihen, mteft of what is ufeful 
in thofe manufcripts, may be fooiii loft to^ the pub- 
lic ; and the IRght put upon them, has encreafed the 
number of wild fchcmes htely pubRfli^dv orf the 
fnbjed I feive tuidertaken iff fhefe fettei's ; of thelfc 
fchi^niei, Ae author of OssrAK, acfd his naYn^Miie 
Dr. Mac Pberfon hs^t been the m'oft coiifpicttotis 
fabrieattors y but in juftice, we muft own, that oiir 
countryman Mr. Beaitfetdj has pitched -the bar be- 
yond* all our aftifts in hypothetic hiftorj^. In repre- 
fenting the antient Scots ^ " as an c^regdte 6f vagd^ 
** hndsy whb fo tate as fhe tenth century ^ had in 
" soMfi- MBA«t;k']^, Confined their Rejtderice to parti' 
** cuiar Jpofs ;*^ he publiihes his igrioraiice, aftd 
through the far greater part of his topography of 
Ireland^ he publiflies his dreams, without any maik 
of pkufibte arguttteit?, to fet' oflf the ignorance or tfee 
dreams : If indeed, it be a merit, that hd cuts out 
the leaft labour for' an adverfary, he doubtlefs eii- 
joyjs it, beyohd aiiy writer antieht or modem. 



Your merit, Ar> is of another kind ; you have 
cur out wcvk, nb doubt, fet* crltidfm and curioiity : 
but it is to fubdae incredulity, and fo gatn idverfa- 
ries to your fide, by feme capital fa£ts, which will 
bear^no con^reveify, as well as by probable fa&s, to 
wfakh; in yctur manner of applying them, few critics 
inilobJ€&. Att this is \iveU, relatire to the fources 
bwi which you h^ve derived the materials of our 
amdent languftge, the rudtoent^ of our antient lite* 
ta(itr^, and' the fundamentals of 't)ur antient theo* 
k^^^ut all tMs i« not ek^ough, relative to our in- 
tetfi^itihiftopjr^ from the time that the inhabitants of 
this iflandhteamea detached people, excluded from 
all intelledual intercQurfes with the polifiied nations 
of Europe. The public will expe£l a knowledge of 
our infular -Aat^Jtot from fiifp06ked reprefentations, 
from me, who have b<?en born in this country, or 
even from yo\irfelf who have been born in anpth^ ; 
biit frppi jthe()yft9iFical matter (till pre/erv,ed 1^ our 
oTd books, and tHat, m the original and fimple form, 
with a Latin o\ Englifh tranllation in a feparate co- 
lumn. This is wbilt ^r. J^rkfi. has recommended 
in his letter to you of Auguft laft. In this as ia 
fiieft DtMr ioibanoes^^ the judgement of 'ifbat truly 
goMU'ffiaivig' d^idve, and' hftp[^ will 4ft^fe na^tlons 
t»e^ if^g4iid«d t^ i^ judgment' TO gieater matters. 
Jtoxi^atidte tc^iysMr un4er^lBg he obferves^ that, 
^♦' Yon httJtoAnfiiike merit in tjje tafte you haire given 
f^ of foiliu'of- dur mamiTot^si in feveral of your 
i^ 4Mi>lid£tiDtts^/'' (^ut be add^, ^^ wjil^ equaljuftk^; 
^^ ^hk y6ur esirtf^S' only enicreafe the cuHofit^, and 
^ithe J4iift'^:4i«tnand of the pijfe^ for foittc intire 
^' pi6oes>)^«^and^lie i\kt&^i addSy '^ that ^ 'till <thl$ is 
- Vf) L. IV. No. XIII. O , •« done. 


I 134 3 

done, the antient period of Iriih hiftory^ which 
precedes official records, cannot be fidd to ftand 
upon proper authority." In fatisfying this de- 
mand of the public, no man has been more a^ve 
than your worthy friend CoL Burton Cunmngham* 
He has been equally adive in improving the modern 
flate of his native country, in every pradicable mea^ 
fure, and particularly, in labouring to open to it, an 
inexhauftible treafure long negleded, and yet with* 
in our grafp, on our fea coafts, I mean dur fUhery : 
Of the honour done me under his roof, as well as 
under yours, I fhaU ever retain a grateful memory ; 
I therefore need not aflure you that I am. 


Your very faithful, and 

Obliged Sqrvant, 

Bel AN AG A R, 

Dec. 10, 1783. . CH. O'C ON O R. 

NO r J?; • 

• There cannot, in my opinion, be a ftronger tefti^ 
inony, of the truth of the Irifh hiftory, relating 
to the time of Hugony J as eKtraded by Mr. 0*Gonor; 
in the preceding pages, than in the name of Hugony\ 
or Ugorij Ugoine or Agaiity as it is written by the 
Iriih. .The learned Dr. gwinton, has noticed this 
^ame in a paflfage of Homeir, and proved it to be of 
Oriental origin; in fo able a manner, I fliaU here 
tranfcribe the Doftor.'s wdtds, from page. 7, of his 
J)y][ertath de Lingua' Etri^rm Regain, VerHacuJa*' 
. .\. * "Linguae 



I 135 ] 

" Linguae Pelafgica & Hebraea vel una eademque 
** fuere, vel parum inter fe diflimiles — Quod Phry- 
•* gum & Lydorum liiigiikm attinet, de liac vix quic- 
^ quam certi ab autfipribus* traditum invenimiii ; at 

Orientales plurimum tedoltiifle fuadent cuni tefti- 
monia fupra allata,turtf ejufdetnf arae,quaB abHbihc* 
ro & Hcrodcto affen'antur,)aciRlae. Quippc quum 
Phoenices, Pelalgi, Phryges, & Lydi vel pro p^rum 
•^ divcrlis; yA pro 6no eodeuique habcantur populo, 
** ut ex prius obfervatis faltem fit verifimile, aequo 
•* jure colligitur Phryguni & l^ydorum linguam vix 
*^ Icviter h Phoeni<iU & Pelafgica difcVepuifle : neque 
^* Phrygas & Lydos diverfas'fuifie'nationes primitus 
** fas, eft fufpic^ri, .cum contrarium liquido evincat 
** Herodoti, i)iodori-— Siculi, Pindari, Paufaniae, 
** Strabonis, « Plutardhi authoritas ; quod duximuji 
** notaiidum, ne fiderii hiftoriae h'ac in re negligen-: 
•* tlus videamur fecuti,' unde propofito nos minus 
** fatisfecifle viri dofti arbitrcntun His.pofitis, ut 

* » • " 

^^ lucidior appareat Veritas, vbcabula quaedam Phry- 
gian Lydiacque originis, ad Homero & Hcrodoto 
defumpta, jam in medium proferemus: primus 
igitut Hbmerus in afenam defcendat, canens. 


;^ ' 

< • • • - « , , , 

^ Loc^ton duplicem hoc loco & alibi memorat 
^^'Pocfta ; alteram Diis prdpriam, hominibus alteram. 
*• Priorem'.fiiiffe Hellenicam vel inde patet, quod 
" fingufefe ijjus voces, quarum ufpiam' meminit 
^ Poitej'^Afnt' mere Hdlenicae; poftcriorem vero 
....:: J ** O a " vel 


.( 136 ) 

• a 

vel ipfiffimam Phrygiam, vel dia|efltum Phrygia 
«^ qu?in;i firnijiimam, ex fummo quoPhrygas traftarunt 
** Graeci lalUi 8r arrogantia, licet concludere. Sic 
' Tiomcn :5^4i^^*»^ duabus vocalis.Helleiucis conftatt 

viz., jB^r fi^'A^^o. ac fortein dcnotat, vel ftxcinuumi 
*^ cui n.ecejfTc eft ut Aty^fif ^quipblkat, cum utrum- 
*V que robori^ quo patre evjafit praeftantior» acccptum 
^* 4ebuerit ^igas, fi fides, Poq^ & eju$ fcbQli?Jti« fit 
** adhtberida. Nomeil autem hoc ab Hebr;8ea>ra* 
** dice'deducendum quis npn.vxdet ? yerbum f\^y 
" Gad vertit Schindlerus. i. Magf>ti8.> fj^qdabUia, 
" ftrenu'U3. iFuit, flrenue fe geflit. jz. IptjJm^it^.fu* 
" perbiit, arrogans fuif, &c. Adjeftivjam igit^ ^j^j 

Ga«, veV t;)Vj{j .Ga|«ii,/ tatine fpnat- Jirenmu^ 

fortisp ,&c. At. tjf m^principio Hebreeis^ GhjJdapis, 
" Syfis'& Arabibus ridmlps^.ve^^ formape; quiii 
*^'& lingua AraHca • pro articulp p^ Emphatico 
*** faepius ufurpari igriom niillus, qui, vel p^Jnus at* 
" tigit. labiis literaturiira Orient ale^n; .quai^obrein 

"^ fubftantivYm ^lv|^^ *4^ . ^i^um, Apf^upm^ 
'' fortem^ ?f c yer.^Eippt^it^^^^^ .roboxc j)raE;cel# 
lentein,, admodum f9Xtem.,&^a' ^commp^CviPPtcft 
defignare, ac idcifCA^.defc^-ipjtiQni.'Ho^ieacsc & 
" notion nominis Gracci B^i«>idf? ngmncatui ad 
^^ amuflim rc:lpoi\4a'.c^. Sed, & id . dobtk : eft ani- 
** madvertendum, qood- duas fcrtitur figmficationes 
" verbum /3pi*'*r (cui Yium' voce /S>4*>i*ry arfkifluna in- 
" tercedit neceffitudo) bfnis verbi fijjj Gaa fenfi- 
'^ bus prorfus accommodfUas^^^ nee qtjeihfH^Qi latere 
" puto in Uteris Graecis inadipcriter^velr/atpin) due 
" reperjri nomina, quibMs. k^d- ra'n[J:^apHdH&rrt^oi 
" infignitvur wwaftrum ab. Homero . W^ ieicid^um, 
f^ VIZ* . .T^y 8c fip«^i«f4 qum di£U8 fenifij^s ^ 0a]i;runo 

. • , ** conveixiunt. 

C 137 ] 

•• conveniunt. Nomcn igitur propriuih Aiymmf a 
^ fonte Hebraeo profluxifTe, & ad linguarum Orien* 
^ talium normam exigendum tuto condudamus." 

Hence the Irifh name Bri-an, Bri-air, O'Brian, 
&c. Bric^ (Heb.) filius Afcr, Num, a 6. 2. from 
the Bebrew J^n^ fortis, robuftus, Annus. 

Prom the fame Oriental fountain, flows the fol- 
lowing names in the Irifh catalogue of ihonarchs, 
which whether real or fiditious could not have been 
given or invented by tJaiils or Welih Britons j and 
which I cannot print in Hebrew for want of type. The 
Oriental readers will luiow them, and to all others, 
it is a itiatter of indifference. 


Of the YiK^ohQ Line* 

Gann^ Sean-gann^ Gannann.^ Explained in "the 
foregohig by Dr. Swinton. Add, Gen-thon,- nom. 
viri. Exod. i o. riF^Mf • 2 Machab. 1 2th. Genubath 
fil. Adad, 3 Kings, ii. 

Loic, Laicy Luic.'] Lcci fil. Scmldae, i Para. 7. 
Lacad, fubjugare. Lacherfi bfeUum. Etrufcan Luco«> 
xno. i. c. magnus Loic. vel Heros. 

jigtiamain.'] i. e. Pugfiator (cSiufa) Meoni. Ag- 
ag, nomen Regis Amalec. i K. 15. Age, pater 
Semma. Aggi fil. Gad.—Hence Agamemnon. 

Bras J Breas.^ i. e. Bri*as, nobilis & fortis. Beri 
fil Supha 1 Para. 7. Beria f. Afer, Gen. 46. Bcrfa, 
rex Gomorrhae, Gen. 14. Brie f. Afer, Num. 26. 

Eaty Eadj Ead-lam.'] Eddo nomen viri Efdr. 8. 

Eder f. Mufi i Para. 13. Ethai nom. vir. 2 Reg. 

15. Ethccl nom. V. k Efdr; Ethi, i Para 12. 


C 138 3 

Lamad valde. Henc Arg-ead«lam, a name the 
Bards have miftaken for Airgid-lamh ; i. e. filver 
handed, and trumped up a ftory to accord with 
their blunders. 

Plojg.^ Explained in the Preface. 

Lar-coig.^ i- e. Heros belli. Etrufcan Lar, Diix. 
. Natby Ned.2 Nahath f. Rahuel, Gen. 36. 2 Para. 
31. Noadia nom. v. 1 Efdr. 8. Nad-ab, f. Aaron, 
Exod. 6- 

Lticurg.2 !• c. Laoc-arg, heros heroum, hence 

Liboriy Liburn^'] Laban, frat.. Rebeccae. Gen. 24. 
Lobana nom. v. i Efdr. 2« Lobni, L Gerfon, Exod. 
6. Libernia, navis bellica. 

And from the fame fovm^ain flows the Pelafgian 
Ogygesy the name of Noah j in Irifh Oig-Uige, heros 
navium. Whence Uig-inge, an aflemblage of fhips, 
a fleet. Ard-taoifeach Uiginge an Admiral, 
j^^jl— JIT dag-ugith, navis Pifcatoria. tj^jm dugia 
navis Piraticsu Thefe and a thoufand other words 
may be produced in the Irifli l?^nguage, flowing 
from the Hebrew, that never did cxifl: in the lan- 
guages of the Gauls and Wclfli Britons. And I 
cannot bring a ftronger proof, that the Fir-bolg of 
Ireland, were not Belgians, than the few examples of 
proper names, in the above quotations, 



The Author takes this Opportunity of ac- 
quainting the Pu B LI c ; 

That the Provoft and Fellows of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin ; have appropriated a very handfome 
and fpacious room, to anfwer the purpofe of a 
PUBLIC MUSEUM; audit is hoped that 
the people of Ireland, for whofe ufe the eftablifh- 
ment is made, will contribute whatever may fcrve 
to render it valuable or curious. Among many 
objefbs of attention, the foflils of Ireland afford a 
copious and almoit unexplored field for difcovery, 
and thofe various inflruments of war and peace, 
thofe rich and curious ornaments of drefs which are 
every day found buried in our lands, ^ prove valua- 
ble memorandums of the antient flate and condi- 
tion of this kingdom. 

Ahy information on thefe or other fubjefts of 
this kind, with fuch circumftances of place, fitua- 
tion, &c. as may give additional light, addrefled to 
the Rev. William Hamilton, F. T. C. D. will be 



attended to: — any accidental expence of carriage, 
&c« from remote parts of the kingdom, will be chear- 
fiiUy defrayed by the college : — and gentlemen who 
do not wifli to deprive their family of fuch matters 
"^^--of curiofity as have an intrinfic value, Ihall receive 
(if defired) an accountable receipt. 












Defciiptioifts Natuial, 'Civil, Ecdcfiaftical, ^ti^ori* 
cal) ChorograpkicEl, &c. With a Table of <^e« 
Ri£s annexed. 

, 1 H£ neoeffity of km^ idiemc, like what is here 
prepofed, will appear to every inaa, ivfao reads 
M\ffoiC% Travels through England^ Scutland 4md Ire-' 
iandp printed London 17 19, Theprefent State of Great 
Britain and Ireland^ l^cmdon, I73^> ^ind other 
writers antient and modern : fome extrads out of 
iR^cfa hare been made in the Preface to the antient 
mdpnfsrtt Jtate of the County of Down, in order to 
flicw tow the Irilh nation have fecen mifreprefented 
by writers of other countries ; not to mention their 
grois miftakes in refped: of the Ecclefiaftial and 
Civil State of this Kingdom. To remove therefore, 



the prejudices wehave laboured under, and to do juf- 
tice to this country, is a part, and only a part of 
this defign ; while more material advantages muft 
neceflarily flow from iu It is acknowledged diat 
the numbers of inhabitants are the riches of a coun- 
try, and that Ireland is not half, nay, not a fourth 
part peopled : What then are the motives that in- 
vite ftrangcrs to a country, either with a view of 
travelling, refidence, or trade ? The ornaments and 

natural advantages of it ^the fertility of the foil 

t he healthinefs of the ai r t he fitnefs of the 
country for carrying on different kinds of manufac- 
tures — navigable rivers ftored with fifh, and har- 
bours large and commodious for trafEck. Ireland 
is happy in all thefe particulars ; to which may be 
added the hofpitality and civilized manners of the 
inhabitants, the equal adminiftration of juftice by 
the execution of mild and wholfome laws, and a 
pcrfcft fecurity of our religious and civil rights, un- 
der the government of a juft and gracious king. It 
may be fufiicient, at this time, to hint at thefe ad^ 
vantages to engage gentlemen to enter into this 
fcheme, the expence of which is fo fmall, and the 
benefit of it fo gteat. 

It is therefore Proposed, 

That until a few gentlemen of this country, can 
be formed into a fociety, to confider of proper me- 
thods for acquiring and propagating a competent 
knowledge of Ireland, in its feveral parts, from 
their own- experience, corrcfpondence or other- 



That every fecond publication of this Collec- 
tanea, fhall be allocated, to record fuch anfwers, 
to the following quseries, as fhall be communicated 
to the author, without waiting for the completion 
of any particular province or county : to be conii- 
dered only as the depot of materials and informar 
don for future hiftorians* 

At the requeft of the author, three thouHmd 
copies of thefe quseries were printed and diftributed, 
in the year 1773, at the expence of the DubHn So- 
ciety. The committee appointed to digeft the an- 
fwcrs, in daily expedation of as many, as would 
complete a certain diilrid, poft-poned their publi- 
cations. The committee was difolved and moft <^ 
the anfwers have been miflaid. 

The author here offers a fecure depofit of fuch 
anfwers, he fhall be honoured with ; and it is de- 
iired that they may come free of the expence of 
poftage, addrefled to him under cover to Mr. JL 
White, Bookfeller, Dublin. 

(^U E R I E S 



To enable tbem to make proper Enquiries into Nataral 
and other Matters relating ti tbefeveral Cotittties 
of Ireland, fo far as they lie in their refptSive 
Neighbourhoods or Knowledge. 

I. A I R. 

Its Qualities for Healthi with what ConftkuJtions it 
agrees beft*— Its QuaUties for Sicknefs^ i>i&afiA 
Epidemical, &c. 

I < 

What is the fituation io general of any county 
with relped to feas, lakes, bogs, mountains, and 
tiepointsiof the heareftB, v;z..£, W.N^iS. . 

JSxtraordiAaiy. phscnofnoaa, as mctQoiB» igmsd 
£rtur, Ssfft) • . 

Sxpi0nmc&t8«.on< mountains, by Baromottits* .. 
. .TcmiyJb, ImtticaneS). 
effofks, andiu:ddQnts from 

• « ^ • 


J > 

;, a.; .W AT £ R» 


Their breadth, . fourccj prpgrefe^ endj^-^^whcthcr 
gjT^iKeUyv-: ftony,— muddy,— fandy ? —Whether re- 

146 WATER. 

markabl^ for whitening ? Whether fubjeS to inan'* 
dations ? 

Navigation of them, how far ? —Where obftruft- 
cd ?— How to be remedied? 

Remarkables belonging to them ; as fubterrane- 
ous paiTages, cafcades, waterfalls, &c« 
' With ^at kinds of fUh repleniflied? — Thetc 
plenty, feafons, way. of breeding, haunts, manner of 
taking tl^em, &ۥ ' 

2. L A K E S. 

Their compafs,-^ qualities, — *-what foil at bot- 
tQm,~-with what kinds .of fifh repleijdfh^, &c. — 
whether ftumps of treiss, buildings, |5rc. are dif- 
eovered in them?-— How fuelled with water,--. 
whether by rivers or fprings ? - - . • 

3. Fouisr TAINS." ' 

I '* « : • . « < ) « 


1. Medicinal y and wfaiether SaUfU, 
by -j^h^r'tafte. — Sulphureous ^ difcoverable by their 
ftink, and tinging filver of a black or copper :.oo<» 
lour.---*Flhfr;(j//«^,' known* by their roc]^' acid tafte, 
and turning blue ' with: galls.— C^^r^A^^, kndwn 
by their turning purple^ or fome-fliaddt of purpTe, 
or red-^th galls,. green cfea, aa oak )eaf, or any 
auflere vegetable ? — Their kinds, qualities, and vir- 
tues, and their "meckanilcal 4ifes,As irf dying, &c. — 
What forts of earths they pafs through ? 

2. Reputed Holy WV/Zj-.-'-To whom dedicated. — 
Wndti,^anLd by what numbers ■vifitcd?-'^ ' 

•'^. Petrifying 

. I > / 


3. P^trifyin^ 5/ri«fj.— What proofs of them? — 
Leaves, xnofs, &c. pctrifyed to be prefcrved, and 

^flyx—Diflfcrence of faltnefs in divers of tfaem^ — 
How, and with what fort of fifli ftored ? — When firft 
viiited by herrings, pilchards, &c.— Plants, infe£b, 
&c. to be found in them? — Tides, currente5 whirl* 

pools, &c. 

Harbours smd Creeks, — Obfervables about them. 
——Their dqiths, fhallows, ihelves, banks, bars, &c. 
Whether clay, Ouzy, or fandy ? 

Shores.-^ What noted fiflieries on them ?— How 
fumiibed with oar-weed, fhells, fand, or other ma- 
nures ? — ^Whether kelp be burned on them, and 
in what quantities 

Promontories. — Of what ftone or foil formed? 
Whether low or bold ? — ^Whether hawks, eagles, 
&c. breed in them ?---How ufeful to mariners. 

3^ E A R T H or SOIL, 

The qualities in general,— whether black,— red 
—•white— -fandy — ftony — gravelly — mixed—depth 
or fliallownefs of the mold. 

Chalk. What Mixtures in it ? 

Clay. Whether fullers — Spotters-— brick —pipe — 
umber, &c. 

Medkinaly as Ochre, IriA flate, &c. 

Com4and. Of what grain produftive I FertiKty 
— barrennefs - methods of cure, manures, &c. 
What fort of tillage is<»rried on in your neighbour- 
hood ? With what fuccefs, and in what manner? 


148 EARTH on SOIL. 

Wli^t maiyres are u£^'f In what propprtioato the 
a«re ? And which .anfwer^ b«(U 

Meadows. High or low, — greater or lefler pro- 
duGe^-*T-r£xpierimeatg in improying. thcm-r*:-with 
what mauures? 

F^ffiure^ Whether fitteft for rearing or imtmsigt 
**-for butter or chcefe ? 

Moor and Bogs. Whether red — black-'^-Mofiy ? 
How improyed» or improveahk ? What timber trees, 
thrive beO: ia dnm ? Tr^e^ hoTOfi, &c« fiMmi buried 
in them, and at what depths i 

Wha^ ar^ the diff»^ divifiom of laAd-jifed» and 
thfs qii^ntity reduc^.tO acret^^ ncif ly at pofiMk* 

Mountains^ Their heigifeth ia repute, or-onmalf 
either in* gradual afcent, or perpendicular heighth, 
by tb« ' TpriceUiaft tuhe^ or aay other medhod. 
Whetier> they eacjend N. or E* 8, orW. If. V«dca- 
noes . ki > tfaom ? Whether • profitable • • or barren ? 
Their produft as to minerals, vegetables, ani- 
mals, &c» 

ValUesi Their '^xt^nt, fruitfuhiefr, or blrrennefs. 

Marfesn , Thjeir forts,, properties, colours. Whe- 
ther they yi^d 201 ebtiHition'by immersing them in 

vinegar or other acids ? '""* / .. - 

• « - 

LimC'Jione. Whi&i-^rfb}0tk---*-^y^^v>n«£fcMed. 
EseCt^^ or dil^ifiky in b«traifg* * What skiJlmts&d ? 
Aiabaft^i.. ... 

Pdrfhky — Markka I. ^tbg^x <^fidSt^ 


USEFUL S t (> N E 9, &c. 149 

. ' • • 

Pebbles. Tranfparent— -red white bhic — - 

Wack, &a Whether they taKe a poKftt ? ' 

'Free-Jhne. • The different forts. Whether fit for 
columns, door-cafes, mouldings, vafed, malt-kilns, 
cifterns, &c. Whether it endures tke weather or 
fweats ? 

Whetjionesy Ragfipnes^ Milljionesy Firejlones^ Slates. 
T6e different fqrts, fizes, or .colour^. 

O 4 

> ',' » • • ... - l«««.,. 

5. S^oi^Rs Curivus^ naturally fipned*^ 


In JhapeC' Jtefcmbldg Ihett-fifb—^dther fifh — 
birds — plants — ^Parts of creatures — and their co« 
tours—refembttng artificial things, as butteMis-^*-flK)cs 
-•whc€fe^-l&cv'-"' • "' '■'■••''-; - V' - 

tn CMbupy:- As fcerfy-ftones^.^hriftdsi-'Aftroites 
— -Seleni^s^^^^^apis Jodideua^ &e. Thdf :0oloufsi 
{izj^y figures, &c. 

f r • • ' 

6. PLANT S., 

Wetdfi' i Hid' kiiidt^'if^list iujv ftattdlng'^~*th<!^ 

Treesi ' DMfeKent 'fljits "oi^ 'the fait\« %ei^s— un- 
common accidents attending them — remarkable iti 
kind, fize, &c. Any peculiarities belonging to 
them — What foils they thrive beft in ? What ani- 
mals or infjfts they produce ? To what ufe applied, 
as itreatj-phyftck, dying, &c.— Fruit-trees. 
Vol. IV- No. Xffl. P Sirubs^ 

ISO ., P JL A. N- T S, &c. 

Sbruis, Herbs. Uncommon— --curiou8-~--medi- 

Grafs. Foreign, as clover, faindfoin, ryegraik, 
.lucerne^ &c. and with what lands they agree befl. 

■ " ' 7. M I N E R A L- S. 

f ...» 

' Sikjer^ topper J kad^ iron-oar^ coals ^ ialc^ ^c. 
Obfervations on mines, as quantities, gbodnefs of ore, 
how wrought, &c. Indicaticyis of mines, &c. Whe- 
ther trees thrive well or ill where they are ? Any 
pre ternattiral colour *Ih the leaves ? ' ' ^ 

:8*-. A N>:l M: A L S. 

Birds- of Paffage^ i^f^^^M^^h quadtupids* Whe* 
ther unufual or extraordinary in coloujr, fize, (hape, 
^«— ''^The ikins ;o£ cuxioQs birds or quadrupeds to 
be itripped^of, fluffed, and communicated. 


Woollen^ Ltneriy'Hempen'^ 'kc.'Whcrc in reputation, 
or carried on with fuccefs ? In what manner ? Whe- 
ther any ;an.d. . .'what ii^prpvcments. bavt bedn made 
therein T If fiflieries, or falt-works are carried on 
in your coqntry , in wh^t . mtoner, aod with what 

fuccef?? . ; -. . . .' . ." 


lo. B U I L D- 

» ^ , .. 

. f 


B U I L D I N G S, &c. 151 

lo. B U I L D I N G S, 

Publick. As remains of monafteries, churches, 
&c. towns, villages, and incidental oDfervations 
on the errors in maps. 

Private. As gentlemens feats and improvements* 


Charky^fnindations. Public fchools — ^libraries-— 
infirmaries-- — ^hofpitals — --work-houfes — ^by whom 
built or- endowed ? How fupported ? Are the poor 
fully employed? If not, how to be remedied ? 

A N T i (i.U i T I E S. 

I. What is the antient and modern name of the 
parifh, and its etymology, and in what county is it 
fituated ? 

n. What number of to^nsr or villages arc in it, 
their names, etymologies, and fltuation. 

in. What antient manor or manfion-ho^fes, and 
by whom built ? 

IV.. Are there any particular cuftoms or privi- 
leges, or remarkable tenures in any of th§ manors / 
in^ the parifh ? ' 

P2 v.: Arc 



15a ANTiqL^ITI E S* 

V. Are there any wakes or patrons, or btber 
cuftoms ufed in the parifti, any annual proceffions 
or ambulations, and on what days of the month, 
and on what occs^on ? . 

VI. Are th^re any tra4itions, remains, or ruini 
of monafteries, colleges, or feihinaries. of learning, 
or of religious houfes ? Give the^beft account there- 
of you can. 

VII. Are there any croffes or obelifks m the 
parifh ? or any infcriptiow oj>,ftonc.oi: wood? Give 
an cxaft copy of them. 

Vni. Are there any Raths, Irijh or Dani/bj any 
caftles^. or other pieces of antiquity, r4:iGaMU»g; in 
your parifli ;. what are thcy^ ^nd whafimditiow- are 
there, or hiftorical accounts, of them ? Add. a draw- 
ing of them, if yoa ca^., 

IX. Have there been any medals, coins, or other 
pieces of antiquity, dug up in your parifh ; when, 
and by whom ; and in whofe cuftody are they ? 

X. Have there been any remarkable battles 
fought, on what fpot^ by whom, when, and. what 
traditions relatinjf thereto ? 

XI. Are there any Kearns, Drtddicql temples or 
altars, tumuli, (lone coffins, or other antient burial 
places? pleafe to defcribc them, and add a drawings 
of each, if you can ; have any been opened and 
what difeoveries have been made therein ? 

XII. Are there any vaults or burial-places, pecu- 
liar to antient, or other families ; what are they, and 
to whom do they belong ? 

• Xni. Are there any antient, or modern remark- 
able monuments, or grave (tones, in the church 


A N T I Q^U I T I E S. 153 

or chancel. See. ? Pleafe to give the infcriptions and 
arms, if any, on the fame, if worthy of notice, 
efpecially if before the 1 6th century. 

XIV. Are there any antient manufcripts in 
the parifli, what are their contents, and in whofe 
pofleflion are they ? 





T O 


Accompanying two Letters from Mr, Simon to Dr. 
Macbride, concerning the Revivifcence of fome 
SNAILS, prefervcd many Years in Mr, Simon's 
Cabinet. Read at the Royal Society^ May 5, 1 774. 

DEAR SIR, Dublin, 22 Jan. 1774. 

1 INCLOSE to you two letters, which I received 
from Mr. Stuckey Simon, concerning that extra- 
ordinary fafit in Natural Hiftory, which you feemed 
to regret had not been fufEciently authenticated to be 
communicated to the public, in t^e Philofophical 
Tranfaftions of laft year.— ITie Royal Society 
are undoubtedly in the right to be extremely cau- 
tious of allowing any thing, fo very much out of 


156 Dr. M A C B R I D E'S 

the hitherto-obferved courfe of nature, as this is, to 
appear in their pubUcations, without the fulled 

In Mr. Simon's letter of the 26th of November, 
you will plcafe to obferve, that he mentions a par- 
ticular Ihell, whofe ffiafl had come oat repeatedly 
four different times, in the prefence of different peo- 
ple ; each of whom have affured' me that they faw 
it. That gentleman haLvihg done me the favour to 
dine with me, a day or two after the date of that 
letter,, he brought the identical (bell (as fae declared),, 
in order that we might try if the fnail would again 
make its appearance. 

The company were not difappointed ; for, after 
the fhell had lahi about ten miiftites in a glafs of 
water that had the coid barely taken off, the fiuil 
began to appear; and in five minutes more we 
perceived half the body fairly pufhed out from 
the cavity of the (hell. We then removed it 
into a bafin, that the fiiail might have more fcope 
than it had in the glafs 1 and here, In a very fliort 
time, we faw it get above the furface of the wa- 
ter, and crawl up towards the edge of the bafin. 
While it was thus moving about, with its horns 
ereft, a fly chanced to be hovering near, and, per- 
ceiving the faail, darted down upon k. The little 
anuBal inftanitly withdrew itfelf within the ihell, 
but as qukkly came forth again, when it found the 
eotmy had gone off. We allowed it to wander 
about the bafin for upwards of aa hour ; whea w<e 
returned it into a wide-mouth phial, wherein Mn 
Simon had lately been a&d to keep it. He was fo 
obliging, as to prefent me with this remarkable fhell ; 


LETTER. 157 

znd I obfenred, at twelve o'clock, as I was going to 
bed^ that tlie fiiail was ilill in motion : but next 
ncming, I found it in a torpid ftate, (licking to the 
fide of the glafs. 

In a few weeks after the time aboye-mentioned, 
I took an opportunity of fending this ftell to Sir 
John Pringle, who fliewed it at a meeting of the 
Society ; but, as he has been pleafed to inform me» 
fome of the members could not bring themfelves to 
believe, but that M*. Simon muft have fuffered him- 
felf to be impofed on by his fon, who, as they ima- 
gined, fubftituted freih (hells, for thofe which he had 
got out of the cabinet. 

When Sir John Pringle acquainted me with 
this diflSculty, I wrote to Mr. Simon, and that pro- 
. duced his letter of the 4th of February. I after- 
wards alfo examined the boy myfelf ; and could 
find no reafon to believe, that he either did, or 
could impofe on his father. 

Mr. Simon is a merchant of this place of a very 
reputable charafter, and undoubted veracity. He 
fives in the heart of the city, a circumftance which 
rendered it almoft impoflible for the fon (if he had 
been fo difpofed) to collcft frefh (hells. The fa- 
ther of Mr. Stuckey Simon was Mr. James 
Simon, a fellow of the Royal Society ; who, being 
a lover of Natural Hiftory, as well as an Anti- 
quarian, made a little coUeftion of foflils, which is 
ftiU in the fon's poffeffion, and contains fome arti- 
cles that are rather uncommon. 


158 Mr. S I M O N ' S 

Should Mr. Simon's letters be inferted in the 
Tranfadions, they will no doubt be the means of 
exciting Naturalifts to enquire into the extent of 
vitality in the lower orders of animals. 
1 am, dear Sir, your moil obedient, 
and very humble fcrvant, 



S I R» Dublin, 26 Nov. 1772. 

A N accident having brought to light what fome 
Naturalifts have not had an opportunity to examine 
into, and which has been a fubjeft of fome conver- 
fation amongft gentlemen to whom I have men- 
tioned it, has made me commit to writing the Am- 
ple fafts, in order to put others on making fur- 
ther experiments on the fubjed About three 
months fmce, I was fettling fome fliells in a drawer j 
amongft which were fome fnail-ftiells. I took them 
out, and gave them to my fon (a child about ten 
years old), who was then in the room with me. 
The Saturday following, the child diverted him- 
fclf with the ihells, put them into a flower-pot, 
which he filled with water, and next morning put 
them into a bafin. Having occafion to ufe it, I ob- 
ferved the fnails had come out of the Ihells. I ex- 
amined the child. He aflured me they were the 
fame I gave him fome days before ; and faid he had 

a few 

LETTER. 159 

a few more, which he brought me. I put one of 
them in the water; and, in half an hour after, ob- 
ferved him put out his horns and body, which he 
moved with a flow motion, I fuppofe from weak^ 
nefs. I then informed Major Vallancey and Dn 
Span of this furprifing difcovcry. They did me 
the favour to come to my houfe the Saturday fol- 
lowing, to examine the fnails ; and, on putting 
them in water, found that only one had life which 
was that I put in water, for he came out of his 
ihell, and carried it on his back about the bafin. 
The reft, I fuppofe, died by being kept too long in 
water ; for, on the firft difcovery, I let them re- 
main in the water until the Monday following, 
when I poured oflF the water, the fnails being 
ilill out of their {hells, and feemingly dead. They 
lay in that ftate until Tuefday night, when I 
found they had all withdrawn into their fliells ; 
and, though I feveral times fmce put them into 
water, they fhewed no figns of life. Dr. Quin 
and Dr. Rutty did me the favour, at different 
times, to examine the fnail that is living; and 
were greatly pleafed to fee him come out of his fo- 
litary habitation in which he has been confined up- 
wards of fifteen years, for fo long I can with truth 
declare he has been in my pofleiiion ; as my father 
died in January 1758, in whofe coUeftion of 
fofnis, thofe fnails were, and for what I know 
they might have been many years in his poflTef- 
fion before they came into my hands. The (hells 
are fmall, and of one kind : white, flriped with 

brown. Since this difcovery, I have kept this 

fnail in a fmall phial, with a cover with holes. 


i6o Mr, S I M O N ' S 

to let in air J and he feems at prefent very 

ftrong, and in health. I ihall be extremely glad, 

if this plain account I have given you would induce 

gentlemai to make fome further eiqperiments on 

this fubjed. 

I am. Sir, 

Your moft obedient, 

humbe fervant, 



DEAR SIR, Stra«d"ftrcct, 4 Feb. 1 77 j. 

I RECEIVED your Ictterj and fee thatSir 
John Pringle received the fnail fafe. You fay, 
that fome gentlemen are inclined to think, my fon 
has impofed on me frefli {hells, in the (lead of 
thofe I gave him. He had no opportunity to get 
any other fliells, being at the time and for feveral 
days after, confined to the houfe with a cold. I 
am pofitive they are the fame I gave him, having 
more of the fame fort of fhells in my cabinet, and 
nearly the fame fize. 

The nine fhells, which produced the fnails, are 
of the fame kind as the one you fem to Sir John 


LETTER, i6i 

Pringle ; and I now fend you one of them, with 
the ihail in it, which 1 take to be dead. Having 
put it in water feveral times, it became foft ; and 
a part of it pufhed out of the fhell, but ihewed 
no other iign of life. I would have fent you a 
few more of the fliells, but that the Bifliop of 
Derry, and fome other friends, have begged of 
me to give them a (hare. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Your moil obedient, 

humble fervant, 




O'F T H B 


o t 

J R B L J N D, 


ColleSanea de Rebus Htbernicis, 





O F 



I. The DdUnt of its Old Inhabi- 

tanCB firom the Phjkno-Sct- 

TMiAM • of the East. 
S. The eariy Skill of the Phaho- 

ScTTiiAMi, in Navigatioo, 

Arts, andLettcfi, 

in. Sevenl Accounts of the Am- 
ciBMT IiiiB BAKDty juthen* 
ticated from parallel Hiftory^ 
Sacred and Profane. 

ftc. Sec. Ac. ftc. 




Jlellow of the Royal Society, and of the Societies of Antiquaries of 

London, Edinburgh, and Perth ; Member of the Royal IriOi 

Academy, and of the Phil. Soc. of Philadelphia, ate 

Sapientiam onminm antiquoram ezquiret Sapiens* Sec l as, zxxix. i. 






IS (by vekuissiov) dbdicatsd bt 


most dutiful and most paitbpul* 
Subject andSbbvant^ 

DoBtiity I Aug. 

Ciarlu rallanuu. 

* \ 



CHAP. L Genealogical Tables of the Jrijb 

Colonies — •-« ^ 

II. Ibe Topographical Names of 

Ireland — r 14 

HI. Expedition afPartholan 33 

IV. 3L of Nemed — 40 

V. I ■ ■ f of the Firbolgj Ftr 

D'Omnann or Fir Galeon 129 

VL ^ of the Tuatba Da- 

dann — — • 151 

Vn. ■ . ■ tf Phenius P barf a 254 

Vin, VI ' of Mile/ius 29 1 

IX. ■ proved from Spa-^ 

nifb Authority — r 325 

I. Conclu/ion — 335 

XI. Of Paganifm in general. Of 
the Pagan Religion of the 
Ancient Irijh — 38« 

Errors to ie cmrffeJ i-^fir nJb^fi the E£tor muji plead in excufi^ 

tut dift once from the prefix 

Page I, for correfpond read comefpond), 
X, line 1 4, ^ if read it. 
ziy note, /or poiTecati, read poftericati« 
1 8, (note m) far TatteiTus read Tartefllis. 
32) line I J, fer muft allowed read muft Le alWcdL 

145, (note 1) far ec teadfce. 

160, line laft, fir Eocad read Eocad illdathac« 

I j6f Vitie 1 2, for aboat read about. 

101, line 23, for fout readfanU ' 

— .— ^4, y^ Anc^treus r/i>i/ AncdtrM* ^ 

line lafty ^ qu'uni read qu'un. 
id. Ar feu r'ead fur. 

208, line 24, for tneir rr/2^ theif . 

d6f, 3d liae of dole (f ), yW- wave rW interweatei 

275» line 29, /ir tsansfetentes raad transfextntes^ 

305, line 6y for purfed read purfued. 

314, line ly^ fir prohpctia rf^s^/ prophetia. 

333, line 1 5, for tran read tranflated. 

339, line 10, for according read according!/. 

345, Notes, line 2, for town read tower. 

346) line 1 4, for penuriam read penurid. 

41 8, line 27, for Celebris read celebres. 

434, line If for i^^ read t^ofr. 

447, after Fileagh, add Filek, in Pcrfic a Magi of the 

470, line 1 7, for ftand read ftands. 

5 1 8, line lafty fir Sudela read Suadela. 

541, (note K) for warmths read vf arms. 

544, line z^i for urfus rr/?^arfa. 

[ i 3 


THE iriih Manufcripti contain a more per&d re- 
count of the emigrations of the Armenian«>&7- 
thians, or Perfians^ &c« from the banks of the-Gifpiaii 
and Euxine Seas to Perfia ; to the lilaiids of the Medi^ 
terranean^ to Africa> to Spain^ and to the Britannic 
Ides* than any hiftory hitherto known. 

The detail of thefe emigrations perfedly correfpond 
with the Punic Annals^ translated out of the books of 
Kin^ HiemfaP% library for Salluft $ they agtee with the 
traditions of the Breherif alias Sicwahy alias jsmazing^s, (a) 
6f the Mountains of Barbary^ even in the name of their 
leader ; they agree with the moft ancient Armenian Hif- 
tory» written by Alofes Ci$roH£nfis (h)^ in names and 
fads, and with the ancient hiftory of the Perfians ; and^ 
laftly, they correfpond with the moft authpntick Spanifti 

Confcquentlv^ thefe MiT. cannot be the forgeries of" 
Iriih Monks ot the 9th and i< th centuries, as has been 
aiTerted by fome modern writers toO haftily. 

Many of thefe MIT. were colleSed into one volume^ 
-written in the Irifh language, by Father jeofF Keating. 
A translation of this work into Englifh appeared many 
years ago, under the title of Kiating^s Hiji^y of InlmuU 

The Tranllator, entirely ignorant of ancient Geogra- 
phy, has given this hiftory an F nglifli drefs, fo ridlcu^ 
lous, as to become the^laughing-ftock of every reader. 

(a) See fome carious accounts of this people at tbe cad of chap* 4tb. 

(b) An autlior of the fifth opDtury. 

b The 



The Euxine Sea, of the originalj, becomes the Baltic 
in the tranflation ; the Ifland of Sicily, Gothland f Ga« 
diz is France f and Frangc, or Farangah, (as the Araba 
write it) that is^ Turquefnin, alias Touran, is tranflatcd 
into Gaul- 

Thcfe blunders gave room to a modern author (c) td 
obferve, that the Irilh ^iftorians jumped from the Baltic 
to the Nile, and from the Nile to the Baltic, as eafy as a 
man (leps over a gutter. He fliould have learned the 
language of the original before he had ventured to cri- 

Thus has the Irilh hiftory been looked upon as the mpfl: 
fabulous of alt' hiftories, and on that account wnwortliy 
of atfcritiom 

If faWe in ancient hiftory is made the criterion of its 
validity, we muft explode that of all other nations^ ex- 
cept the Jews. The Arab writers have met with a good 
fcccptioh in the Teamed world, yet their works are full 
of fabulous narrations, wonders and incredibilities : they 
not only deal in fidions, but difcover a moft remarkabfe 
ignorance in Qironology. Yet thcfe faults have not fo 
rar prejudiced the learned againft them, as to think tHem 
in lio particular defefving of credit. The Authors of the 
Englim Uhivcrfal Hiffofy declare the ignorance of the 
Arabian writers, in chronoldgy,^ even when they treat of 
Events that happened not many centuries before the 
Hejra I And N'ubuhr who lately travelled in Arabia, with 
^dvantage» that fall to the fhare of few of our modem 
travellers (being both a, fcholar and a philofopher) in- 
forms us, that the Arabs were utterly ignorant of the an- 
cient hiftory of their own country. 

The Grreeks, to whom we are much indebted, arc ftilt 
more fabulous r they knew little of the Geograpny of the 
Globe ; and the Romans tefs. To ufe th^ expreffion of 
a learned Orientalift (d), they were Hke a fine luff re in a 
large hall : they might diffufe their rays a great way 

(c) The writer of the Southern Tour in Ireltnd. 

(d) Richardfon*t Diflerution on Eaftera Lang, p. %^u 





around t but they could not illundinate all the extremi- 
ties : they ^ould not throw light into every dark recefs. 

** Herodotus^ the otdeft Greek hiftqnan, knew no- 
thing of Britain $ and the Phenici^ns^ who traded hither 
for tin in the earlieft times, always concealed the name of 
the place, in order the better tp fecurc fo gainful a trade 
to themfelves, calling it the Caffiteridcs, or Tin Iflands^ 
without any other defignation. 

*^ The Britons themfelves, from their firft plantation 
here under the Tyrian Hercules, by Pheniciam Jrom the 
Red Sea and Jfrabhy had been fecluded many ages from 
the reft of the world ; and as this plantation took place 
before Gaul was peopled, there was therefore the Icfs 
cnance of their learning from the reft of the world, any 
thing more than what they happened to have brought 
over with them." (e) —We cannot agree with the Dodor, 
that our Scythian Pheni were in pofleffion of the Britan* 
nic Ifles before Gaul was peopled. The Irilh hiftory de- 
clares thefc iflands were- inhabited when they arrived 
here, and confcquently Gaul was alfo, from whence the 
firft inhabitants' paiTed over to Britain. 

The judicious Quintilian thought he palTcd not too fe- 
verc a cenfure when he wrote, Grads hijforicis plerumque 
foetica Jimilem ejfe licenttam. And Strabo is yet more fc- 
vere. ** Though the Greek hiftorians have pretended 
*« to give a hiftory of Cyrus, and his particular wars with 
*• thofe who were called MeJ/hgeta : yet nothing precifc 
*' and fatisfadory could ever be obtained : not even in 
** refpeS to the war. There is the fame uncertainty 
** with regard to the ancient hiftory of the Perfians, as 
«* well as that of the Medes and Syrians : we can meet 
*' with little that can be deemed authentic, on account 
•* of the nveaknefs of thofe who wrote, and their uniform 
** lave af fable. For finding that writers, who profef- 
«* fedly deal in fiSion without any pretenfions to truth, 
*' were regarded : they thought that they fliould make 
their writings equally acceptable, if in the fyftem of 
their hiftory they were to introduce circumftances 

(e) Or. Scokely^s Memoir to Soc. Antiq* Dec. 3d, 1761* 

b 2 *' which 


<' which thty had neither feen, nor heard, nor received 
'< upon the authority of another perfon: proceeding 
** merely upon thi» principle, that they (hould be moft 
** likely to pleafe people's fiancy, by having recourfe. to 
** what was marvellous and new. On this . account we 
'* may more fafely truft to Hefiod and Homer, when they 
*' prefent us with a lift of demigods and heroes, and even 
** to the tragic poets, than to Qefias, Herodotus, Hella- 
** nicusy and writers of that clafs. Even the generality 
*' of hiftorians who write about Alexander are not fafely 
'' to be tnifted: for they fpcak with great confidence, 
** relying upon the glory of the monarch whom they ce- 
** lebrate, and the remotenefs of the countries in which 
'* he was engaged; even at the extremities of Aiia^ at a 
*^ great dtftance firom us, and our concerns. This ren- 
'< ders them very fecure ; for what is referred to a dif- 
** tance is diiScolt to be confuted, (f )'' 

In another place Strabo goes on in the fame ftrain. 
" The writers, who mufl aeoeflarily be appealed to, 
** were in cwtinunl ^pp§Jition^ anicmi^r^Bii one an^hir. 
*' And how could it be otherwife ? for if they erred fo 

ihamefully when chey had ocular proof, how could 

they fpeak with certainty, where they were lead by 


The Grecians, fays Mr. Bryant, were grofslv igno- 
rant in refpeS to foreign events, they were a bigotted 
people, highly prejudiced in their own favour ; and fo 
devoted to idle tradition, that no arguments could wean 
them of their folly, (h) 

After fuch a weight of evidence, fays Mr. RichardTon, 
is there great prefumption in iuppofing, amidft fo much 
error, fome amendment poffible ? Gin there be any im- 
fM*opriety in the enquiry, how far the records, and the 
hiftorians of a people might, in refped to their own an- 
nals, corred the miftakes and the fidions of ftrangers i 
Or, can there be much harm, in dirci^ing, if poffible. 


(f ) Strtbo, Lib. it. p. 774. 
%) Lib. XV. p. 1006. 
h) MyUiolosyf val» L p. 100. snd 143. 




the attention of ingenious and learned traveUefs to the 
difcovery o( fuch ancient materials, as might tf nd either 
to authenticate, or to confute the hiftcrians of more n^ 
dern times (i' ? How ilender, indeed, were the bcft pre- 
tcniions of the Greeks to anjr real knowledge of the hif- 
tory, fangnage^ or manners of ancient Perfia 1 Xenophon 
and Ctenas were amongft the few who ODuld have even 
an opportunity of confulting authentic records ; yet, by 
a (ingular fatality, there are not two produdions of anti- 
quity more queftioned than the Cyropeediaof Xenophon, 
and the Annals of Ctefias. 

Notwithftanding the fentiments of Plato and Cicero, 
the CyropdBdia has been followed, as an authentic htf- 
tory, by Africanus, Tofephus, Uflier, Prideaux. And 
the authors of the IJniverfal Hiftory confidcr its autho- 
rity as far preferable to that of Herodotus. Scaliger, Eraf« 
mus, and many others, look upon it, on the contrary, as 
a mere coUedion of figments. Dr. Jackfon, declaring st 
to be more feigned than real, fays, <* it has mifled every 
*' writer who has attempted to follow it.'' The Dodor, 
at the fame time, ftyies Herodotus the moft accurate and 
faithful hiftorian, and eonfiders Ctefias in a very diffe- 
rent light from the learned in general. To Ctefias, on 
the other hand. Sir i. Newton pays fma(i rerard ; but to 
Herodotus, notwithftanding the anathema of Strabo, he 
looks up with high refped. He calls him, after Cicero, 
the FaAtr of Hi/hrf^ and endeavours to reconcile with 
him every point of early chronology. When fuch men 
differ, who can decide (k) ?-«>Ubi tanta eft contentio, ibi 
vel nuliam vel incertam eflc veritatem. (I) 

Yet, as St. Paul faid in another cafe, I think we' may 
fay in this. That God bath mt kfius withut a tvitm/Sp 
but hath given us certain notes and marks, if we were 
fo diligent as to mark them, whereby we may eafilv point 
out the original habitations of the nrft colonies of man- 
kind* Among the various expedients by which learned 

(i) Vlfftrt. p. 396. 
k) lb. p. 300. 




men have tried to clear up the mill that hangs over the 
early accounts of all nations^ none has been fo generally 
approved in theory, or fo fucccfsfuily applied, as that 
which makes identity or remarkaUe fimilarity of lan- 

Sage, manners, and religious obfefvances, its principal 
indation. Both ancient and modern critics, proceed- 
ing on this plan, have made fuch dedudions from very 
fcanty prcmifes, aa almoft challenge the certainty of 
ftrid: demonftration. 

The fubjed, however, is by no means cxhaufted : in 
the extenfive field of etymology efpecially, there is am- 
ple room for every j>roficient in every tongue to exercife 
his induftry as well as ingenuity. Whoever will be at 
(he trouble of comparing the common Irifli, fpoken ver- 
nacularly at this day, in the weftem (kirts of Europe^ 
with the languages of the Eaft now in ofe, and with 
thofe which for ases paft have been preferved only in 
books, will not eauly be perfiiaded that chance eyer pro- 
duced the plain analogies that every where prefent them- 
felves to an obfervant eye. Chance may, and often does^ 
produce refemblanccs ; but whole bribes and (pecies of 
relatives and correlatives mud have their foundation in 
nature, wfaofe works are varioufly uniform* 

It is unreaibnaUc to fuppofe, th^t the proper names 
of men, places, rivers, &c. were originally impofed in 
an arbitrary manner, without regard to properties, cir« 
cumflances, or particular occurrences : wt flbould rather 
think, that in the earlieft periods, and efpecially where 
the ufe of letters was unknown, a name ufually conveyed 
a brief hiftory of the thing (ignificd, and thus recorded, 
as it were, by a. method of artificial memory $ manifeft 
and numerous inftancesof this are the Patriarchal names 
recorded by Mofes. 

The poets were alfo the only hiftorians of the Heroic 
Ages ; and they, imitating the former u&ge, are fiill of 
epithets expreflive of remarkable qualities, properties, or 
local exploits. The firfl profe writers ftudicd more to 
pleafe after the manner of the Poets, than to inform their 
readers ; and therefore are their works filled with impro- 
bable (lories, faid to be preferved ,by tradition, ajnd with 




extravagant fidions^ chicAjr calculated for amuremcnt. 
Even the raoft approved ancients muft be read with ex- 
treme caution, compared with others, and with them- 
fclves, fifted by the rules of juft criticifm, and fome- 
times fubjeded to the fevere torture of etymological dif- 
4]uiiition. (m) 

After this conpeffion, the moft fangujne advopatcs for 
the authenticity of the ancient Iri(h monuments, ft ill rcr 
mainingy cannot take it amifs that we apply the fanpkc 
touchftone to domeftic as to foreign vouchers. By luch 
analy^s perhaps fome rays may be admitted, whereby to 
difcover ** who wen thi andent inhabit anU of not only il^e 
** Britijb IJles, hut of a conjiderabli part of Wefiern E^u- 
'• ropf> _ * 

And this is not the only advantage we (hall reap by fuch 
an inveftigatlon : ^lany pafTages, la the writings of the 
infpired penman, become elucidated thereby, (n) I^el^- 
gioii6 cuftoms and ceremonies, borrowed by the Jews 
from the idolatrous nations in the Eaft, are phen c:fp- 
prefled by a fingle word, the true fignification of which 
is not to be found in the Hebrew, Chaidean* or Arabic 
languages c the fame words are frequently (o be met ia 
Che kifli MSS. denoting the fame ceremony, and thit 
fe defcribed> as to leave no room for conjeSqre ; for ex- 
ample, Samacy Smac, or Smag, in Irlfh, is die palm cf 
the hand: at the coronation of a King, or the ordination 
of a Prieft, the Chief Pricft paflcd the palms of both 
hands down the temples of the Prince or .Prieft* and hp 


(m) The Kaftems ill wrote theif hiftories in i^nisnus^s. Ths 
.A|;yf>tian8 had their 'ifpATixaV /rof /tff , hiftoriai Sacerdotales, and 
in every tettple were i^H>HTtf} Interpretes, as Clememens Alex- 
andrinitft «allt them. The Greelu imitated the i£gyptiani 'm writ* 
ing hiHorical ^nigmai.— Uilos inter Grecos, qui TapientiK Cunafn adep- 
ti (unt^ res non iermone perfpicuo propofuiflfe, fed aenigmatibus invol- 
▼iiie« (Pauian. in Arcadicis.) Hxfiorf informs us that the old Scythi 
were remarkable for their iEnigmas and Hieroglyphics ; the modem 
Irii^ writen not ahje to difcover this mode of writing, have underilood 
their Sei^nacbes literally, and hence Aow the abfurdities in the Iriih hif. 

(n) Quis hoc crederet ut barbara Gettnm Hngua Hebraictm qnsreret 
▼erittiaa i (Hlproo* ^p. «d Siinniamip Fnct. fub init,] 



wat thcnfaid tobe^^Rtff'i/; htnct fmacd ot fman^ figm^ 
fy authority ; one fct over the people : crioch-fmacd a 
Government, from crioch^ Territory ; and, as a verb, 
Jmacdam is to govern. The (ame word is ufed by Mofes, 
when be put Jo(hua in authority, with the fame cemno- 
ny. ** And Jofhua the fon of Nun was full of the fpirit 
'' of wifdom $ for Mofes ySO famach'd him, laying his 
^* hands upon him ; and the children of Ifrael hearkened 
'' unto him, and did as the (iord conmianded Mofes.'* 
(Deuter.34. V. ^.) Afccond example is in the Irifli word 
fimarcaV, i. e. Signum X, that is, the fign with which thp 
Emir J or Noble, was anointed on the forehead between 
the eyes ; it is the ancient Hebrew, Samaritan, and Irifli 
X Thau ; and hence arofc thr <^ce of the Jewiih Pricfts 
called Immorcalim, or Imn^ircalin. Thefe, and man^ 
other examples, will be fully detailed in the courfc of this 
work, (o) Sec Note A- 

The annals of Ireland teftify, that the ancient Irifli 
were the deCpendants of Magog, confequentlv they were 
Scythians* As fuch they have been efteemea an illiterate 
and favage people. The Authors of the Univerfal Hif<- 
tory, to fupport a fyftcm, and too clofely adhering to 
Greek authorities, deny the ufe of letters to the Scythi- 
ans ; yet when they oonrie to treat of the Tartars (the 
dcfcendants of thefe Scyfhjans), they confcfs, it is morp 
than probable, that the Tartars had the ufe of letters, 
from the earlieft times ; and a modern aythor infids, thsit 
the Irifli had not letters, before the coming of Patrick into 
the Ifland : the reader will and fuch undeniable proofs of 
the ancient Irifli having had the ufe of letters, and of 
having been flcilled in all the fciences of the times, as 
will leave great room to regret the deftrudion of records, 
monuments, &c. by our zealous Chriftian miffionarie^ 
on their arrival in that Ifland. 

As Scythians, the inhabitants of the Britannic Ifles, 
prior to the final fettlcmcnt of the Cymmerig, or Walfli, 
from Gaul, were to be deemed a barbarous people. The 

(o) The Coptic/jM^iW, benediadt, » alio the Irifli finsoiTDd, snoiat* 
ed, Smtand In £nglUh« 



modern hiftorian making no diftinftion between the No- 
made or Northern Scythian, and the civilised or Son* 
them Scythian of Armenia, has treated them as the Grreat 
Montefquieu has the Tartars, and drawn concluCons 
which are by no means fupportcd by their manners or 
their govemoicnt. ^p) 

Few circumftances, fays Mr. Richardfon, have been 
lefs attended to, by fome of our greateit writers, than a 
proper diftindion between the ruder and the more poli(h- 
ed people who fill the immenfe extent of Tartary. Men 
totally difisnilar are grouped together under one indifcri- 
minaie bharader, merely becaafe they arc known in Eu- 
rope by one ^neral name, (q) 

With the Greeks, all were barbarous but themfelves. 
The Hebrews, whofe ancient Schools and Academies 
fhone in all the learning of the Ages in which they flou- 
rifhed, were yet barbarous in the eyes of the Greeks. 
Judaeos barbarorum effe inetti/fimos : ideoque folos iilos, 
nullum inventum vit9 utile^ peperiiTe* (ApoUonius, 
ap. Jofeph. contra' Apion). 

(p) Tfide Sc)tbiant, we /hall fliew from good Authority^ formed the 
Perfian Nation, and are now known by the name of Twranmax, Theft, 
(ayt Sir WiUiam Jones, are the Scythians of our ancient Hiftories who 
are faid to fuve invaded the Kingdom of the Medes about 640 Years be- 
fore Chrift ; hut mr ktfi hifiorians are uft r» c»nfmmd them with the Stythuuu 
•/the Nmh, (HiAory of Perfia, p. 45.) 

The Kins of tJiefe Toursniatu or Scythians Teems properly to have pre- 
fcryed the title jA Afrafiah chat is. Father rf the Perfiant: The family of 
Otiman, who now r«gn at Conftantinople, are willing to be reputed deT- 
cendants from this King of Tovran, and are flattered with the Epithet of 
jifim/ai Jmh or powerfal as Afra£ab. (Jones* Hift. of Perfia, 44.) Biic 
this Title -there is reafon to think defcended to them from Vhetmt Pharjs 
King of Pontus, of whom in the following Hiflory. Pbart from whence 
AfraJSah was the general name of thefe Southern Scythians, from their 
freac Anceftor Pberat Pharfa» 

(q) Diflert. p. 146, It feems probable from Herodotus, that neither 
the Scythians nor the Thracians were unacquainted with the Aflyrian let- 
ters. (Un. Hift. vol. XX ) A conflderable part of the Scythians had a 
l9tfy ofJawSf to regulate their condu6) by, is attefted by Ephorus, (Item, 
Hiftory of Turks, Tarurs, Sec.). The Scythians have been highly extoU 
led by Ephonis and Strabo, for their wifdom, juftice^ integrity, and moil 
fubKme friendfiiip — it ftiould feem therefore, that this people had not only 
un exedientfyflem of civil and religious inftitutjonr, but like wife a moll 
powerful motive to an obfervance of them. (Idem.) 



The Spaniards, whom Strabo allows to have been a 
lettered people from an early period, were ftill denomi- 
nated Barbarians, by the polantic Greeks. 

Grecia Ilamava Barbara a la gente 
que fus Ciencias, i Ritos, no bevia, 
de qae fingio en Parnafo tener fuente. 
Roma, quando ufurpo la Monarquia, 

i junto con las ciencias, a fu Erario 
el Teforo del Mundo concurria. 

Al inculto Efpanol fu tributario 
tambien le llamo Barbaro, i agora 
es nombre de ignorantes ordinario. . « 

(Lupercio Leonardo. p« 74.) 

In the following pages, if will appear, that the body 
of Magogian Scythians, of whom we treat, were a poi- 
lifhed people before they left Afia ; the firfl aftronoii^ers, 
navigators, and traders, after the flood, and courted by 
the Arabs, the Gmaanites, the Jews, and Egyptians, to 
fettle among them. That, from their firft fettlement in 
Armenia, they foon paflTed down the Euphrates to the 
Perfian Gulph, round the Indian Ocean, to the Red Sea, 
up the coaft of the Mediterranean almoil to Tyre. The 
Greeks knew them by the names of the Phoenicians oi the 
Red Sea, by Idhyophagi and Troglodytae : in Scripture 
they arc called Am Siim or Ship people, and Naphutb Do- 
ri or Maritime folks, (r) 

Thefe foon mixed with the Dadanites and Ginaanites, 
allied with them, and were abforbed under the general 
name of Phoenicians ; yet ftill among themfclves were 
diftinguiflicd as the fons of Japhct Gadul. Thefe affer- 
tions the author of this Vindication thinks can be well 
fupportcd by facrcd and profane hiftory, and with great 
deference fubmits them to the learned reader. 

(r) The Dori rettlad on the Coaft of Gaul.— Aborigines primos in hi^ 
re^ionibui quidam vlflas efie iirmenint Celtas nomine Regit ambabilet ft 
matrit ejus vocabulo Galatas di£!os ; ita enim Callos fermo Gr«co$ ap« 
pellat : Alii Dorienfes antiquiorem fecutos Herculem Oceani iocoe habi- 
taffe confines. (Amn. Marpell. L. 15.) 



The Greckd (and the Latins their G>pyi(ls) have made 
ftrange havock of the names Get hi and Scytbi : (s) from 
a fondnefs for the letter S, they frequently prefixed it to 
the proper names indifcriminately with other words, and 
thus confounded two nations as different in their origin as 
any two people can be ; this has been juftly ob/erved by 
the learned Ihre* Lex. Suio Goth, in voce Goter. viz. 
^^ id tantum monebo, Grsecos qui vocibus fsspe S praepo* 
*^ fuere, Gothorum nomen in Scytharum commutaffej 
'' quippc qui docent, ipfofmet indigenas nomine Scytha- 
** mm femet non appellaffe.'* 

To a common reader, it mufl appear the reveries of 
an etymologift to compare the language and deities of the 
Brahndans with thofe of the ancient Iri(h ; but to the phi* 
lofophcr, who has perufed the works of that learned allro.- 
nomer, Moniieur Bailly, there will appear folid reafon 
for fo doing : the Brahmans and Guebrcs were originally 
a mixture of Dedanites and Periians. or Scythians. Fo* 
hi, the civilifer of the Chinefe, was a Scythian. The 
Japonefe were Scythians. 

Anacharfis, a Scythian, was admired by Solon, for 
his learning. Abaris, an Hyperborean Scythian^ and 
Prieft of Apollo, was revered by all Greece for his pro- 
found wifdom and learning. Suidas tcftifies that he 
wrote a Treatife on Theogony, and feveral other works. 
Hunc Ahirim, tefte Suida, prseter alia multa, fcripfiffe 
Theogoniam ; ideoque Mundi orgines : nam ca con- 
jonda erant apud veteres. (Burnel. Archseo. Phil.) 

Deucalion, who carried the worfliip of Adonis into 
Syria, was a Scythian. Zoroafter, if not a Scythian, 
at leaft ftudied Aftronomy in Scythia ; Aftronomy took 
its rife \n the Lat. of 49^ or 50^ ; here the Arts had their 
birth, and from thence fpread towards the South* 

It will not be furprifing to find a people, at length fix- 
fd in a fequeftered corner of the Globe, whofe hiftory by 
their frequent migrations mud confequently depend much 

(t) A mala enim vulgi ^onunciatione mala fcriptio, is mala fcriptio 
erroremtrttdit pofletatt. lo. de Laet. £t verba valent ufu fecut nummi* 



on tradition, work up the events of their anceftors in 
Armenia, Periia, AiTyria, Spain, &c. into one hiftory 
of the country they at prefent pofTefs : nay even to bor- 
row events or their other Colonics, which never were 
tranfadcd by themfelves : it is a foible common to all 
other nations. 

It is to be obferved, fays Mr. Bryant, that when Co- 
lonies went abroad and made any where a fettlement^ 
they ingrafted upon their antecedent hiftory the fubfequent 
events of the place. And as in thofe days they coutd car-» 
ry up the Genealogies of their Prince to their very fource, 
it will be found that the firft King in every Country un- 
der whatever title defigncd, was the Patriarch, the Fa- 
ther of mankind. (Memoire read at A. S. London^ 


I muft beg leavt to repeat, that, whenever I mention 
the Irijby I mean alfo the Erftf or llighlanders of Scot- 
land. From a long attention to their ancient hiftory^ 
manners, religion, antiquities, and languages, we pro- 
nounce them to have been one people ; the poflciTors of 
the Brittannic Ifles, before the arrival of the Cymmeri, 
and by them thruft to the North of Scotland, to Ireland^ 
and to Man ; in vain, therefore, do thefe nations difpute 
for feniority. "" 

Many pfauiible arguments have of late been ufed^ by 
the writers of Scotland, to prove the antiquity of the Erfe 
over the Irijh' The moft ingenious are thofe of Dr. 
Macpherfon, whofe errors I beg leave to rcSify (t). «' He 
*' fays, that the indigenal name of the Calidonians is the 
*' only one hitherto known among their genuine defcen- 
** dants, the Highlanders of Scotland. They call them- 
** felves >//te/fiV^to thisday. All the illiterate Highlan- 
^* dcrs arc as perfcd ftrangcrs to the national name of 
** Scot, as they arc to that of Parthian or Arabian. If 
*' a common Highlander is afked of what country he is, 
*< he immediately anfwers, that he is an MlmnUh or GaeL 

ft) Critical Diflertatiofis on the origin, antiqitities, &c. oftheCaledo- 
AiaiK, by John Macpheriony D. D. nniniA«r of Slate, in the lite of Sk^. 

4* Tf 


^* It is unnectiTary to produce authorities to Ihew that 
^* the iiland, which now eoes under the name of Britain, 
was in early ages called Albion* To fearch for a He- 
brew or Phoenician etymon of Albhn has been the fol- 
ly of fome learned writers. In vain have fome at« 
tempted to derive it from the White Cliffs near Dover, 
or from a Greek word> which fignifies a certain fpecies 
of grain, or from a gigantic Ton of Neptune. 

In the Celtic language, of which fo many different 
dialeds were diffufed over all the European nations of 



** the Weft and North, and, let me add, the Scythiang 
** of Aiia, the vocable Mp, ot Alba, fignifies high. Of 

€t ' ' ' ' ~ * - - - _ - 



the Alpes Grajse, Alpes Pcsnins, and the Alpcs Baf- 
tarnic9B, every man of letters has read In the ancient 
language of Scotland, Alpes fignifies, invariably, an 
** eminence. The Albani near the Cafpian Sea, the 
** Albani of Macedon, the Albani of Italy, and the Ai- 
** banick of Britain, had all the fame right to a name 
^'founded on the fame charaderiftical reafon, the 
*' heighth or roughnefs of their refpedive countries. The 
'^ fame may be faid of the Gauli(h Albici near MafTclia. 
*' It was natural enough for man, who had been once 
*' fettled in the low plains of Belgium, to give the name 
** of Albaj or Albh, to Britain, on comparing the face 
*' or appearance of it to that of their former country. 
'^ And it is to be obferved, that alraoft all the local names 
** of the Celtic tongue arc energetical, and dcfcriptive 
of th£ peculiar properties or appearance of places. 
*' That all the territories once poflTefled by the old Ca- 
ledonians were formerly called Alba in Galic, and 
^* Albania in the Latin of the latter ages, is certain be- 
yond contradidion. But had the Scots of Britain come 
originally from Ireland, their Latin name would have 
been very probably Hiberni, and their Gallic one un- 
doubtedly remain Eirinich. 
'' To ftrengthen the obfervation I am to make, it is 
*^ almoft necdtefs to mention the lonians of Afia, the^ 
** PhocsBans of Gaul, the Boii of Germany, &c. all 
^* thefe, and other innumerable colonies, who left their 
" native countries, and planted themfelves in foreign 







*< regions, made a point of retaining the proper names 
^ of thofc nations from which they were originally 
<« fpning. 

•* Had the Scots of Britain been a colony from Ire- 
«< land, in fpite of all the hard things faid by Strabo, 
'* Mela, Solinus, and others, to the prejudice of the 
'* old Hibernians ; nay, if the nniverfal confent of 
^* mankind, inftead of three or four ancient writers, had 
«* agreed in calling the Irifh Savages, Cannibals, &c. 
«« the Scots, notwithdanding, would have admired their 
^' anceftors fuperftitioufly, and retained their name, 
«* rather than degrade themfclves into Albanich, But no 
Britifh Soot has ever yet called himfelf an Hibernian 
in a learned language, nor Eirinich in his own mo- 
ther tongue. Every Scot who underdands the Galic 
" calls himfelf, as I obfervcd before, either Gael^ that 
'* is, one of the Celts, or Albanich ; in other words, a 
•* genuine Briton/* 

The DoSor firft produces good authority, that the 
name of Albania was common to the whole Ifland, and 
not locally confined to the Mountainous parts of Scot- 
land. The general features of England are not moun- 
tainous, particularly that part oppofite the Continent 
would not appear fo to a Belgian. Confequently, Al- 
bania was not derived from Alb or ^Ip^ high. We mud, 
therefore, feek the Etymon in fome other language. 
The learned Dodor has forbidden any refearches for 
the word in the Oriental tongues : this is prefump- 
tive ; he muft not exclude that of the Pseno Hi- 
herni^ the Inhabitants of the Ifland before the Britons 
arrived : thofe inhabitants who gave names to all the 
great features of the country, which Llhwyd obfervcs, 
are not derived in the Welfti Dialed. 

In the Erie or Irifli we find ^ban^ the corruption of 
Laban, to fignify light; the word is Phoenician and 
Chaldee, from p^, laban, inflammarc, whence p^K, 
Alban, Lux matutina, Oriens, Aurora. (Bochart (t).) 

(t) In like manner *n)K> ^^ ^*f l^^n^t fpki^or, Uiiiminatio, Lux 
matutina, mane, diluculum. Ignii acceafus et lucens, fiamma j foeus. 
As a verb, *n^K» ^^^ *1K» or ^^^ ^^» loxit, illuxit *)^Kn hir, iliumi- 
navit, lucem emifit, UluAraTit, Incidam fecit i inflanunayiu 



In like manner from the Hebrew nnV lahab, Tomai&n 
derives TSi^b lahet, whence Lux, lumen ; Saxon Lcoht, 
Angl- Light. 

The divifion of the Country between the Euxine and 
Cafpian Seas was into Iberia and Albania, i. e. n^j^ Ebr. 
and pfm . Alban, or Weft and Eaft ; hence Iberia, a 
name of Spain and Ibcrnac, or Hibernia, the Uhima 
habitatio, or habitatio Occidentalis (u). 

The local pofitions of the two Britannic Ifles confe- 
quently gave the names of lernia and Albania ; that is^ 
'M^I'inK Aharun-ai, the Weftem Ifland, and »H-p^ 
Alban-ai the Eaftern Ifland — from the firfl comes "Ao^r^, 
the Lake, near Tartcffus (w) ; and hence Lough jihertt, 
now called Brm, in Ireland, which difchargcs into 
the Weftem Ocean. The Chaldccs wrote this word 
Hn)H Aoria (x), whence the Irifh lar, the Weft (y) ; 
from Alban we have the Albuspagus^ a Myoftiorno diftat 
duobus, aut tribus curfibus, vcrfus ad Ortum (z). 

Hence alfo, I think, is derived inn»T»D Pe-harun, 
1. c. the Ripa Occidentalis, now the Pyrenaci, becaufc 
they extend to the Weftern Shore, as the p^K> Alban, 
or Alpes, do to the Eaftern of Gaul (a). 

I acknowledge that Alp, or Ailp, in the Irifti and 
Erie, do fignify high ; but I deny the words were ever 
applied to Topographical dcfcriptions, becaufe they do 
not betoken a mat eminence or altitude ; Alp in that 
cafe became ^//, as AluOifitiy i. e. Offian's Mountain 
in the County of Donegal, which the Scots would re- 
move to their own Country if pofEble ; the root of 

(u) Bochait, G. S. C. 654. 

(w) Bocharty Geo. Sacr. C. 605, 

(x) Kn^K OcGidens in lifu Fcr(ico per antiphrafin. Plantavit in 

(y) Fuin or Fuineach was another name of Ireland, fynonym«u8 to 
Jerna froRi the Syrian Fenia or Phenia, occafus folis. In a former 
work, I (lave obferved that the Iri£h might have named the Erfe Eile* 
bonnacb, or the good tribes, to diAinguiOi theih from the BritMit 
whom they named Gui-han, or the white foreigners, i. e. ]^7*^1> 

(z) Ptolemy. 

(a) The Spanifli name of the Pyrenaeans, is Monta de AJpa^ from 
D9K aphas terminus finis. Vefper. Heb. Aphje-Erea finis terrc, &c. 
The Spanilh name correfponds with Pe-barun* 



which 18 ^j^ 0\, or Hoi (b), i. e. exeelfiifi or Aich oil 
Eminence was exprefled by Mul, as the Mul of Cantirc 
in Scotland ; the Mountains of Bela-Muladi^ in the 
County" of Watcrford in Ireland, &c. &c. from ^D Mol, 
Exaltatio, Eminentia. Alf) implies a fmall ahitude, a 
hill, an tfcent, and is exprefled by the Letter A ; fee the 
Irifh Didionaries : hence it fignifies a Cart» a'Wag;^on> 
a Chariot, becaufe it elevates the rider. It is the Orien- 
tal Alp or Alep, the firft letter of the Alphabet^ which 
fignifies in Chaldee the Trufii of a Tm^ out of which 
all the reft of the alphabet did grow ; it is therefore ex- 

prejQTed in Syriac and Arabic by a fingle ftroke U t ; 

in Samaritan it refembles the trunk and branches {s{^ 

As it fignifies the trunk of a tree in Chaldee, fo it ex- 
prcflcs a (hip, not only becaufe the firft Veffcls or Canoes 
were made of the trunks of trees, but becaufe it refembles 
Navh ingensy a large Ship with its trees or mafts, with 
an additional Alcp, as KD7H ; whence, in Syriac, Alphra 
a Sailor, and probably the name Alphred, Alphric, &c* 
hence A in Iriih a fmall eminence, and k in Hebrew, 

Thefc names were evidently given by an Oriental 
people, who colonized the Weftern part of the World, 
who called that divifion of the Globe 3ly orb, whence 
Eorp or Europa, and the Hebrides on the Weft of 

Who, on difcovery of the Britannic Ifles, named the 
Eaftern jilbania, and the Weftern lerna, or Iherna> 

Who finding the North of Scotland (that is, the Nor- 
thern part of the Eaftern I (land), cold and barren, nam- 
ed it Choledinah, i. e. ^in Choi, terra frigida,- ficca & 
fterilis rm denah, Orientalis ; Who ftill finding a coun- 
try more eaftward, named it Dinahmarchk, i. c. XTTX 
denah, Eaftern, ptrffO merhk, more diftant, (hence 
Mace-donia qua eft Albania.) 

Who finding the Scylly Iflands to be barren rocks, 
called them W)lC\ThW Sulah-rafli, i. e. the barren head 

(b) Gebelin. Dift. Etym, Lfttiiv 



land, whence Silures ; and who finding Britain to a* 
bound in minerals^ named it ^HTffVhDjf apratinsiiy i* e. 
(c) Terra mineralis^ whence the Irifh name of it Brutan- 
aoi ; and who finding an Ifland centncal between Bri* 
tain' and Ireland, named it nSD Mendz, whence Manx, 
or the Ifle of Man ; yet the poets derive the name from 
Mananann, or the God of the Sea, as hereafter (d). 

Who gave the name Caftiraoi to the Silures, becaufe 
they abounded in tin, a name brought with them from 
Caucafus ; for Cau or Ct figpifies a mountain, and Cas 
oar, iron oar, Cqftir, tin, lead, i. e. Royal Oar, con- 
cealed in the earth, whence the Chaldaic and i.rabic 
M>DDp Caftira (e). 

Who, for diflindion fake, named another Ifland on 
the Wefl coaft of Scotland Ml3 Bua, i. e. Occafus Solis, 
whence *h Ai rcgio, infula & Bua, formed the name 
Euboea, both on that coaft and in the Mediterranean, 
their iituation biting all to the weftward ; hence Bua Saca, 
the Weftern Navigators, or Bafques, or Bafcanians of 
Spain, a name given them by the Tyrians, from their 
bein^ the firft navigators to the Wdl, a name they glo- 
ried in, and ftill pref^rve.. 

This derivation of the name of Britain is not novel : 
we find it given by the ancients to many Countries 
abounding in mines, and we likewife find it to be the 
allowed orighi of the name of Britam by our £ngli(h 

<* There were the »yt3n3 Britsni on the Gold Coaft, 
,near Cape Cantin, where they give a weight of Gold for 
a like weight of Salt. (Abr. Peritfal. Itin. Mundi, writ- 
ten in Hebrew) — ^There are, fays the fame Author, the 
Britini on the j£thiopic Coaft, known by the name of 

. fc) Plantavit at ^^, 

(d) IrtOi Meahon. PerC Miyjuid, the csmer. Et opes luibitaotM 
(mendz) in medio umhilico terrae. Ejsek. xxxvili. la. Chaldee, 

(e) Sclavonire Koiiiter, ftannum. SuicCotbice Kafter plambum, 
Gr. jiaaTiTfPo^ Vide Tommafiio. OlofiT. Htbt* Hone. Lex. Sulo* 
Ooth.) N. B. Cat or Ceas U Oar in s^o^i^ ^^^^ ftone often liei 
above ground, but lead and tin are caftir, concealed in the earth i hence 
the learned Tomaflin derires the ChaU, Caftira^ quafi HD^* celare. 

c Seneg^i 


SiHigmi Britini, and in this kingdom, adds Peric&lt I 
perfuadcd wasthc Ophir of Solomon, where he fent hii 
fleets to, tirom the Red Sea." Hence Bntim or Bertim 
in Italian fignifies copper-coloured; like one working 
with Ores.— 'Ubi viri aliquantuium nigri ficat Brgiim i. e» 
Melatti & Criolii. Hyde Syntag. p. 152.-^ 

Hence the Irilh Bruib^oir a refiner of Metals,^— 

This name was given to our Scytbi when inhabiting 
Caucafus, i. e. G>-Ceas, the Mountain of mines, as the 
name ftgnifies in Irilh and ^abic. 

The ingenious Mr. Fofter, in his travels on the Gm- 
tinent, found a Map wherein the inhabitants of Moont 
Caucafus, on the confines of the Euxine Sea, are deno* 
minuted Britons. On the 13th Nov. 1766, this Gentle- 
man prefented a Memoir to the Society of Antkjjuaries of 
London, on this people, thinking them the origm of the 
prefent Britons. 

On Che 2oth Nov. following, he exhibited the Map^ 
and in the Minutes of that day's proceedings I find the 
following remark : '^ The Map is on a laige Scale, and 
<' the diftrid affigned to the Britons is very clearly 
<* marked out — but, as Mr. Fofter has never been on 
** the ^ot himfelf, and is totally unacouainted with any 
" words in the language of that people, and refts the 
** credit of the whole of hts authority on the vouchers 
" cited by him, and his reafoning thereon, the Society 
'* poftpone their opinion on this Subjed. 
. LaOly, We find this Derivation acknowledged hy the 
£ng!iik Antiquarian, who probably had it by tradition. 

£1 the laft edition of Leiand. Y. 4. is the following 
extraiS irom the Bibliotheca Eliotse. ** A written book 
^ of 20 leaves founde in an hollow ftone, kyveried with 
" a (lone in digging for a foundation at Yvy Chirch by 
** Sarcsbyri. Britania quafi Brytania b^rranfe It was fertile 
•• of mines df Mctallc. Eliot will have it to be Pritainia.^* 

Vcrfte^an writes it Prttaina and the ancient Welch 
wrote it Pryjyn. We fhall fhew the origin of the ftory 
of Brutus in the.S^Jl Chapter of thiS'^Work: Our Sou- 
thern Scjrthite6> I5r ancient Irilh were well (killed in mi- 
nerals : there' is every probability that they were the firif 


IN T R O D U CT I O Nl x\m 

dUeoYcfert of Tin^ ^n4 of the ah of mthiog^ GI11A9 bc^ 
caiifc the Oriental named oftbcfe metals, are allowed ^ 
be foreign, not ot Hebrew origin, and we (halt prov« 
them to be Scythian or Irifli. 

I. Tin. Bach obferves, the Orientalifis had (^ many 
ways of writing Keaftir (Tin) it is a proof of ies being '9 
foreign word. In the Chaldee w6 find it written Gi/lnm 1 
in the Arabic we have Kulac, Rufa$^ jirxtex^ Retz^ aU 
fignifying/if/f^/'p. In the Iriflfi Ceas or Kcas figniiics the 
Oriy bvAjianna or ^aonad^, is to flow, a fuflon, whenee 
ftatmay the Vat to feccivothe firft running of beer in 
brewing. Hence the old &ngH(hy?»;t an earthen veSU 
ftill ufed in London to contain fmall beer. Pliny therein 
fore rightly defines Stannum (Tin) to be, is <|ui primut 
fliifC in fbrnacibus liquor— Stannum appdlatur. (Hift*' 
Nat« L' 34. c. 36*} Hence Voffius attempts: to derird 
it from r«^ floo, whUft Pcrottua goes the contrary way 
to wprkf Stannum, inquit, a ftandd didum videri poteft^ 
quod in fornacibus primum fluat, ac per hflit. 

The Iriih Jiannam to flow, is certainly the Cbakktc 
ptf^ St4t9g whence yrwn he/lain^ mingore, urimre^ 
& Sum I' e< Urina, is now ufed in no other fenfe. 

%. GUfSft In Iriih Gloine^ Gline, or Glaine ttotA 
Glinn^ F^ure, clear, light, bright, the fty : hence ^/it/ii# 
more bright. In the 3d eh. of Ifai. v. 23. we raid of 
Q'YVj glinlm glaOes, iooking-gtaiTe^. Sojne Lexi« 
conifts derive it from n^^ gelah, i* e. reveUre, nam fpa^- 
cula revelant maculas faciei « Others, feeing the word 
fignified trc^ifparent, have ftrained hard to make thi4 
word fign^fy tranfparsHt fmocAsy quoting Horace, noepr* 
pus pend ni;idum videri queat; even Kimchi faTOUra 
this ridiculous conjedure, 

Synffnimous to GMne is the Irifli Scath-zxid SiQthmt» 
which more diftinfily implies a mirror, fporii Scath, M 
image, a (hiftdoW, a refiediion : it is the Hebrbw li^sasr fldfa, 
uv^g^ piduii9> The IVrians, to whom our BoyCbiant 
i^pi^rted the art, made (ad havock of this word, writ^ 
ing it rvy(Si zkukith, \* c. Vitnun, mirror s hfiM^ 
this word in Job, 28. 17. is taken for cryftal, fuppofing it 
to be dcrivod ftom "^r xak, dear. In the Tidmud we 

c 2 ^ find 

XX I-N T R O D U C T I O N. 

find the word corrupted into %gugitba and in Taipun 
Jobi 28. xS« it is faid to be fynonimous to zkakitb : bat 
the original word is the Irifli or the Scythian Scaib* 

Dr. Stukelv giving an account of a glafs um difcovercd 
in the Ifle ot £ly in the year 1757 (f)^ obfenres, that 
the Britons were famous for glafs manufiidory» whidi he 
looks upon as a ftrong prefumptive proof, that Britmn 
wfs originally peoplidfrofn Tyre. That the inducement 
the Tyrians had to come ancl fettle there, he thinks was 
the Comifti Tin, and that Hercules of Tyre brought the 

firft Colony thither." «* He further obferves, that he 

readily difcovers the Erfe and Iri(h to be the remains of 
our old Briti(h race, who built Abttry and St§nehenge^ 
and are buried in the marnificent Barrows around there." 

The latter part of the Dodor's conjedure I believe to 
be perfefily nght, and that the Erfe and Irifh were the 
inhabitants of Britain before the Cummerig or Welch— 
and that they built Stonehenge was the tradition of the 
country, when the Saxons firft poflefled Britain, is 
clear from the Saxon Chronicles quoted by Abp.-UIher. 

But as to the manufadure of Glafs, 1 muft diflent 
from the learned Dodor, that the Britons, meaning the 
Welch, were ever poflefled of that art. It is evident 
from the venerable Bede, they were ignorant of it : his 
words are too explicit, to admit a doubt. ** Anno 4ta 
Ecgfridi Regis A. D. 674. Bcnedidus Bifcop Abbas 
Minumathenfis, GaHiam petens, Csmentarias abftulit, 

2ui lapidcam fibi Ecclefiam juxta Romanorum morem 
icerent. Perfedo opere, mifit Legatarios Galliam, qui 
Vitrl feSores adducerent, Britannis incognitas artifices, 
ad cancellendas Eccieiis feneftras." — And Stubbs in his 
ASs of the Bp. of York fays, that Wilfred jun. who 
died A. D. 711, was the firft that brought workers in 
flone and glafs windows into England 

If the Welch Britons had ever poflefled this art, they 
would not have loft it, becaufe glafs beads was an or- 
nament of the Sacerdotal ditfs of the Britifli Druids ; 
ive may therefore conclude they purchafed them ot the 

(0 Mia. of Antiq. Soc. Londoo^ 19 Mir. xytfs* 


IN^TR pDlieTION. vd 

fi or Irifi^ or of their allies the D§rius fettttd in 
It is not prefumption to derive thefe Oriental names 
from the Scythick or Irilh language ; the Serbians we 
treat of were Periians and Parthians, and their language 
was Phoeniciany Syrian or Chaldaic. Lingua vet una 
Syriaca feu ChaJdaica Parthis, Media, Perfilque necnon 
& Elamitis communis erat. (Thommaffin GloflT. Uik 

Hsebr. Praef. 9. ly J Haec autem Syriaca feu ChaK 

daica lingua ea eft; quam paulo poft Babylonicse captivi* 
tatis tempore fponte &.ukro Judei omnes didicerunt* 
(id. ib.) 

In vain do the Erfc and Irifli endeavour to boaft of 
their antiquity over each other ; both were iq poflTeffion . 
of the Britannic Ifles at the iame time; both were driven 
to their prefent abodes in the fame inftant. One, inha* 
biting the Eaftcrn Ifland, called himfelf AlSanith ; the 
other, inhabiting the Weftern Ifland, properly named 
himfelf larmacbf or Eirincach 4 but both preferved the ge^ 
neral name of Gaedhl^ or Vl3 Gadul, i. e. the defcen* 
dants of Japhet, by Magog, to diftinguifh themfelves 
from the Sons of Gomer, &c. with whom they mi:red in 
their migrations. In vain do the Scots make a diftinc^ 
tion betwixt Caojhall and Gael ; their anceflors wrote it 
Gaidal and Gaodhal^ as the Irilh, but by a vicious pro- 
nunciation, not long introduced, the d was afpirated 
and loft its found (g). 

•* lar-ghael (properly lar-gacdhil), fays Dr. Mac- 
<< pherfon, is that diviboa of the Weftern Highlands 
." which is partly comprehended within the County of 
^' Argyle. It plainly fignifles the Weftem Gael, or 
** Guedonians, in contradiftindion to the Pids and 
*< Caledonians, who poITcired the Baft coaft of Scotf- 
** land." Can there be a ftronger proof of our derivar 
tion of the name Caledonia ? 

(s) By G^ or Gall, the Eife and Irifli mean a foreigner ; bencs^ 
in alt their writing, GaU an Englifliman or low country Scotchman $ 
Galldachd, thft low country of Scotland, (See Shawe^t Did. of the 
Erfe and Irilh ) Cuuidhyly Scotia, et Hibemia. Lexicon Geqgr. Far- 

'« They 


fays ; yet he informs us, ** that the procurators, fcttt by 
« thfe ftates of Scotland, to fjflcad thetf caufc ^gamft 
»< Kiftig Edward, bcfol-c the Court of Rome, obntendcd 
*• ftrenuoofly, that the Sfccfts Were defcetided from Scoti, 
** the daughter of Pharaoh Kirig of Egyfft. * That this 
** Sc<fta eamc into Scmknd, ttrgcthcr wilb-hef fon Erc^ 
^« whom ft« had by X&athclus,' or Ga^dnrs.- That At- 
^ ^c^, br f&thcr larghad; derived its name from the 
*' t^t^efiy of that fcih and fttther. In fine, -that the ofd 
^ liiuM M Athetrtia was thangcd into 'that of Scdti?, as 
" foon as the Scots were fettled in that Iflapd ; and the 
•« 8<Jots did, ever fince that period, rtrt^n tlteir name 
** Wft(8 ihdepifndanee, while the Britons of the Southern 
^ dr«4fidfi changed their namt and maftcrrs frcqucnt- 
*^ i|y (^).^* 

Ttos fe'tJife Hift^ df the Wfh, ftnd of aB the Gaed- 
ihfHl. -In the fdllowing pages wr fliaB flitme the alkgori- 
t^ wicaiirittg of ScGta, Pharaoh's daughter, and the true 
dtfi>r'drt6ft bf the name <if Scythians. 

4f*hi%wa6 ndt the general antient hiftory of all the 
Sbyfi^m Scythi'ains, how ccmies it that the Caledonian 
il^d^y Aotfjd^ovret^ond in ^If pai^fculars^ fabtibus and 
*ea!,^wi!* thart of the lri(h > If the <3aledonians h^tf 
i^Htly 'loft ^1 i"e(?ofds of their origin, can it 4)c thought 
iflM'fo -ivifta people wouH, in the ijth Centtiry, have 
borrowed of the Irifli a hiftory, that in all appearance is 
■ftrtl '^f -Rdmatice 

TFhe faia 'is, it was the ttAditron rf the bard« antj fean* 
tichii$8 ^ 'bdth nations, who wene one people frpitr their 
idepartuFt from the "Olfpian Sea (many age? before, the 
fcinh of Chrift), till the i6th Gctitury of the prefetit -ffira, 
n^eh it was thi)ught proper to m^ke a diftiniftbn through 
iiatioffial prejudice. * • 

Very little Js to be found hi hiftbry, facrcd or pro- 
fane, of the Sons of Magog, exprefsly by name ; all 
«gree that he was the fatlaer of the Scythians, and ori- 
jgmally planted in Armenia with Mijhtth and ^^aL 

(h) Diflertation, p. 14. 




Minjfiu, a Chaldsan by birth and a very ancient hHr 
torian, affirms^ that Scytia was the fir ft Kii^ of Armf^ 
nia ; and that hi& hiftory was colledcd from the books of 
the Scytbi^ms and CbtJdaaru. From hence they extended 
into Mefopotanda^ 9a£lria^ and Eaftward to Hind^an^ 
Tbiietf Tartary^ and to China and fapan. Sacae, nan;^ 
€iC Badrianam occupaverunt, & optimam Armeniac tel- 
lurem^ quam a fe Saccafenam denominaverunt (i). 

The Brahmins are fuppofed by Monf. Bailly to have 
been originally from Caucafus, and laftly from Babylon \ 
and the Miffionary Father Georgius proves the Tibctani 
to have been Scydiians. In my opinion both thefe peo- 
ple proceeded from that mixture of Scythians and Dcr 
danites recorded in the Irifh hiftory. The Dcdanitef 
are called fuatba Dadann^ the defcendants of Cufli ; and 
they accompanied the Scythians weftward to Phoenicia^ 
ana thence to Spain and to Ireland. The Books of the 
JBfahmins relating to Philoipphy are faid to be written in 
l^h^ldaic. In the Min. of the Soc. of Antiq. of London 
IS the following extrad of a letter from a merchant in the 
£. Indies, to his friend Mr. lloUis, dated Benares, 24 
Dec. 1765. 

<* Cajhi is the Univerfit^ of the Bramins, fituated on 
th^ S. Side of the Ganges ii^ a fine G)untry, 6i^ milef 
JFrom Bengali. — The city is large, well built, the houfes 
of hewn ftone« The inhabitants are much more co|i^ 
verfable than thofe of the province of Bengali. Among 
them are faid to be many men of learning, who teach 
ihc Hanfcrit and Pcrfian languages. But what is mofk 
extraordinary, there are Tome who ftudy the Chaldaic^ 
\n ^hxoh it feems their Books of Phyfick are chiefly 
written. (Min. A. S. 19 Feb. 1767.) 

The Empire of the Scythians over Afia was 1500 years 
anterior to that of the Aflyrians (k). The Scythians 
having at dilFercnt times very remote, poftcftcd diffe* 
rent parts of Afia, their Colonies frequently changing 

(i) Strabo^ L. XI. p. 511. 

<k) Kecherche fur rori^ne det Arts de la Grdce. The Arabian 
wnteraare of tbe fame opiiiioo, at wf ihall ihew hereafter. 



their name^ cafily loft the remembrance of their origin(l). 
The Scythians conquered /W/^ and Afia before the time 
of Abraham, the father of the people of God. He is 
modern comparatively fpeaking with the Saca : with 
them we muft fcek for the moft remote antiquities, and 
their hiftory is the mpft ancient of all hiftories fm). 
The Mongulst defcended from the i^aca, lire at prefent 
in the fame Country p^ffefled by their anceftors. The 
Kalias, a tribe of the Monguh^ inhabit the ancient StrUa, 
watered by the Ktrlon and Salinga Thefe Ka has extend 
to the Indiasy to Thibet^ and to the frontiers of China (n J. 
The Japoneje^ defcendants of the Scythians, ftill pre- 
ferve the name of "^ara^ in Sakai one of their principal 
Cities. ifangan-Sakaj^ Amanga-Saiai mark the Nang 
and Amang of the Scythiansy from whom many of the 
Mountains, Rivers and TraSs of Country of Japan, have 
taken their denomination. 

Armenia was originally of great extent ; the Irifli 
hiftory extends it from the Cafpian and Euxim Seas 
to the junSion of the Tigris and Euphrates^ and hx)ra 
the Tigris Weft to the Mediterranean Sea. De Hcrbe- 
lot fays, that the Eaftcrn people often gave the name of 
Armeniah to thofe nations, the Greeks and Romans 
called Parihianiy or Perjianst for both derive from the 
fame Origin ; the letter th, is pronounced as S. by the 
7urks and Perjiam\ and in another place he fays, the 
Country. of Armenia was the ancient Parthia- 

nWDIW Afminah, (Armenia) Vir Grog nuncupatus, ex 
Magoga Provincia (D^v. Dc Pomis. p. i6.) The Mago* 
gians were Scythians. Armenia unde primftm hebraizan- 
tes populi prodierunt. (Thommaflin.) They fpread from 
the N. E. Coafts x)f the Cafpian Sea, between 40 and 50 . 

(I) Idem. 

(m) Idem. 

(n) Idem; This author is Aipported in thit fetflement of the Scytbiani 
in Japan bj feveral Arabian vrnters, and by Dr. 'J. G. Scheoehier in 
hit Hiftory of Japan. The Doctor had redded in China and in Japan, 
and having Oiewn that they differed from the Chinefe in language^ rdi« 
gjon, manners, and cuftoms, draws their origin from the Northern 
banks of the Cafpian fea,' Seti' our collation of the JapOtnefe and IriOi 
languages, Colledtanea, No. X. ' 



degrees of N. Lat. as far as the borders of Kitaja. The 
Tartars of Gsifan, the Bofcarian Tartars, the jOagaftan 
and Nagajan Tartars are all defcended of thefe Scy- 
thians. The KifilUecs or Noblemen in Periia value 
themfeivcs mightily upon their being of this Turcoman 
or Scythian extradion. The famous Tamerlane was an 
Ufbekian Scyth, and the Ottoman Emperor, the Great 
Mogul, and the K. of Sopra, are all of this extradion : 
thefe Scythes were the mother of many glorious nations, 
a nurfc of illuftrious heroes, and a ftem of mighty Mo* 

Arminah the Arabic name of Armenia. This diftrid, 
according to Eaftern Geographers, is, much more exten- 
Cve than the G)untry fo called by Europeans,' being in 
general confidercd as nearly the lame with ancient Far- 
thia. Richardfon's Arab. Didionary. See alfo Mofes 

Hieronymus & plerique Hebraeorum, omnes Aramseos 
Syros eiTe credunt, ab Aram filio Semi genus & nomen 
fortitos. Quod quia bis per omnia cum antiquorum 
pugnat fententiam, quam Plinius i monumentis vetuftis 
in lucem revocavit, viz. " ultra funt Scytharum populi, 
" Perfae illos Sacas in univerfum appeliavere a proxima 
** gente, Antiqui Aramaeos."— — -Q^o tamen utrique 
parti fit fatisfiidum, concedamusAramsos alios eiTe ab 
Armenis, & eos quidem quos Grseci Syras yocant, He- 
brsBonim lingua Arm^os, ab Armo dici : illos autem, 
quos Scythes nominamus, antiquitiis didos, & illps qui- 
dem Aram^eos, eflfe ; ver&m non Hebraica, fed fua, id 
eft, Scythica lingua — confitendum erit a Judxis totam 
fscythicam^ Armeniam vocari. (Goropius Becanus Indo* 
Scythica L. 5. " 

Our Magogian Scythians thus feated on the Cafpian, 
Euxine, and Mediterranean Seas, and on the great 
Rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, and Qn the Perfian Gulph, 
were by ncccffity, the firft navigators. The' firft boats 
were fimple, made of a tree, hollowed to contain one ' 
man ; thefe fervcd for inland navigation : hence f^y Es, 
a tree and *t Si, a fliip, is written Efs or Effi in Irirfi, 
which £gnifies a {hip* 


n'sr Tfia. Sia. Lat. Siockas. — ^ *ir Si. NavU. pi. 
cy*Ti Slim NaTci. item arida» dcfcita leca. MetaplN^r. 
Barbari, fcri. dcfeitorum locorum inool^e. Fcra ani- 
malia. Quid entm fcris vel defertorum locorum incqlif^ 
cum navibus i Scd tanti vifum non eft prioribus fcriplo- 
ribus. »IC Si, Navis, non incpte foifan duccretur a 
HP iafa (facere) difo % vd ab fy £f. Lignum. (Thoni- 
maffin. GloC Lex. Hebr.) 

Hence the great Navigator of our Scythians was nam- 
ed Milis, the Hero of the Ship, (i. e. Hercules) fynom- 
raous to Siim Breac, Miles Scptentrionalis eft, notior 
fub Herculis nomine. (S. Jerom* Edit. Verpn* torn. i. 
c. 672.) 

MiUs eft une conftellation Septentrioi^aie qu'on coi|- 
noit fous le nom d' Hercuie. (Religion de3 Gau)fU€. 
Tom. I. p. 440.) (See Chapter Milefius.) f ^e firft 
Etnifcan King after the fabulous times is faid to hav^ 
been MiUus. He led the PeiafgianColoii]^ to Spina and 
to Spain. Herodotus mentions him, finds him thene 
u^idcr the name of Melefigenes, and thinks it was 
Homer. (See Colledanea» No. 13. Pref. lvi. Hella^ 
dius tells us that a man called On lyho appear^ ii^ th^ 
Red Sea, with the tail of a fifty taught Aftronomy and 
Letters (o). Thus fay« Sir J. Ncwitoii tl>cy painted a 
Seaman. Oes^ Eubadnus^ tod Oanwt focm to be th^ 
fame name a little varied by corruptipuy an4 this nan^e 
fecms to have been given in common to feveral feamenj 
who came thither from time to time, and by confequencc 
were Merchants^fo that Letters, Aftronpmy, Architecr 
ture and Agriculture came into Chaldea by fea, and 
were carried thither by feamen, who fre<)uented the Per* 
fian Gulph (p). — Thus Ofar-jiphusy Uforthon, Ofor-chor 
is the Hercules iEgyptius of Manetho (q). The name 
Vlyffes feems to be compounded of K^vik Aoula. prin- 
ceps, & 'It Si. a Ship, and Hercules may deriye from 
Atreat-Awl'iff. i. e. primus Rex Navis. 

(o) PIiotiu», p. 1594. 
(pi Chronol. p, 2ji. 

(q) id- P« *37. 


IN TRODUCTiam nvu 

' 80 KD^K Alpha in Chaldee 18 the trunk of a tree, and 
a fhip ; hence the wnryjf £s-ai$» i. c. the fliip-man, or 
t^ec-man of Sanchoniatho, the Ufrus of Philo, having 
taken a tree and broke off its boughs, firft ventured up- 
on it in the fea. Crann-fnamh, u e. a floating tree, is a 
tiommon name for a boat in old Irilh. 

The twifting of the fmall branches into a kind of wat- 
ling, and covering them with the hide of a cow or a buf- 
falo, was the next and moft' ufeful contrivance for inland 
navigation. With thefe they croflTed the Euxine and 
Cafpian Seas, and even ventured on the Ocean, as the 
Irifli of the Weftern Coaft ft ill do, in the fame kind of 
boat. Hence Scoth, Sgoth, or Scuth, fignifying fmall 
branches, or wattles, that is, fmall branches mterwoven 
(Arabice Sachut Virgas) might aifo fignify a (kiff or fliip, 
the name being applied, from their ufe. 

But the true derivation of the name Ssca and Scutbi, 
i. e. Ship-men, Navigators^ or Swimmers, I think^ is 
from the Oriental yrw Sachu, or miTW Sacbuthf Nataih^ 
from TtfW Sachah, or HTTD Sachah natavit ; Syriaic 
KHD Sacha (r) natavit, remigavit aquis ; it alfo fig- 
nffies profunditas ; and fhields being made of wattles co- 
vered with hides, we have HTim Shacha, Knns^ Shaeta, 
Gabata, Sciitella, whence the Iriffa Sciata, Sdtaba, a 

(r) Hence the Sbofua of Barbary j a colony of Scythi from the Caf» 
piai^ asd Euxine Teas, who peopled Africa, under Nemed, a Scythian, 
See Salloft Bel!. Jug. c. xxi. Thefe people call themfelves AmMcigb^ a 
corruption of the Ojd Arabic'and Perfian Aimazun, Naucleri. (See Co« 
|ius inV. Oman.) We (hall treat fully of thii people hereafter. They 
were navigators and merchants, hence their Hebrew name Mahar corrupt^ 
Mcaar^ from "IHb Mah^r, pretium, merx. mercator, et XX1T\ Tana mer. 
cede conducere, wlience Mauritam. Hence their metropolis was named 
*>Jjl Tagger, negociator, Iri/h Togra, Grarce Tiyytpy now Tangier. 
The celebrated emporium of Africa j and by tranfpofition of Letters we 
have the Englifh Truck, i. e. traffic, and probably it i< the origin of the 
name Turk, Iriih "ToFra and 7$rc, traffic, forum. Suio Gothlce Tor^, 
forum } czterae dialeai Gothicai omnes voce hae carent, quod factt, ut 
tanto obfcurior fit illius origo. (Ihre) Apud Polonas Targ, apud Ruffiis 
7crg, mercem, nee non mercatorem et item forum denotat. (Boborizii 
Utt. Camiol. in Praefat.) Hence Heft fays the ^i&ow0 are compofed of 
Gartulians, Numidians, and Turks. Cl;^Do£S T^or the Northern Mer- 
cury derive from this word ? 


ihicld, a twig bafrct, or any thing conctve like the an-^ 
cicnt target. The word is ufcd, in the Oriental tongues, 
to fignify whatever ads in, or upon, water ; it fignifiet 
alfo to wafhy HTTO Sacha, lavit, ablutus fiiit, quia natator 
non natat, nifi lavet (Schindler.) HHID"^ Mi Sachua, na« 
vigable rivers, deep waters, which cannot be pafled with- 
out a boat, or by fwimming. — Quas fub pedetianfire non 
poterat, fed natando trajiciebant* KViriDD Mfcutha, bal- 
neum — a^hei\ce the Scythian or Iriih Scuih, Saidi, a 
(hip, the*!£gyi^ian <r%uTtm (keitia, rates, naves plane 
(Kircher) ana the Turkifli Saica, Navigii genus, vulgd 
Saique, (Du Cange)« Scytho Scandice, Siiid, Lfang 
baat ella Skuta, Navis longa. Ibid. Skaid, Skana, Skuta, 
rodarfcrior (Verelius. Lex.) In monumentis Anglo<- 
Sazonicis Navigii genus nominatur Sctitb, appcllatum, 
fed quod hoc pertinere, non autumavero (Ihre). Saith 
a (Txvrof, Corium ut navigia corio induda (Junius). 

In like manner, the words iignifying a hide, da alfo fig- 
nify a boat, aso-xcrOflii, Coriarii ; ^xi/^vvoxi^. Coriarii Urbs, 
Scythopolis. In Irifh, Boigh, Bolo, a hide from ir^:) bolgh 
tegere, whence p^3 Bolun, a hide ; and this word gave 
name to the Belgi or Scythians, on the Gifpian Sea, and 
to the river Bolga or Volga, becaufe inhabited by thefe 
Scythians, who paflTed weftward ; whence Phlmgb in the 
Armenian, Fluk Arabice, VUg Sclavonice, and Filukm in 
Italian, a (hip. Gr. B. ^«il;^»H, Navis, Scapha (s). 

A mo* 

(s) The Celti or Goroeritet, and die Scythtaos or Magoglant, wtrs 
both named BoJgi or Beige, from the invention and ufe of the boat or 
fliip covered with Hides. Why may hot the fCeltot or Celts have derived 
their name from another invention in boat-building that is, from the 
Phoenician or Hebrew Kala Ets ? 'H/p Kala, fignifies, aflare, torrefa* 
cere, and fy Ets a tree, 'f^p Kali et ^^^p Kalia^ toftum, whence the 
Latin Cullna, and non a colendo igne, ut ajt Varro. (Tomaffin. GlolT. 
Hebr.) From the Orienul Kala, this learned Btymologift derives KftAor* 

Lignum. K«bAtn|^, Chalybes, ferrum, fcilicet ignitum $ et XfAeiJ'/or, 
Chalandirnn, Navicula ad incendenda omnes alias, hinc ChalannttS* Ca» 
lannus. Media Lat. diaus, Gallice Challan, bateau cbaUam. A tVPp KaU 
eft Saxon, d«/r Angl. Keel, Gall. Qijille, Hifp, QuiUa. Forfan k hinc 
Chaloupe, Navis minor (Tomaflin). 

If then the Greeks adopted the Scythian and Oriental word fidUtHh 
u %, Navis from Bolg, a boat covered with hide, whence Beige $ by the 



A modern Lexiconift (Willmet Lex. in G>ranum) 
has given the Arabic word a di£Fefent explanation, viz. 
fluky and Chald. ")V9 plak in gyrando, ctrcumvolyendo, 
fororiantet mammas habuit Virgo. Navis gyrando. fpcc. 
area Noachi» tumentior rotundiorque pars cujufque rei— * 
true, our bolg fignifies a fwelling or rotundity of any 
kind ; but the application ot the word to a (hip can have 
no reference to Noah^s ark. ^ 

Q>th» Corrach, Croich, in Irifh, (ignify alfo a hide 
and a boat ; hence the Magogians, or original Scythi, 
aiid Inventors of this kind of boat, called themfelves, or 
were called jtiUaclhCotbi, i. e. the Old Navigators or 
Ship-men, a name corrupted by the Latins into Atta- 
cotti ; hence the Oriental Kni3l3 M Cutha Navis ; 
^gjpt. Katoa. Sic Kitii populi Scythise circa mare Caf- 
pium apud Straboncm : nee aliunde nomen hoc, quam a 
Kithtti hodieque Cataini (Boxhomiiis)— hence CcM, 
Gothif Gita, were fynonimous names of the children of 
Gomer and of Magog, confufed in fuccceding ages by a 
mixture of the Siutbi : whence Syncellus Zxi/I^oi, i^ 
Tot ^01 x%/ofi%r9i I'viyj^fnc. Scythac, <]ui etiam Gothi fua 
lingua ; & Tribellius Pollio Scytha:, i. e. pars Gothornm 
Afiam vaftabant : the Greeks and Latins knew not hov 
to make Che diftindion, which caufed Salmafius to ob* 

fame argument^ tliey might have given the name Keltm to the fame mrl- 
tlme people, who we know did alfo condruahoau, by burning the tree 
hollow by fire, which operation would be named by the Orientalifti 
pTD/p Kalah-etS| and by the Greeks might have been corrupted to > 
keltoi, i. e. tree-bumert, for jnaking boats, in the fame manner chej 
formed Kxmv Lignum ; yet I muft own, that Ka/on is in my opjnioo 
formed of the Scyrhian XaU, Arbor ; and net from Kaia, aixlere { 
hcnee in Arabic Ktlas, navigavit. So in the Suio-Gothica^ £k, an Oak, 
forms Eka, and Ekftock, a Ship, a boat. Scapha ; inde di€ta quod ab 
ftteanmf robore confedla fuerit, ^uod gemis navigiorunv fme dubio oin- 
niam antiquiflimum fuit, et quo prarcipue ufos fiiifle veteres Gothot, et 
Qennanos, apud audores, relatum legimus. Arrhianus de expedit Aki^ 

M. p. 9. Edit. Gronov. nominat eorum WAoVa A^ere^i/AA, quorum epiid 
Getas eroAAWir fueropMy fuifle dicit. Plin. L. XVI. c.40. Hift. Nat. 
perfaibet Germaniie pnedones finguHs arboribu« cavatis navigafle, eonim- 
qoc quafdam trigintt hominum tulifle. Nee dubito, quin v^taumcao* 
dicie cjuidem form* fverint, de quibus A. Gellius. Senecca de beevitate 
vit«, ftc' ibi Botas. (Ihre. GlolT. Suio-Ootb.) 



Strwc, hoc aomcn IxiritK varic a Gnecis enancijitiim eft, 
& mukaf |4fr«xT«i»<r«^ incmrit : nam Xav^n^ , Tl-nf^ rirb^ 
idem eft. 

Thos alfo the Gomeritct named one tribe of themfelves 
Brigmiteff from their being ihipmeny and ufing a vcflel 
calkd Brig or Brigantin. (See the oonclufion of this In- 

Si tanto autem in prctio ftudioTe habentnr ▼etcra Prin- 
cipom numifmata, aut ntinmii eorum imaginibus infculp- 
ti ; qoanti eftimanda funt vocabnla longe numifmatibus 
^ibofcumque antiqeiora, qiue licet magis fluxa ac fragi- 
lK>ri commendata metallo, hadenut tamen lingus; 
nando ipfi pccne co>x9x veftjj^ia fervant. 

Hence the general name ofthefe people was Scuthi and 
Go-im ; that is^ Shipmen and Seamen ; and hence G^m 
and Cutbai are ufed by the Hebrew writers to exprefsyt^* 
rmgmrSf or people that came from another country by 

In like manner the ancient Perfians were called Agim^ 
that is, Japhetans, from Aighf the Armenian or Scythian 
name of'^ Japhct : the Arabs converted this word into an 
opprobrious meaning, and fignified thereby Barbarians, 
but it really means no more, than thofe nations which 
are not ^raoians by birth or origin, and in particular the 
Perfians, and all comprized under the Pcrfian Empire. 
The Perfians called their ancient Kings Mohmck Agem^ 
King of the Japhetans \ they would not (lilc their IGngs 

The pofterity of our Ma^ogians navigated the Eu« 
phrates in thefe Skin wattled Boats, in the time of Hero* 
dotus, who, tn his Clio, gives a very particular account 
of them. ** The Vcflcis, fays he, that dcfccnd the rx- 
*' ver to Babylon, are round, and in great meafure com* 
•* pofed of (kins. 

*' For when they have cut the ribs out of willows, 
" growing in the hills of Armenia, they cover them with 
" hides extended on the eutfide to fcrve for a bottom^ 
'* making no diAindion of flem or (lern. lu thefe vef* 

fels, lined with reeds, and freighted with merchandice, 

and efpecially with calks of Palm Wine, they venture 

« on 



*^ on the river. Two men ftandin^ upright^ with a pole 
** in the hand of each, one pulhng*to and the other 
<< putting oflF, dired the courfe of thefe boats ; fome of 
which are verj large, and others lefs : but the moll 
capacious cany the weight of 5000 Talents (about 
*' 160 tons). Every veflei has an Afs on board, and the 
greateft more. Aher they arrive at Babylon, and have 
difpofed of their goods, they fell the ribs of the boat 
" with the rtcds ; and leading the hides on the Afles, 
** return by land to Armenia, the River not being na- 
'* vigable upwards by reafon of the rapidity or the 
** ftream(o)." Herodotus does not mention how thefe 
Hides were put on ; they were fowed together wiih ftrong 
woollen yarn, as pradifed at this day in the WeA of Ire- 
land ; ^d the Omanites of Arabia, the defoendants of 
our Magogians, continue at this day to few the planks of 
their Veflels together, as we (hall hereafter have occafion 
to mention. 

In fine, thefe Sons of Japhet, being by (ituation and 
by neceffity (on the banks of the Cafpian and Euxine 
Seas) nmvigaiars titkdJijSertniHy had the honour of giving 
names to ihips and boats of all manner of conftrudion^ 
being originally of their invention ; and the names of 
navigating veiTels in all languages are to be traced in 
their dialed, even at this day, namely, in the ScytbU^ 
and all its variations. The Hebrew, Chaldaic, Arabic^ 
and att the European dialeSs retain thefe names, and 
the inventors are ftill known b^ the name of S^tahi, in 
honour and in memory of their mvention. 

Gin there be a more honourable name than that of 
a Scot i Has any nation contributed fo much to the 
ufc, or to the luxury of mankind, or to general know* 
Itidge, by bringing the learning of the world to one con- 
centrical point? What nation on earth have fo great a. 
right to give maritime laws to all the world as the Sub- 
jeds of the King of Great Britain, the defcendants of 
thefe Stutbif or Shipbuilders, and Navigators—Maflcfs 
of the Seas thtfe three thoufand years ? 

(o) .Lictebttry*8 cranflation, p. iia. 



The Turks defcendants of thcfc Magogian Scythians, 
have always k^pt up this title of Sovereigns of the Seas. 
The Legends on the Coins of the Turkim Emperors run 
thus : 


Soultan cl Berein uc Hakkan el bahrein : i. e. Rfx 
Tirnt it Imperator Maris* 

The Breber or Amazig of Barbary, the defcendants of 
the old Numidians took this title alfo ; but when the 
Moors drove them to the mountains, and ufurped the fo- 
vereignty^ tfaey affumed the title, and we find round the 
Tuntfians coins of a modern date. 

Sultan Ben Mohamed 

Elban Uhhak^n Chan Garbes 

Elbahr ben Elfultan Thofeb fi 

Achmet. 1139* Tunis. 


R$x ^ ^ . Pilius Mohamid 
Tfrrd C5'lMPERAfoR Princeps Garhajm 

MARIS, jiliut Rtgis ^cnjk in 

Achmtt. 1139. Tuniu 

Qui refpondet 
An. Chr. 1726. 

When our Nemedians pafled from Africa to Spain, 
they preferved the title, fabling that Siim Breac (or Her- 
cules) was married to the Sea, to Brythra (Arthrac) the 
Ship, &c. When this colony palTed to the Britannic 
Hies, and the Tyrians and Carthaginians were feated in 
Spain, they ufurped the title; but, with the Scoti or 
Scythi of the Britannic Ifles it has invariably remained* 
Their countrymen, feated at Crotin in Italy, preferved 
the title, and from them it defcended to the Etrufcans, 
fiditioufly forming the name of the Voyaging Hercules, 
fcy two old Scythian words, viz. Fj^ar^ homo ; loom or 
Taomant Oceanus, whence Fertumnus, in Etrufcan, fig- 
nifies Neptune, Hercules the Voyager, &c. &c. 


iJlTRdDUdTION. ixxiH 

The Ma&;ogian-Scythian language originally varied 
Very little trom the Hebrew and Chaldee. Even the 
Norch-Weftdk'n Scythi^ who took on them fo many namei 
in their emigrations from the Gafpian Sea by lana to Eu- 
rope^ yet bc^ft of the name of Scutbi^ and retain moft 
of the words relating to this Art^ fomewhat cdrniptedi 
though they have entirely loft many others. 

For example. The Seytbo-ScafuRans retain the following 
names for a Ship> as we learn from Vefelius. Karfi^ a£ 
kur, Skuta> Sneckia^ ByrdingUr, Skeid, Okga(p) (the 
Uig of the Irifh, and the Ogyges or Noah of the Greeks) 
Bufa, Knof^ Kugg» Kuggur. The Jfelanders have Skeidi 
and Tack^y a corruption of Sacha, Sachut, Scuth. 

The Suio Goths have Skuta^ Julie (foftened from 
Gaul) Naler* Flaccus L. i- Argon, fays^ the Phrygians 
called Julas thofe (hips the Greeks named ytivxof^ gaulas | 
henee the J^ify boat of the Engliih Navy. Fcftiis fays, 
the Latin ^gyale was a fifliing veflel ; the modern Latms 
wrote it Ciula. The Author of the Life of Alfred informs 
us^ that King built ihips called Ciula or Galija- 

Sonde is another Suio-Gothie name for a Ship. Junius 
fays, it was the fame as the Karfi, or Carbh of the Iri(h^ 
and the Guavell of the Engliih, and the Carabus of the 
Latins. Ifidore thus defcribes it. Carabus eft parva 
fcapha ex vimine fada^ qustf conteda nudo oorio> genus 
navigii praeftat— it was then our Skut> the Arabic and 
Indian Grabb. Tacitus izys, the Scythians called them 
Camira^ i. e. houfes ; fo in the Syriac, Noufa^ Kavis, 
templum t he defdribes them to be built artis lateribus^ 
lata alvo^ fine vinculo seris aut ferri connexas. Henci^ 
the Suio^Goths diftinguifii them by Jag^bmidu, from tag^ 
funis, with which they were fewed ; and by Siihbundin^ 
nervis conftrida fcapha ; and by Sbus^b$ndhj that is hidd 
fewed, ot with thongs cut out of hides. Tfaefe they dif- 
tinguifli from Eci^ Ekior, Etjhciar, or War Ships made 
of trees or planks, whence XA^eque. The northern Lexi- 
conifts derive b^ndi from binda, to bind i it is evidently 

(p) pkgay Ui;, Kms all derive from X\T^ ^^% r^nodut. Se# 
Tommaifio, p. yi^. H«nct Cock-boat« 

d from 

««iv I N T R O D U C TJ O N. 

from the Hibemo-Scythic kunadk, ta builds to eonftmfi, 
whence Curacb-hunadbi to build or conflxud a Ship of hidc« ; 
this formed the name Ctrrybsmtds, poit of the Diofcuri, 
who were fuppofed b^ the Gre elu to hare been the fifft 
Ship*buildcrs. Arabic Curraci, Navis longa ; hence 
C^rify the city of Coi^e in Ireland^ from a iettkment 
of the Scuthi* famed tor ifais naval arehited ; the City 
ftiU retains jsl Ship for iu arms or infignia. So in like 
manner BonJe is an honourable fiimily name among the 
Saio-Goths^ carrying. the fame Armorial* viz. a Ship; 
Chaldaice nsS'^V Khor^bana, to build with hides ; hence 
puiifjMy oUiai^. domus, from the lall comes the Gothic 
Ek^ a Ship ; to L»ng\n Irifli is a Ship and a Houfe ; it 
is the fome in the Chinefe^ who borrowed it from the Ja^ 
panefe, originally Scythians from the Cafpian Sea» hj 
their own hiftoricat accounts. 

Of thefc confutcdt or fcwcd ^Veflela, Homer is to be 
^nderftood as Pliny explains the paflage, L. 24— ^^-^ 
Thus agaitt Antiphilos m Anthoh Graec- 57. 

*AAXci Mm Te/x«r dffifi^hi J'irirM* 

Non clavus ereus nee ferrtua eft in navibus^ 
6ed ktterum compagee lino vincilur. 

The Finns carried the art with them ; they built vef- 
fels of this kind to hold twelve rowers on each fide* as we 
leam from Sturlon. T. 2* p 324* <^ Bina navigia per 
^* Finnones prope lacuum nnum fibi conftrui curavit Si- 
" gurdu3> quorum afleres animalium nervis jungeban- 

tur, nullis compads clavibus ferreis r imeriora navis 

cum falce ' £idij;na fi^^ebantur : duodecim utrinque ad 
^* latera oonGdentibus viris remigatoribus.'' 

The Tyrtans, neighbours to our Scytfat» feated at Dor 
and at Bethfean^ or ^ythopolis^ foon learnt this art from 
them i ufing the word«)D^sip» for nv^ khuty a hide, for they 
are fynonymous ; they formed |8D fapan, texit, obtexit^ 
Aipttuty Vmi^ proprie magna & teda. Hence, finding 


tHtRODlfCTlON. faxv 

our Scutbi feaietd at Aribrach 6r Cadiz, and that h was 
ib named froiir the Iriih word fignifying Shifnnen, 
(whence the Greeks calkd it Erythrea) ; they^ ambitious 
of the honour of being thoi^bt the only Seamen, named 
it Sapan, or Span, whence Spaing Hifpania. In the lame 
manner they tranflated the Hiberno-Scythian Tarufsy and 
I'arjbiiti u e. ultima babitatioj ultima Golonia, into 
ir*t3j^(q) Ibereaf^ whence Iberia^ as Fcftus Avienus ho- 
neftly has proved, bf which hereafter t-^-from this «)0 or 
^ Sap, or Schap, comes oiir &:ip. Ship, &c. 

That thefe kind of Ships were in ufe over the Globes 
from the Weftern Ocean to the Nile, is elegantly hand^ 
td down to us by Lucan, L^ 4, V. 130* 

Utque habuit ripas Sicoris, campofque reliquit 
Primum cana falix madefad6 vimine parvam 
Texitur in puppim, csefoquc induda juvenco 
Vedoris patiens tumidum fuperenatat amnem. 
Sic Venetis ftagnante Pado, fufoque Britannis 
Navigat Oceano t fie, cum tenet omnia Niius 
G>nreritur bibuta Memphtis cymba papyro. 

Our Magogian Scuthi^ or Ship-men, being feated* iii 
Armenia, recorded the fefting of the Ark, giving the name 
of Lgttban, Leaiarn, Saris, Grad(t) or GarraJ, Corrac^ 


(q) K H. Ebrp*aoi ia Irilh ilgnliiet the Weftem eountry, I. e. 
»K^nV AeSio ad doHum. 

(r) Labe«n from p^, Arboi'. Baris, from ^TWI Corium, ^0*^12 
CMJarhu Gnec. ^f09je ^p*^ aptavit Coriain. Syr. burfia, Coriariut. 
Arabiea, bar}. Maota plrata» baijat Navis magna bdlica. (Oigg. Caft.) 

Talmad : MT*13M Corium, jpaniMm. Perficd, BcTsa pattoom. ^vp^«. 

Neptune was named Scyphas and Scythius. 
' Arab. Sbeca, a kiad of a ihip, name of a tree. 

^nOB ^^' ^<*«<^ ^^'^ ^^ffi ^*^^ or Pafal» decorticare, hine 9«')irAor, 
Lat* PhaaetuSy Navis modica, cajufmodi olim fiebapt ex uno arborif 
franco dolata et fculpto, vcl etiam ex cortice, nam ^09 P<dal, dolar^ 
Icdlnere^ (Tbommaflin) and by change of tetters y^ti ^V^^* ^** magnmn. 

Copcicd, Elbt. Merextor. navigator. Ir^h £6. 
Copt. goi. egeou. • Naves. Iriih Uige. 

The Egyptians fay, the art of vfing the wind hy meaiis of fails was 
exceeding ancient. They give the honour of this difcovery to h4* t and 

d % ftye 


f^r. C^r. (atl fignifying in Irifh an Ark, Boat, or Ship)^ 
to fuch mountains on which it was recorded the Ark of 
Noah reded ; and at the fame time adopting his name 
Naci^ to (ignify a Ship or a Mariner (s). Hence the cor* 
rupted names, Carduchi, Cardipi^Ccrdyai^ Ccrdaeni, GcrJi, 
Curdif andmorecorredly byAI. Polyhifter, Carcyrsn{t)f 
i. c. the mountains of Arrarat. From Nscol Danutfiinus 
we find this mountain was alfo called Baris. ^* An a' 
<* Grsecis apud quos Ba/>ir harbari navigii genus eft, aut 
'< ab Armeniis qui Deam coluerunt hujus nominis,'* fays 
Bochart, from this paflage of Strabo, '< Abus mons eft 
*< prope viam qua itur Ecbatana, prcter Baridis de^ 
** templum/' We (hall hereafter (hew that Atrr-z^jwas' 
Luna, and that the Egyptian I(is received her honours as 
a Navigator from the Iri(h word Efsy or Ifs, a (hip. 
Bochart thinks Baris may be a corruption of tne Hebrew 
nn3 berith, i. e. fosdus, ^ia in sil§ ipjb montg Deusfot- 

fays GoQgeCy over and above the little credit which it doe to the greater 
part of the hidory of diis Princeisy we fliali prove that this difcovery 
cannot be afcribcd to the Egyptians. It is evident, that having learnt 
the art from the Scythians, and adopted the word Efs, a Ihip, they 
afcribed the honour of the invention to their goddela Ifis. See alio, Ann* 
Reg. 1769. 

(8) ^iN Navjs. 

(t) Qtjia Arabice Coreur eft navia prslonga ; navis nrtagna. Bochart. 
Cadca navigii fpecies, Navis pneraria, (Du Cange,} ufed in Richard II. *t 
times Oricum, onus, id. whence cargo. 

In the hiftory of Anneoia by Mofet Choronenfia, we find the Bdgi or 
BolOj under the name of Mr^ ; this In Arabic is the plural of Curd^ or 
the Curdi of Curdiftan^ and in the Perfian htAory they are faid to have 
defcended the Euphrates and Tigris, and fettled in Cutb^ or Kabath 
of Babylon i that is, fiiyt De Herbelot, about the Kabathean lent { 
and here they were diftinguiflied by the name of Ztbak. Some have- 
thought that they were originally Chaldeans, Jind that they were named 
Keldan or Chaldaeans, the Caflidanim of the Hebrews and Arabs.* 

We rouft here obferve that the Nabathean Fena are faid to have been 
called Cv/^4, and that an ancient King of Babylon there cut many canals 
from the Euphrates into the Paludes, and from thence into the Tigris. Cn- 
itb or Cutb in Iri/h is a Canal \ a fofs, a ditch ; on this laft branch flood 
jfyamm^ and at the forks of the Euphratea and Tigris ftood Ctrkt^ or 
Corche» in Iri(h Cmircbe^ the city of Corke, Kimrod Gigas is eflet qui 
eifodit aliquot fluvios in Al Jrac, quas deduxit ex Euphrate, et didtur 
ejufmodi efle flumen Cutba in via Q^b^ (Ahmed J. In Perfic, Irac, or 
Erak, or Ark, is alfo a Canal, the Olsm as Ctub in Irifli^ changed by th« 
Arabs into Kufl>« 



dus contraxit, non tarn cum N»a, ^uam cum bomnum ge* 
nen umvirfo, indi data infignum fosdiris. This leads 
aie to the true derivation of the naihe of Armmia. The 
Magogians or Armenians always recorded this Q>venant 
of God with mankind, and annuaU/ celebrated the 
Mi^n^ Armioiij or Breith : and hence Jlrrmion-ia, li- 
terally implies the country of the Mountain of the G>- 
venant (u). 

The Prophet Jeremiah records the Mountain of the 
Ark and of the Covenant, in chap. 51. ver. 27. '* Set ye 
up the flandard in the land, blow the trumpet among the 
Goim : prepare the Goim againft her ; call together againft 
her the Kingdom of ArraraU Minni and Afchena%^ 
for the Ilebrew Mini the Chaldce has '^D nn har-Mini, 
the Mount of the Covenant. And here I muft obferve» 
that Arrarat is a Scythian name for the mountain of the 
Ship, for Art^ or Aorth^ or Arth, is a Ship, and Ar a 
mountain : in the Egyptian language erh^ty as gin^erhot^ 
navigatio, in Irifli Arthgim navigare ; for gin in Egyp- 
tick, zndgim in Iri(h, is the verb facen. I am led to 
this derivation, feeing the Hebrew Etymologifts have 
gone fo much out of the way for an explanation of Arra^- 
rat, viz. on*1K malididfio tnmoris ; aut ex HebraDO et Sy^ 
ro malidi£li$f five lux currensis : and we learn from Halt* 
ho, the Armenian, that the name of the mountain in 
their language is Aurtb, which perfedly correfponds with 
the Irifli Aorth, or Arthrac a Ship* so Author and Ea- 
tbar form Eatharac a Ship, from yn^n, tb§ra pellis & ac 
water : hence the Phoenician Hercules was named AfcUc* 
artus, or MclecAortb, the King of the Ship, or the Sail- 
or of the Ship (x) : it is therefore probable that onnM was 
originally Qnw the Fau being miftaken by Gopyifts for n 

R (y)- 


(u) Perficd Armun, a pledge, an earnefiy forety, ftipulatjon, an^ 
thing by which a protnife Is confirmed (Ricbardibn). Ataicn, name of ~ 
a mountain near Burfa in Bithynia. (Do.) 

(x) Hence Melicerta Ton of Athamas King of Thebes,i was transform^ 
ed into a Sea God : woiihip was paid to lijni by the Creeks^ and games 
inftituted to his honour. 

(y) Midacritus. Plambum ex Caflherides infula primus apporta\it 
Midacritus. Plinius, L. VJ1« 0.3$. Bochart thinks this name is cor- 
rupted from MeJicartus the Phopniciim n«mae of Hercu)e$ ; but Mid4cr^ 



The iffagopdns {%) hmioared Noah hy the name ^ 
Qig'uige, Sathar-naoi, Cii/fur or Kn/lurtu, Ffor^tadmban, 
that is, the Giant or Hero of the Ship $ the Ship Voya- 
ger, the man of the Ocean, whence the Greek Ogyges, 
Saturnus (a) the.Chaldee Xifutbms and the Etnifcan Ver-., 
tumnusy i. e. Neptune. 

Keift, or Cit/1% in Irilh is an Ark or Ship, in old Per- 
fian Kefliti, hence Runjbur Kiflite, a trading Veflel ; 
Kijhti Noab^ Noah's Ark. Abydenus, who records the 
name of XifuthruSf is fiippofed to have taken his abftraft 
firom the Archives of the Medes ^nd Babylonians, but 
we find no fuch word for a Ship in the Chaldean Lan- 
mage. Carb is another name for a Ship in Iriifa ; in Arabic 
Orab). ttnnyjfhariba Gh. Navicula. Carabus. B^aipKar- 
bit, peliis & Sia-Cairh or Cia^Crab was a name of Noakf 
1. e. the man of the Ships : this was the Cecr^ps or Hoah 
of the Eaft. tfaoi and NaM (firzh. Nahbua), is a Ship 
and a Sailor : in Egyptian, nebi (natatio), noph, NaQ«- 
ta : torn is the Ocean, the Sea, hence rTifMots ; and 
from CU-naioh^ the man of the Ship, I conjedure came 
the Greek K0iy»C«(- Nhbt was the fame perfoni though 
by the Greeks mentioned as a woman. See Xenopfaen 
de a^oivocis, & Dickenfoni Delphi Phcsniciz. p. 163* 
C€Aal is another Irilh word &>r a Ship. Cablach a fleet. 
Cahlacan, a mariner. CMaibda naval : in the Ghaldec 
$3n Chebal, & lAsinGhobla Nauta ; from Naoi is derived 
the Qhaldee OK ani, & n'lK ania, a Ship (bj. 


^t itevidootlx ths JEgyptisis pameof the fiune perfoii t in that JanfusfB 
med it a prppoiite^ as med^eb doniUiatio, from nebci domlDUs, nMd« 
pnro regnum, from ocfo rqr^ whence ewpo Pharaoh 1 med Cvbe (tupieii. 
tia from Tabe iapiens, in like manner med.erhot, a Tailor, i,e. Midar* 
chot, whence MidacHtut» by the tranfpofition of a letter. 

(1) Alcerum igitur duonim ip Getiefi accedir, vel pro Arrare^ Aniat 
eft l^endum, ut Area dicatur in montibus Tauri confediile, vel 6 a flu* 
mina tota Armenia major Arrarat Tocari concedatur. Gorapiue B«ca- 
nut. Indo-Scyth. I. 5. Tbit author has miftaken the fenfe of Artl^ 
deriving it from rS^^Vk •'"th, rirus, ftagnum, in Irifharrith ; the miftal^ 
cf the Hebrew c6pyifls (i/any) lies in the iirft R, which Oiould be Vs 
yix, 53*1W ^"'t, 

(a) father or Seathar, Lord, it is aUb a name of Qod. In Phoeplciaa 

B[^*"'^D1tt^ Soter.Noab« Dominus Noah* In Iri/h Seathar-naoi, either 
ominut Noah, vel Dominus Navis. 

(b) From DV> Kis. Lignum, or rWT^ Keft. SaUx. KDO^p Kifms 
fruftrum ligni, |JVJ Kis, Cochleare lignum. Ceas or Km in Trifli is a 



YariMs ait the t>piniotis of the learned concerning 
the name Scythe. As to the derivation fome give of it 
from fliooting^ k is eafily determined whether it be well 
grounded or not. IT it could be fhewn that the Scythians 
iifed a word Kke this to fignify a bow, an arrow, or to 
fiioot, )net this would be of very little weight, as the peo- 
}>le tfaemfelves irftify that they did not call them- 
fdves Scythians on that account. Among the Greeks, 
this word fignified neither to (hoot, nor a fhootcr, 
ikA even in a figurative fenfe j SKc^te^fiy rather fienified 
M> earoufe $ and the Medes and Pet^^ns were no lefs fa- 
mous for Ihooting than the Scythians ; what reafon then 
lhoi£ikI move tfatm to give their neighbours the name of 
SiootiPt ? as if bOws and arrows had been unknown to 
them (they called themfelves Bolgi, and the fynonymous 
word is tfao)«i9 Coriarii). When Cjazeres com- 
mitted fome youths to the Scythians for mflrudion^ it 
was not on account of their being good markfmen, but 
beeaufe they were famous for hunting, to which (hooting 
was not an indifpenfaUe qualification < and in the chace 
the ^^orthern Scythians were known to excdl, as much 
as the Southern Scythians did in navigation and com** 

tdir, ■fid Uaiflcen a cock-boat % Hy% Keacing, p. 14!. IT^ a finalJ boat 
on tfat Tha ui a a ■ B iyilio ^icandfec Ktm$ p«tfet, Xk in (Artkic It a rack or 
impediment under water, dangerous to mariners, whence the kip a dan* 
gertMM fand baak hi tlKs barbour of Dobttn. Tbe Ciffil and the Cuth« or 
Cbntsi were the fMne people. Cfautni enim isdem qui CtAi, nempe So^ 
fians iacete ad ortum Babjflonic. Bochart, Vol. 1. 1. SiK c. $. ad ortuni 
Bhbylooi«, that it in OtMjr, where we place the Cm&«. Ciaii it froni 
Ckai a fliipy or IkiC; Uairoeaa, a long teat, a cock-boat % hence one of 
the Iitfi prioeet wna named VMf€mt^ from hit conHn^Aifl^ a number of 
fmall Ttflels. See Keating, at ateve* 

The Arabt wotttd call thefe marinert or (hipman^ CrA \ they would call 
themfUvet Ctrku, and Cm-k^mgi, and under thit name we find them in 
AfiduircidM. Hit autam (i. e. Caflanitit) contigui habiunt C^ii 
KifCn ia coadnente, quam portvt ezcipit profandut in quo pliirimi - 
luenmt fontet $ deiocept autem adhoeret gent Sabaeorum, And Diodo- 
mt. Poft hat funt K^f Coi Carki d\€ti, quot ftquuntur Sabci. Pliny callt 
them Ceriam. Thit mixture of people on the coaft otOmsn, particularly 
at T(tb0m0t i* noted by the Arabian Geographer. H^, fays he, are wan- 
derers fram every race. BoChart derlvet the Carbi from 2Dp Kerab brl- 
lum, and thinkt they were a warlike people | we read of them in the h{f- 
Cory of the mercbandiie of the Red Sea, but I don't recoiled the inhabj* 
tantt of the coaft were ever remarkable for military exploits, Scytho« 
ScandicdKadi; Anglo^Sax, Caravall, Navis/ 



xncrce (c). But they were all more famous for the Sword 
than the bow ; for Herodotus, in his account of the zGtu 
ens between Cyrus and the MafTagetsc^ fays exprefsly, 
that both armies were equal whilft they ufed only their 
arrows, but that the Scythians turned the fcale when they 
came to handle the fabrcs ; hpnce the Irifli never named 
any of their princes or generals by ai^ words implying 
bow or arrow ; but many were called Swordfmen, as Col- 
pa-Cliamh, &c. &c. r or they named their Princes by 
tome word betokening art, fcience, knowledge ; as Seal 
and Scalaith, which is the Phoenician and Chaldssan hx 
Seal, intelligere, intueri, afpicere, confiderare, atten- 
dere, animadvertere ; hence Seal fignifies a Prince or 
Governor, and Scal-tath^ a Lord of a certain diftrid* 
Qmnibus autem (Scythis) nomen eflfe Scolc^is Regif 
pognomen. Scd Scythas Grseci appellavere, (ays Hero*^ 

(c) Mor an muirriach im tr;ath tonn \ t. e* they trafficked much by 
Cea, (Liber Lecanus^ a very ancient Iriih MS. p. i8.) 

This line of Japhet derive all their names from the fea or fea fliofta in 
profai\e hiftory. CamberUnd, by arginments not eafily anrnrcred, pnovea 
|<Iereus of Sanchoniatho to be Japliet. (in Jrifli Naoire a failor). The bi. 
Ihop alfo proves that Pontus was the fon of Nereus. Pontas had two 
children, a fon PofeidtH or Neptune, (in Irifli Fofa-iam a dweller on th« 
lea), and a daughter Suiva, who, being a charming finger, was the firft 
who compofed Odes (in Irlth JUhmm, to fmg.) Nereus, Pontus, and 
Pofeidon or Neptune, every body knows to relate to the fea and its fea 

The like confirmation we have from the Greek hi ftories, Chat the line 
of Pofeidon or Neptune is confiftent with Sanchoniatho^s genealogy here, 
snaking him the grandfon of Nereus or Japhec. They own that PofiBidoa 
had feised on Attica by a ftroke of his trident before Athena came there. 
In Apollodorus we find, that firom Oceanut is derived Inaettu^ and in his 
line the eldeft Ptlafpts is placed very near the beginning. See Cumber* 
land, Sanchon, p 259. 2,6%. 

The bifiiop, with good authority, has proved the Pelafgi or Peiagi were 
Japhetans. All writers agree that they were Phcenictans { cconiequently 
the Phcenicians were Japhetans, «nd not of Ham, as has been generally 
. imagined, from the Greeks confounding them with the Canaanites, with 
whom they mixed. I judge, f^ys Cumberland, that the prime families 
of Japhet and Ham were feated at no great diftance from each other, and 
fometimes had fair correfpondence, and fometimes fell into wars ; of 
friendly cemport between them Sanchoniatho afifbrds an inftance 
in his own lown Berytus» vvhit h he tells us Crtnus gave to PofitUm and 
^he C^hirik 



dfitus (d). The name is pure Scythian, and defcended 
to the Gennansy Antiquiffimum Germanicum vocabu* 
4iim eft Scibo^ quod Jiuiicem fignificat : Biabanti mei 
hodieque Scboliis aut Scckes dicunt. (Boxhornius. Orig. 
jQall. p. 97.) Thisj fays Mr. Baumearten, is no other 
XhsLii t\ic yfoxdSultanf which, among European and other 
adjacent Tartars, fignifies no more than a Lord of the 
Country : The Scholati of Herodotus were, by his own 
account, of Royal extradion, and all of them were dif* 
tinguilbed by a Royal appellation. 

mron de Tott. v. 1. p. 51. fays the word Sultan is on- 
ly title d birth given to the Ottoman princes born on 
the throne, and to thofe of the Guinguis family. How 
the Baron could make this lAiftake is inconceivable : if 
the Baron had recolieded the Legends of the Turkifh 
Coins, he could not have committed fuch a blunder. 
Soultna el Bfrejn ve Hakkan el Bahrein. — Rex Terrse & 
Imperator Maris. The Tuniiian Princes take the fame 
title. See p. xxxii. 

As to the nzmc Sacegj Mr« Baumgarten thinks it isdc* 
rived from fu^ loo, fche, JJata, or fcbatf which, in the 
Perfian, Turkim, and many Tartarian dialeds, even 
fo fat* as Hindoftan, fignify an hundred ; and as it ts 
well known, that a multitude is often denoted by a deter- 
minate number, fo Saca or Saga literally fignifies an hun- 
dred hords, but is undcrftood to imply a people confiding 
of innumerable hords, which, fays he, is certainly the 
proper denomination of the entire body of the Scythians, 
(e) This, I own, correfponds with Pliny's defcription ; 
Ultra funt Scytharum populi. Perfse illos Sacas in uni- 
verfum appellavere a proxima gente, anttqui AramsBOS : 
multitudo populorum innumcra (f); and with the Irifli 
Sgotb, a mukitude, Chaldee UD. nmUD- riUD. i- e. Co- 
pia, multitudo abundantia, from the root yjD. Saga, 
augeri, abundare. We have given a derivation well adap- 
ted to hiftorical fads. 

(<J) Lib. Xrvr. p. aiS— 50. 

UJ Obfcrv. on the Univ. Hid. Vol. 11. 

if) Lib, VI. ch. xtii. 



ftolemy properljr daces die Sar^ in Badriana ; 
fls Chomar was thdr Metftipolis, the Authors of the 
Hiftory btj^ thefe imift be GMMntf«#.'--«W^ ihaU hereaf^ 
trr ftow that the Qomerians took a Teiy different note, 
and that Chomar m kifli fignifics a plain, or vaHey be^ 
twcen htlUy whence we have z Bmls^Chmnarm in Irebnd^ 
a Village fo called from its fituatioa ; and this is chetnie 
Origin of the name Cimmiril, a people living in Vati- 

This confufion of general names made Straholky) 
'< that the ancient Greeks called all the Northern Nati- 
<* ons icyibi and dhs^Scyibi, withoi|t diflindicni ; bat 
^' they knew little or nothing of thefe people, or of the 
** Perfians, Medes, orSy/Sans; and all they had written 
** of them was mere fable, (g)'* 

In like manner the more modern Byzantine blftorianB 
have confounded the Gothi, Hunni, Getae, often cal« 
ling them Scuthi. Vel verum ignorantes, vtet intem** 
peftivam a£Fedantes fermonis caftitatem Scriptores By* 
^antini folent, ita et Gothi apud illos non raroScythamm 
nomine veniunt. (J. Gotthilf Strittenis de Gk>thi6.) 

The learned Ihre makes the fame remark, and in a 
former page we have fhewn the canfe of thU confofion. 

The iimilarity of languages between the ancient Getc 
and the Scuthi deceived the Greeks, and in fubfisquent 
ages, that great body of Southern Scythians, who paiTed 
the Hellefpont after the routing by Darius, imported into 
Thrace fuch an abundance of Arabic and Perfian wordsy 
as renewed once more the Oriental dialed amongft the 
Geta. The Perfians, originally Scythians, (Fi^s ffi 
ariginittis Scythau Am. Marceil.) on the contrary had m- 
troduced fuch a number of Gothick words, as to deceive 
the learned, who have efteemed thefe nations of one Ori- 
gin. (Scyth^e funt tarn Perfie ^mam Gethi Gennmiqui^ 
lays Mariham.) The Irij[h» originally a Scythian dia- 
led, improved by the abode of the Southern Scythians, 
their Anceftors, in Perfia and Armenia^ comprehends 
the roots of all thefe languages. 

(g) Strabo L. XIi 

' The 


The Author cf the Rnherd^es fur Pmrigiiu (i lispr§grh 
dis A&i di la Greciy obfcrves, ** that the name oxS€$laH 
*^ is anterior of that of Scytbi, and that of Sacae muft have 
'' preceded that of Scdati*fince the prince that bore it 
^' was bom of the Sac4t» The name of this people, fo 
^^ ancient^ has never been changed, or at lead has re* 
^^ ceived fo little variation, as to be difcovered, not onijr 
*^ in China and Japan, but alfo in every country they 
^' originallv inhabited- The UJi^ Tartinrsy a divifion 
^' of the JHenguiSf call themfelves Zifgais; and their 
^' Country, of which Samarcands is the Capital, is called 
^^ Zagatbaiaj or Zagaia, which is the lame as Sacaia.^ 
We uall only add on this fubjed, that the learned Pro- 
feflbr Bayer obferves, that the word Scythe was unknown 
to^ the moft ancient Gh^ek writers, and that it is not of 
Grecian origin : and he adds, it was not the name the 
Scythians called thcmfelves. Bayer is fo far right, that 
they called themfejves originally Belgiy that is, Hydo» 
men, becaufe their veflels were made of Htdes, and the 
Greeks confequently call them <rx»9«(» Sfkuthai, i. e. 
Hydemen, Coriarii (h), when thefe Bolgi had mixed 
with the Dadanites, and had traded to Babylon, where 
they fold the Scoth of their Bolgi ; they then took on 
them the name ot Scothi or Scuthi^ the Chaldean name 
for a (hip, and by this name they were known on the 
Red Sea, where they failed the Egyptian fliips ; hence 
the Allegory, that their King was married to S<otay a 
daughter of the Egyptian monarch : as Erythrus, or 
Hercules, was faid to be married to Erytha, i. e. a Ship. 
So we (hall find Niul was married to the Skeita or 
fleet of the Egyptians. They called themfclvcs M il-e£s 
or Lords of the Ship, Sailors, whence the name Milefs or 

(h) Tl)« Greek Wor4 corrdpondiog to Bolgi, \%a%v^Ai i. e. Coriarii^ 
whence Siephanus y^My derives the name ScythCi and axv^ewoAr^ 
Coriarii Urbs, i. e, Scytbopolis. Steph. de Urb, p. 146* In like man* 
fier thtf Iridi Efcip. Scip. Skiph, a (hip is the n^^fT'"^ Sichiphe of tfa^ 
OrientaUAs, i,e. Sicca-pelUs or Navispellis. See p. xxviii. 



Milefius (1)9 fynonymous to Milecaurt or MelicaituSf 
and probably Hercules is alTo derived from their Arg-htl, 
2l failing by the Compafs. The Compafs is faid to have 
been known to the Chinefe 11 15 years before Chrift 
{Playfair) ; why not to the Tartars and Scythians ? Arg 
is a (hip, and iWis to turn round, it fignifies alfo an in- 
dex. Eare is the Heavens, and Earc-iul defcribes the in- 
ftroment turning to a certain point of the Heavens (k}« 

In like manner Sum Bnac, our Voyaging Philofopher 
(Hercules) having fettled a Cofony of his Commercial 
people at Tangt or Tangier (called by the old Scythi^ 
Tifgra or Tcgar, that is a fair, a Mart, by the Tyrians 
Tiggrr) is faid to have flain jtntenu and to have married 
his widow Tingi, becaufe Tangier was the £mporium of 
Africa, as Plutarch, Pompon-Mela and Pliny relate. 
An Irifli MSS. called theBookof Leacan relates the care 
of the Egyptian fleet being committed to our Magogi- 
ans. ^^ Jfchafiusyrzs the i6th King of Aflyria : in the be- 
ginning of his reign Mofes paft the Red Sea and Phara* 
oh periflied ih the purfuit. Four years after this memo* 
rable event Sxu 'Son of EfrUf Son of Gai&l-glas^ failed 
away with part of Pharaoh's fleet." 

The Magogian Scythians, mafters of Armenia and 
Mefopotamia, diftinguifhed that part of it between the 
Euphrates and the ^gaean and Mediterranean Seas, by 
the name of Jar, Jaran, Eire, or Eirin, fignifying by 

(i) This is the mcanidg of the names in Iri/h, we are aflured by the 
fragment of a very ancient poem written^ it is faid, by Amergin, who 
was a Milefian, and arrived in the firft expedition ; this fragment is pre- 
(ervcd in the Liber Lecanus or Lcabar Lecan, p. 13. and concludes thus.* 

Taatha mac Mileadh 
Miieadh Loinge libearn, 

i. e« 
Lords virere Milefius fons 
1 ' Milefias of the Libeam ihip. 

Libeam is the Chaldee K^i'li^ Libemia Naves caudicariae ct bcllica tz 

tabulis crafponibus faAs unde AiCfpvoc. (Plantavit. Lex.) 

(k) When the Greeks came to u»derftand that CuU in the Scythiaq 
language was a club and Err^ a hero, they thought Hercoles derived from 
Krrttiil or the Club-Hero, and chut they reprefented him } and the fymbot 
of Hercules being the trunk of aa olive tree confirmed them in the mif- 



thefc words, the Weft ; they are the fame as the Phoeni- 
cian nulH Ahur, \nnH Aharon, i* e, poftremus, occiden- 
talis (I)* Hence we find in Rivola, that Jtbiran is the 
name of Armenia^ and Atirnac an Armenian, in the 
Armenian language. The country Eaftward of the 
Euphrates, the Scythians named Oirgf and CHrche, de- 
noting the Eaft, from niK or Lux, item Aurora (m).-— 
Prof. Bayer thinks this name was peculiar to Ofrhoes^ 
and that it was written Urhoi (terminatione Aramaea), 
i. e. Sol, Lux, Ignis (n). — The level plains of this Coun- 
try the Scythians named Uire, or l/r, words which ex- 
prefs a moift place, a valley ; hence the City of C/r, near 
Nijibusy on the River Mtgdonius ; Ur alfo ugnifies Fire, 
Light, the Sun ; hence the Ur of the Chaldees on the 
South banks of the Euphrates : the fimilarity of names 
has occafioned much confiifion in the Geography of the 
Ancients (o)« 

Ebir Scuit mvntrnS]^, the 5th in defccnt from Magog, 
pafled over the Cafpian Sea, and peopled that Country, 
named Scjrthia intra and extra Imaum^ or the Northern 
Scythians, or Hyperboreans. Thefe people did not fet- 
tle in towns, but led a wandering life, whence they were 
named, by the Southern Scythians, Tuath-rianuigb, or 
Tuaraniu^h, the wandering people. They were after- 
wards diftm^iflied by the Perfians by the name of Divn 
or Evil Spirits, and m Irilb hiftory by the name of Sidh 
or Devils : hence Shadukian in Perfia, the Country of 
the Fairies or Dives, (Herbelot. p. 765.) (Bailly fur 
FAtlantide, p. 1 84.)— The Perfians fay that the Tourani, 
or Northern Scythians, were fo called from Tour, Son of 
Firidoun, a King of Perfia of the firft Dynafty, named 
Pifthdadiens : that Tour had an elder brother named Irag, 
who had Perfia for his inheritance ; and Tour was obiig- 

(1) Bochart. Phal 

(m) Idem. 

(n) Hiftorise Ofrho«ii«, p. 4. 

(o) SacKy nam et Ba^ianam occupaverunt, et optimam Amenic 
tellurcm, quam a fe Sacafenam deaoroiiiaveniiiu Strabo, L. X. p. 511, 
Thus we fee in the time of Strabo, the SacK-Seana^ the Old Sacc, were 
iUll exifUng In Armenia. 



ed to ptfs tbe Giimh or Omus, smd to rei^ in the Tratf^ 
fexane Provinces. Mirkhound writes, that the Gty of 
Affauaralnachar on the Eaft of Bsir Khvum, i. e. Gafpiaitf 
Sea, was butk hj Tmtr, fwm whom all bevond the Ok^ 
us was named Tturan* Aimed Ben Arabmah hcj^ rhatt 
Turqui/Um was named from this Tmrr ; but the learned 
lyHerbelot clearly proves, that neither was TmrqmefiM 
named from T^ur^ or Iran from Irag^^ as tbe Pernant 
fabaloafly relate. 

The Arabs, Pcrfians, and Turks have always dtftrn- 
guiihed the Northern from the Soorhem Scythians : by 
the name Jagnige and Nfaguige, or Gog and Magog, fay^ 
D'Herbeiot, they undefftand the (ame ai they do by Gin 
and Afagiff, or TMn and MatcbiH , that is, the Nor-* 
them Chtnefe and the Southern Chinefe. See EffJerbe* 
lot at Magiuge. Hence we find the Citj of Magog^ in 
Syria, &c. Our Colony of the Magogians never went 
North of the Cafpian Sea, but extentSed from thence 
Southward and Eaftward. And under the word Turk^ 
IVHerbclot obferves, that the Arabian and Perfian Ao' 
thors agree, that the Share of the Land that fell to 
Japhet and his Children, was from the Gordian Moun^ 
tain to the Eajhrn &o. and all to the North of it. 

The Perfians were scythians, defeended frt>m Mount 
Caucafus, they firft fettled abonC the Cafpian Sea, then 
in Armenia, and finally in Perfia. The ancient faiftory 
6f the Perfians, is the hiftory of thefe Southern Scy^ 
thians, the anceftors of the Irifh. In the following 
iheets fuch ftrong likendFes wilf appear, as to remove alt 
doubt, that the tranfadions attributed to the ancient 
Irilh in Ireland, were the tranfadions of their anceflors 
tn Armenia, Pontes, Bkhynia $ on the Euphrates, the 
Pcrfian Gulph, Che Coaft of the Red Sea, &c. &c. 
That the fabulous hiffoiY^ of the Greeks is borrowed of 
the ancient Perfians, and is to be difcoven^d in what is 
improperly called the ancient hifiory of Ireland. 

The learned Monf. Bailly has opened an extenfive 
field of knowledge in the Perfian hiftory (p), proving 

(p) LcttreiXttr TAtlantlde. 


introduction: xlvii 

them to have been originally Scythians : We fhall here 
call in the authority of this Author to our aid *' Vous 
convicndrez Monfieur^ <{ue toutes ccs fables grecquea 
refemblent beaucoup aux fables^ qui font la premiere hif- 
toire des Perfes. La guerre de Moifafor^ peut etre le 
modele de la euerre de Briarce & des autres Gians contre 
Jupit^ : Hiais celle de Moiiafor ni8me n'eft-ellc pas 
^videment copi^e fur la premiere hiftoire des Perfes, qui 
£tant plus dctaill6e & plus fimple, montre qu'elle eft la 
fource de toutes les autres, brumes par le tenis» & char- 
g(£es de merveilleux par la tradition ? Ce mSme Hercule 
li'a^-il pas delivr^ Prometb je^ d^vore par un aigle fur le 
Caucafe ? No voila-t-il pas encore Hercule dans cette 
Scythie, o^ nous retrouvons toutes les origines, cx6cvt* 
tant (es exploits & portant fes bienfaits fur le Caucafe, 
d'oik les Atlantes (q) font partis, ain£ que le culte du 
Solcil, & ^tt la Perfes prennent ieur origing U le commence^ 
ment de leur ht/loire ? (p. 305.) - 

Des que les Perfes ont ^tenda Ieur empire jufq'aeu pied 
du Caucafe, ils ne font pas remonth vers le Nord, ils fe 
ibnt au contraire port^s vers ic midi. Giamjbid a quitt£ 
les montagnes pour defcendre dans les plaines, oh il a 
fend£ Perjepolis^ Je ne iai & les id^es nouvelles que je 
vous propofe r^pandent un preftige autour de moi : mais 
ces concludons me paraiflent de la plus grande evidence; 
elles me femblent plus fures que la tradition & Thiftoire 
m^me ; car la tradition eft fouvent corrompue ; I'hiftoire 
eft menteufe, la vanity nationale & tant de prejug6s 
L'alterent I Combien les variations des langues, les equi- 
voques defr noms des peuples, les changemens des denomi- 
nations geographiques n'y ont ils pas introduit de notions 
fauftes I — Ce n*eft pas que Pancienne hiftoire toute ob- 
(cure qu'elle eft, ne joigne quelques faits i la lumiere de 
ces r^fultat^ philofopfajques.-— Toutes les guerres (de 
Perfes) avec les Dives ont Ieur theatre pres des montagnes 
de Caff qui ne font que le Caucafe, — le ne decide point 
ii elles font relatives aux tems qui ont pr^c^de ou fuivi 

(q) If M. Bailly*s conjedurei are right, that this was the original 
feat of the Atlantes, the name may have travelled with this ancient peo» 
pie to Ireland. 


xlviii INTRODUCTlOl^. 

Ic deluge ; mais je vois quVlles parlent tojours des mon-*^ 
tagnes dc Cafou de Caucafe. Je vois quels font les com' 
mencemens de k'hiftoire de Pcrfe — je conclos que c'eff 
ou fuird iu Caucafi qu'il faut chercher I'arigtne des Ptt'^ 
fans* (p. 209.) 

La langue du Hanferit ne vous a-t'-clle pas d^montr^^ 
que les Brames font e'trangers ii Flnde ?-— M. le Oentil 
ne vous a-t-U pas dit q'uiis ^taient venus du Nord } 

Les Scythes devenues trop nombrcux par une popula- 
tion exccffive, defcendirent de leurs montagnes dit Stra- 
bon, & fe jetterent fur le roiaumc de Pvnt, fur la Cap* 
padcce ; & Acrmn un de leurs chefis, batit fur les boixb 
du Thermodon une vilie nommce de fon nom Acnwui. 
li entra enfuite dans la PhrygUf il y batit une feconde 
Jcmonii (r). Or, cet Acmon ^tait pere d'Uranus^ (le' 
premier Roi de TAtJantide) qui epoufa Tit^e fa foeeur. 

Acmon, chef des Atlantes, venu avec les Scythes, & 
defcendu comme eux du Caucafe, femble nous indiquef 
de chercher le peuple Atlantique vers ces Montagues, 
(p. 112.) 

Monf. Bailly then proves the Perfians were defcend- 
ed of the Scythians of Mount Caucafus. That the fa^ 
bulous Perfian hiflory of the Dives or Evil Genii, and of 
the Peri or Good Genii, was no more than a diflindioir 
drawn between them and their Northern anceftors. 
That the Pifiidadian.race of Kings made war continually 
upon thefe Dives ; in ail thefe fables, the reader will find 
a ftria conformity in the Irilh hiftory* The Pilhda- 
dians of the Perfians being the Tuath-dadanns of the 
Irilh hiftory. The Paras or ancient name of the Per- 
fians are the Pharas or Pharfai of the Iriflu Ces Peris- 
font bons, (fays the learned Bailly) ils etaient puiflans, 
mais pour la bienfaifance. Je vois entr'euz & les Per- 
fans une alliance & des fecours r^ciproques : ce fait eft 
d£cifif dans un tems 6u les peuples ^uient ifoles : ce 
font des colonies qui aident la Metropole voiez comme 
les Perfans ont exagerc la puififance des Dives, qui onC 

(r) See Aghamon or Achmon. Chap, i, of this Work, 


it€ raiKCur par les Perisy &c. &c. (Lcttres (ur 1' At- 
-bntiek^ pt 103.) 

My reader' being now prepared for the ancient hidory 
x>f Ireland, we mnft oWerve, that the ancient. Acmcnians 
and Ada^ogian Scylhiaos^ from whom the Iriih defcend* 
td, having been one and the fame people, both 
named Eirimacby or Jtinranach : it will not be furprizing 
to find, that the tranbSiions of their Anceftors- in Ar- 
menia, being either handed down by tradition or records, 
.have beenmiftaken for the tranfadions of thefe people in 
Eirin or Ireland .; and the fame of the Expeditions of the 
Scyehians into Iran or Perfia. 

For example : when' we find in Adbfes Choronenfis 
the fabulous ftory of Noah's Niece, voyaging acrofs the 
•Euxine Sea, and fettling in: Aburan or Eirinn^ i. e. the 
Wefty we are not to be furprized to find the Irifh Bards 
bring her to Earin or Ireland \ or when we find in the 
Annals of Armenia a plsople named Gem-Tb^nniy that is. 
Sea-faring men^ from whom they fay, came Cadmus ; 
we are not tio follow Mofes Choronenfis, and fay, thefe 
were Canaanices (from a popular notion, that Gidmus 
was a Canaanite) ; tbey were indeed Pb^nUiafts, the 
i>flFspring of Mig^g^ among whom we fhall find Cadmus 
in the fequci of thi& Hiilory, and the caufe of his being 
thought to have been* an Egyptian. If the Armenians 
have their Gtkm, a herd and leader, the Irifh have their 
Goiambf which was a Cognomen of JldSleJius, the con- 
qUdror oFSpati> and of Ireland* G^amb dies, and leaves 
his Kmgdom to J^rrrm^ j-^the Annenian Oeiam dies, 
and leaves his. kingdolti to Herman : ^* Otiamius Har- 
" man genuit, et poll aliquot inde annos morhius eft, 
** cum id mandati filio fuo Harman dedifTet. Mofes 
*• Choronenfis," p. 34. ** HsB autem narrationes, feu 
** verae funt, five.falfteb nihil laboramus.'^ Idem. p. 19. 
If- the Arntenians (ay they are defcehded of Japhctus 
Haig or Oig^ that is, Japhet the Giant j we fhall find, 
the Magogiaii Scythians, or Irifh, to draw their defccnt 
from the, Anocfl^or of Magog, .or Japhet Gadul, whence 
they have to this day diftinguifhed themfelves by the 
.name of Gadali or Gaodbal ; and this was the moft proper 

£ name. 


name, becaufe the facred penmsm gives him the epithet 
of Gadul Vna, by which he means a man of extraordina- 

gftatore. And Sem* the brother of Japhet Gmdul. 
enefis, chap. x. ver. i. the Seventy tranilate it Japhet 
the elder ; yet Mofes mentions him laft ; but if ekkft 
or youngefty the word ^*t:i gadui implies greats magnum 
cflc vel fieri. Goadal Gias oraidbur Gaodbah from 
T^rVnJI Gadul Giaz, illuftris Gadul, the Irilh derive their 
name of Gadelians. (Keating, p. 68« from an ancient 
poem). And the PoAerity of this Gadul-glas were called 
Scutba, for, the reafons already afCgned. 

The general difguft to the ancient Hiftory of the Irilb» 
has arifen from the ignorance of the Tranflators, whOf 
zealous for the antiquity of their Country, did not, or 
would not fee, that the early periods of this Hifto- 
ry, related not to Ireland, but to thofe parts of 
A(ia their Anceftors came from. Thus in the third 
Chapter, we are told, one of their Chiefs fettled here 
300 years after the Flood : without confidering that 
their Anceftors at that period were fettled in Bjthinia 
and Papblagonia, where hiftory informs us, a partial 
flood took place, (the famous Samothracian flood ;) the 
Bards and Seanachies explain this tranfadion, as an 
event that happened 300 years after the Noabatic Flood. 

This Samothracian flood, as Diodorus obferves, was 
not a poetical fidion, but real truth, becaufe pieces of 
Architcdure were frequently found under water. 

In the time of Auguftus, the Samothracians^lhewed the 
altars that were ereded over the Ifland, where the waters 
had reached, and where their Anceftors had retreated f 
foflile bones have alfo been difcovered under this water 

The ancients were unanimoufly of opinion the Pcntuf 
Euxinus was only a Lake, which being overcharged with 
wafers, broke firft into the Propcntis, and then into the 
JEgaatif wafliing away by degrees the earth, which kept 
it within its firft bounds, and forming the two channels 
of thft Bofporus Tbracius, and the Hillifpont. They were 
alfo of opinion, the Palus Msntis^ the Pontus Euxinus, 
the Propontis and Meditirratuan were originally fo many 



Lakcs^ wfaieh by the impctnofity of their waters, opened 
themfelvet a pafiage between the Mountains of Jttas and 
Cahi into the Ocean. Hence the fabulous tradition in 
Iriin Hiftory of the formation of all the Lakes in the 
kingdom, and the burfting out of the great rivers, which 
account has been defignedly omifted in the fuccceding 

Thefe tnKhtions are a confirmation of the early periods 
of their hiftory $ and if we can confide in Etymology, the 
anceftors of the Irifh gave name to that G>aft which had 
been ib torn by the Samotbracian flood, and divided into 
fo many Illands, as the ArcbiptUig§ now abounds with, 
calling it in their language Ati-gta (s) i. e« the Sea of 

^fr. Whitehurft, after having proved that all Bafaltei 
are Lava, obferves, doubts may arife with refpefi to the 
origin of the Bafaltes or Giants Caufeway in Ireland, 
fince no vifible crater, nor the leaft veftige of an cxtin* 
guilhed volcano are now remaining, except the fubftan-- 
ces before mentioned, from whence fuch immenfe tor* 
rents could have flowed, as are now fpread over fo great 
a part of the North of Ireland. 

Thefe circumftances render it neceflarv to obferve, 
that whoever attentively views and confiders thefe ro- 
mantic Cliffs, together with the exterior appearances 
of that mountainous Cliff*, will, I prefume, lays he, foon 
difcover fufficient caufe to conclude, that the crater from 
whence that melted matter flowed, together with an im- 
menfe trad of land towards the North, have been abfo- 
lotely funk and fwallowed up into the earth, at fomc 
remote period of time, and became the bottom of the 
Atlantic Ocean. A period indeed much beyond the 
reach of any hiftorical monument, or even of tradition 

<< But though it does not appear, that any human 
teftimony or record, has been handed down to us, con- 
cerning fuch a tremendous event, yet the hiftory of the 
fatal Oitaftrophe is faithfully recorded in thc^ Book of 

(i) Aoi or AS it ao IAsimI, a nsioD or itnitorx. Co, U lU Sea. 

E a Nature, 

St I N T R O D U C T I O N- 

Nature, and in a language and charaders eqmlly inte^ 
ligiUe to aU nations, riiereforc will not admit of a mifin- 
terpretation : I mean thofe ftupendous Cliffs which en* 
viron a part of the Atlantic Ocean." 

** Thefe are charaders which cannot miilead^ and 
the confidcration of fuch difaAcrsy together with that of 
the caufe ftill fubfifting under the bottom of that im* 
menfc ocean, almoft pesfuade me to eonclude tlutt Ire- 
land was originally a part of the ifland of Atlantis^ 
which, according to Plato in his Timseas, was totally 
fwallowed up by a prodigious earthquake, in the fpBCt 
of one day and night, with all its inhabitants and a 
numerous hoft of warlike people, who had fiibducd a 
great part of the then known world." 

The fame obfervation is made by the ingenious and 
Rtfv. Mr. Hamilton, in his Letters concerning the 
Giants Caufeway.-— '* The promont<»ies of Antrim bear 
very evideAt marks of fome violent convulfion which haft 
left them ftanding in their prcfent abrupt fituation ; and 
that the Ifland of Raghcrv and fome of the Wcftem 
Iflands of Scotland, do really appear like the furvivin|^ 
fragments of a Country, great part of which might have 
been buried in the Ocean. 

To this let us add the tradition of the old Irifli r They 
fay, great part of this Ifland was fwallowed by the 
Stsip and that the fuakcn part often rifes, and is to be 
fttn on the horizon frequently from the Northern Coaflv 
On the North Weft of the Ifland, this part fo apf^raring 
is called Tir-Hudi or the Country of Hiid ; that it con- 
tains a City which once pofiefled all the*, riches of the 
world, the Key of which Kes buried under tome Druidicaf 
Monument. This is evidently the lofl: City of Arabian 
ftory^ vifited by tlieir febulous Preset Hud. Sec Sales 
Alcoran, Preface. On the N. E. of Ireland this refurg- 
ing part of the ifland is catted O Breafal, and corrupted- 
-ly O Brazil. The ScytMan name of the famed Atlantea, 
literally turned by the Greei^ into BqfiJea and O SeriSfa, 
fignifyin^ the Royal Ifland of the Gods. O in Irifli, 
corrupted of Aoi, or Ai is an Ifland or territory : Bnas 
is King, Prince, RoyaU dnd jtl is God, the Irrciietor 



and Br$afal is Rcwal. O S^aicbtt fignifies the Iflanduken 
awajr by fudden force ; but the farmer name O Breafil 
is pure Chaldee, viz. V?*Q"'K Ai Brazil, bearing the 
fame iignification as the Irifh in Letter and Senfe, viz. 
the Royal Hkind, a name probably introduced by the Da* 
danites of Cbaldea, wih whom the anceftors of (be Iriik 
mixed, as will appear in the following hiftory. 

<' L'un lenomme ile BafiUe, Tautre lui dcoine le-nom 
de OfcriSa, & ce mot comme pourappuier leur teraoigr 
na^e fignifie dans les langues chi Nord, Ile de Dieux 
Roiale ; Tile Atlantide de Platon ; i'Ogygie 4e Homcre* 
(Bailiy fur I'Atlantide. p. 368.) 

Aoi^Bna/aJ of the Iriih Scythians would be written 
Barzelin or Braziiin by the Chaldeans bra Barzel, ferr 
rum> forfai^ ex Bara, feparare. CbaM. Barzilin, plur. fiint 
PrgMUl, (Thoramaiffin.) Here we have the derivation 
of the Irilh BreaS) a Prince, a perfon feparated or diftin- 

fuifhed from the community. Barzeh Heb. Syr. eft 
^rzel, forfan a Pharas, dirumpere. (Thomm* Caftell, 

Having traced the Scythians, the deicendants of 
Magog, from Afia to Europe, let us turn our enquiries 
to Uie Geltes or Cifn^ri, the defcendants of Gromer, the 
other Son of Japhet. Here we ihall find fisch ftrong 
marks of diftindion in every ftep, as clearly to point out 
in very few words that the G^uli and Cimmwrag or Welch 
Britons, were a very foreign people to tlK HibcrnL 
That they had no conne&ion with each other from the 
time the Hibernian Scythi expelled them from Afia, 
till their meeting many ages after in Spain^ Gaul and 
the Britannic Ifles, where they had been fcated fo long, 
as to be called Aborigines of thoie Countries. . 

The beft Author on this fubjed is Monfieur Brigande, 
who in' 1762 publiflied a fmall Pamphlet, addrefled to 
the learned Academies of Europe, under the title of 
Dijferiation fur Us dltet Brigantet, printed at Bregfaiftte 
dans le Tirol. 

^ It is the unanimous opinion of all authors, fays he, 
** who have written on the origin of nations, that the 
'^ Ciltes were the Children of Gcmer, the eldeft Son of 

" Japhit. 


^ JapbiU This nation, from which b man^ othert 
** have fprungy have preserved the name of their ]proge- 
** nitor, fipom the moft early age after the4eluge, down 
** to our own days/' 

*' dmhrif Cimhriani^ CanArianiy Ombrianij j/mtrmif 
Gcmbri^ Camhri^ w Sicamiri, are no other than Gomtri 
or Gomiritiy written or pronounced diverfely, yet in fuch 
a manner as never to lofe fight of the original name of 
their great Anceftor. 

^' JofephuS) an hi dorian well (killed in the antiquities 
of nations^ ezprefsly fays. Comer was the father of the 
GomerianSf and of^ the people whom the Greeks called 
Galois or GauU. St. Jerom and Ifidore atteft the f;^e 

^* The CilUs or Gauls, fayH Appian, lyhom Plqtarch 
calls Cimbrif were the fame people, aiid (poke ,the fame 
language. Zonpras attefts that the Qomeri, and (3ai^U 
were the fame. 

^< Eratofthenes, who lived aljout 276 before Chrift, 
fays, that the Tolifidirogh were part of the Hefperiai^ 
Gatatit who prefled by ah irruption of the Sephi pafled 
into Bphinia. 

** It is eifier to find an etymology for theiiame CilUs, 
than to provfe it to be the true one. If we feek it in the 
Hebrew, the word GaUtia, which may be read Galtba, 
anfwers our purpofe,! as that word fignifies, lArufi §tft U 
a diftanttf fufi>id forward. The Qreek and Latin lan- 
guages offer no rejource in this etymology. 

^' If, according to Strabo, we feck the meaning of the 
name of every nation, in their own language, then the 
Celtic word Gualled^ fignifying, ravaged^ or having been 
trefpajfedon^ pcrfcaiy correfponds with the hiftoryof this 
people :' it is the name this injured people qiight proper- 
ly have adopted, when pu(hcd from their ancient fettle- 
ments by the Scythians, and pre0cd to the very Wcftcrn 
extremity of Afia* The name given to this people in 
another part of the globe, by Eratofthenes, confirms this 
etymology. ToUd eus u iro an injury by foreigners, now 
corrupted by the Bretagnes into dtftoladan^ is certainly 
the ^Qlijiohragi of Eratofthenes, 

« QalaUa^ 


^* Galatia, where they firft were known by this name, 
fignifies the dwelling of the Gnl^tes ; not of tfaoTe Gaiates 
ivho canie from Gaul concluded hj BtiUvefus and Sig&vefus 
or Brennus, but of that more ancient people^ who were 
expelled their country fcy the Serbians* 

'*' From Bithynia ttiey foon penetrated into Europe, 
by the Thracian Bofphorus or the Hellcfpont : where 
Calcedon, i. e. Calfdon fignifyihg very deep^ and Bere- 
cintbeu e. Bericb benty X\k^ fliorieft rondy arc names left 
1>y the Gomerites or Celtcs, to record the route they 
took, and the deep ftraights they had to pafs. By a like 
application to the Celtic language, their progrefs m^iy 
he marked, \n the names of places at the extremities of 
the North, South and Weft of Europe. 

'* They were fettled in Spain long before the Phoeni* 
cians, who did not arrive there, according to Uflier, till 
A. M. 2750, or 1250 years before Chrift« 

*« The Celtes were compofed partly of Hufbandmen^ 
and partly of fifhermen or navigators of the fmalt feas ? 
the fatter were known by the name of BrigmtUs^ fo 
called from the name of the Vejpif they cortftnided on 
the Lake of C»nftmncf ; and no further proof need be 
brought of thefe people having inhabited Britain^ than 
the word Brigantim ftill ufed by the Englifli for a fmall 
(hip (t) Le nom de Brigantin, venu de ieurs batimens 
du lac de Conftance fait encore 4a preuve de ce fait. 

** Thefe Brigantes ii\habitcd York and Northumber^ 
landlhire : the capitat of York was Brigamium^ changed 
afterwards to Evoracum or BhrOf an ulnal corruption^ 
and not derived from a chimerical King Ebrau/us, who 
never exifted but in idea. 

*' In fine thefe were the moft ancient inhabitants of 
Spain, France, Germany, Fortugal, England, and of 
Ireland in part.*^ 

(t) Probftblx finpm Bngh a BcvtdBy at In the Irifti and Ctiincfe, t«flf 
fiKPJfies a Ship and a Poaff^ and in cha Syria% Ntufs Navis, templuzn> 

s That 


That thcfe Celt^s were the primitive inhabittnte of 
Spain^ France, the Britannic Ulcs^ &c,- is nioft proba- 
ble. Our Magogian Scythi aclfLnovie^ge^ they, found 
all thofe places inhabited oiiv. their arrivau. In Ireland 
they fay, there were aoo families onIy» dwelling phicfiy^ 
on the Sea Coaft. Of England tbey ane iUetit : but 
according to the moft learned Welch iVntiquaries, they 
not only mud have driven out the Ciptri, but remained 
lone^ in the Ifland, to have given names to alt the great 
features of that C^untrv, which they acknowledge to 
have been preferved, and which cannot be derived in the 
Welch language, but are all to be found in the Irifli* 

Not like the Celtes, (who jto uk the wordf of Monf. 
BrigantCi^ n^avoient d'autres moniimens qns denoms de 
leur Ungues qu'ils donnoien^ a, leurs Golonie$^ &.aux 
y jlle^ qu'ils conftruifoient^ ik ont 6i£ plus durables que 
d'autres elev^s a pltu grands frais, puifq'uils font parve* 
nus ji|fqua nous avec la m^e fignification quiU avcnent 
il y a deu^ ou trois mille ^ns).. Our Pinoia- Scythi have 
tradition, have hi (lory to produce of their emigrations^ 
from Afia to their final fettlenient in Ireland, and laftlyj^ 
the Language of their anpicnt . documentS| b very diffe* 
rent from the Celtic, and lb conformable to the Orientalj 
is a ftrong collateral proof of that hiftory. 

It appear^ to me,, that ti^e great MiUfian expedition 
from Spain to Ireland, took place, much about the (ame 
time, thatthe Celtes returned from Gaul to Britain, and 
in their turn drove the Scythi to Ireland, and to. Scotland, 
that is, about 500 Years before Chrift^ and that all Irifli 
Hidory relating to this part of the Qlooe, was abibrbed in 
the SpaniOi hiftory, and Oriental traditions, except the 
bare mention of their arrival in Britain in the 4th Chapter, 
and of their conqueft of it and of part of Gaul in the 8th 

In the following hiftory, we have (hewn the pcrfefik 
identity of the Irifh language with the ancient Perfianf 
in Epithets, titles of dignity, names of Priefts &c. 
It becomes neceiTary to (ay f<^ething on this fubjed be* 
fore we clofe the introdud^on. 

• It 

I K T ROD V C T I O N. 57 

It IS impofflUe to aflert poStirtky that i^ie IrUk lan- 
guage H the fame a» the ajxient Perfian mz9p becaufe^ 
what the old Perfian was, no mortal can pretend to koow 
Wi(b wy 4badov of exadnefr* v Sir William ^ones ob- 
icTveff. and .the Oreek hiAoriaas can give us httic or iio 
light on Jthis Subje^. . V^ ^^ proofs we ihall adduce isx 
ii\t following Sheets^ certainly amount to more than 4i 

Tfa^t gre^t traveller CbarJi$h «^hom ^very Orientaliil 
mud mention with reverence, enquired diligently into 
the ancient language of the Perfians» and decbu-es, after 
ail his refearcbes, that the old Perfian kngus^e is entire^ 
ly loft— -in which sio hooks are extant^^^and of which there 
are no rudiniciits reoMiining.— -That the Guslnrss who ore 
the remaiasof the P^rfit^ have an idiom peculiar to thcay 
felves^ which is fiippofed by the Pcrfians in general^ it 
be rather a jargon of their own^ than a pait of their an* 
cient tongue— •thaty if you believe their own aocount, the 
Magi> who refided at Yixa in Carmania, have prefenrt> 
ed diis language from £atfaer to. font after the diflblution 
of their Monarchy, buty that for his part he has found 
no reafon to give any credit to their ftoiy-^hat they have^ 
indeed, fome hooka in ftrange charaders^ but he cannot 
periuade himfelf that thejare old Perfian Letters, efpeei- 
ally, fince they bear no kind of refemblance to tbofe on the 
famous momiinents at: Pirfep$Us, (Chardin T. v. C* lU.) 

Now, as we (hall find in Chap. 2. of this Work, that 
the ancient Iri(h did ufe the fame facred letters (called Ogr 
hiim) as are to be found on the monuments at Ptrfiprits^ 
and have alfo innuinerable words in common with the 
old Perfian, ftill to be found in their Lexicons and Au* 
thors, there is great probabilitv that the ancient Perfians 
were Southern Scjrthiaas^ as all the Greek and Latin hif^ 
torians aver, and MoiiT. Bailiy has proved; and that 
their language was the fame ; becaufe we have more 
than broken Phrafes or detached epithets to judge by, 
we have hiftory and letters. The Turks did undoubted- 
ly fpeak the (ame Language,, but the prefent Torki(h is 
improved by mixing it with the modern Perfian ; we can 
feek no affinity there. Change of Government always 


58 IM T R O DU C T lO N. 

dFeds a confiderable change in the language of any 
Nation^ fo that fiterary and civil hiftory are very nearfy 

The hiftory of the Perfian ton^e^ fays Sir William 
Jones^ may be divided into four periocbi In the infancy 
of Caiumeras and his dcfcendants, it is natural to fup- 
pofe, no great pains were taken to cultivate and polilh 
the. language, and we are aflured by Herodotus, that in 
the reign of Cyrus, the whole education of Periian 
Youth, from the Age of 5 to 20, confifted in three points 
onty, riding, throwing the javelin and the pradiceof 
moral virtue. The volumes of Parchment on which the 
Periians were obliged by a certain law to write the An- 
nals of their Q)untry, mentioned by Dtodorus, Sir Wil- 
liam treats as invention, but allows that the ancient Per* 
fians of the fccond Period, were not entire ftrangers to 
the art of compofition either in Verfe or Profe. 

At what period- our Hiberno-Scythi had the ufe of 
letters, we cannot pretend to fay, but it is certain, from 
tbe Anthorilies we (hall give of the identity of the Irifh 
Ogham letters with thofe of the Monuments at Perfepolis 
(which no one has hitherto attempted to decypher) th^t 
they brought letters with them into Ireland from Alia ; 
Moreover, the names of all Officers of Church and State 
in the ancient Irifh being found to be Oriental, as we cot- 
fed from the Sacred Scriptures and other writings, leaves 
no doubt, in my opinion of the identity of the people, 
and of the languages having been originally the fame. 

The Irilh Language is the moft copious of the Uni- 
rerfe : it abounds in Synonima, fo iiiiich as to kichide 
the roots of all the Oriental and Occidental dialeds, a 
ftrong prefumptive argument of the migration of the 
people, and of their having letters during that migration, 
or thefe words could not have flowed down to the prefent 
period, in the pure manner they are now to be found. 

The Old Perfian may perhaps have been as copious : 
according to the learned Lexicographer, Ibn Phacred-^ 
£n Angpu (u) it contained Seven dialcds, four of which, 

(u) In prcfamtne opwh Pharhangh Qihaoghiri. 






yrz. the Henri, Seghzi, Sogdi and Dravuli, are now be- 
oome obfolctc. The modern dialed of Perfia is a ftrangc 
mixture of Latin, Greek, German, Arabic, and Tuii> 
lib, (w) fo that no iatis&dory collation can be made 
with that andliie IriJih, We muft therefore refer to the 
Arabic, Hindoftanic and Tibetan ; the two latter have a 

freat affinity to the ancient Iriih, particularly the facred 
>ialc3s, or Sanfcrit. Qpie Indica apud Veteres appd- 
lantur, pleraequse hodierne Perficas convenire (x)« Monf. 
Bailly and Father Georsiu^ have therefore good grounds 
.for aflerting thefe people were originally Scythians, or 
according to Irifli hiftory Scythians mixea with Chaldsean 

The hiftory before us is without order, though the $e- . 
anachies have not failed to fir the chronological events. 
It begins with the expedition .of Partolan from Qithynia 
or Migdon to the Weft, three hundred years after the Sa- 
mothracian flood. The defcent from Caucafus, or the 
Mountains of RiEad and the banks of the Cafpian Sea, 
which took place many ages before, is not mentioned till 
wt treat of the Firbolg. This isaftrongai]gument that thefe 
are the produce of tradition : But furely they are not to be 
dcfpifcd on that account. What is every fpecies of anr 
cient hiftory, the facred writings excepted, but mere trar 
dition ? the tradition of Pagan Priefts, the inventors and 
propagators of error ; and though the ground-work w2tt 
truth, the finifhjnff was the ornament of imagination. 

It is an indubitable fad, that the ancient Irifh had let- 
ters, before the arrival of Patrick or other Chriftian Mit- 
fionaries. The Ogham infcriptions found in Ireland are 
|he ftrongeft proofs. This was the facred chara&er, and 
}n this the Priefts condefcended to infcribe the name of 9 
Jierp, or the event of a memorable battle : we muft ever 
remain ignorant, I am afraid, if the records of the na- 
tion were tranfcribed in this chara3cr or not. — We find 
alfo many fymboHcal marks on monuments ; but befides 
thefe they furely had a literary chara&er. . Euftathius 

(w) JoL Scallger, Lipflus. GraTius. Burc«nus. WaltonuSj &'c, &c. 
<x) Leibnitz. 



teRtuSi the Scythians wrote with charaQers and cmble« 
matical figures (x). The charaders were probably Pal- 
myrene ; becaufe in all the Irifh MSS. I have feen» where 
the alphabets are preferved, there are carefol delineations 
of the old Hebrew and Palmy rene letters, ^lled by the au- 
thors Egyptian ; but on comparing them with the P^l- 
myrene taken from coins by Gebelin^ they will be found 
to be the fame. There arc *o MSS. of the Irifli written 
in thii charader now exifting : There is no copy of the 
facred writings now to be found in the Hebrew letter; 
that now ufed is the Ghaldsean : and, what is ftill more 
fofprifin^, there is no copy of the Bible now extant, 
written m the Chaldee, excepting i;he word yebpvabf 
which was in Hebrew : yet Origcn mentions to have 
feen fiich copies. In what charadcrs were the Infcrip- 
tions on the pillars of Hercules at Cadiz ? Philoftratus 
fiiys, they were neither Egyptian, Indian, or in any 
other charader then known, (y) Or in what charader 
was the dodrine of Zarduft written i probably both in 
the Ogham, which Gebelin and others think is the fame 
as the ignote letters on the Marbles of Pcrfcpolis. — Quid, 
quod infcriptiones Perfepolitanae, quae adeo eruditas ex* 
crociaverunt, notae quscdam Hicroglyphicse eflc videntur, 
quibus Zarduft (Zoroafter) qui prope Perfepolin cultum 
fymbolicum condiderat, aliique Magi, prxcipua cultus 
fui capita, profanum vulgus celare ftudebant. (z) 

Boxhornius and Monf.'D*AnkarvilJe are clearly of opi- 
nion, the old Greek and Ifelandic, German or old Teu- 
tonic letters, in which all the Irifh MSS. are written, 
were the ancient Scythian. ^Graecis litteris ufi fijnt Galli 
pariter & Gcrmani, at non acceptis a Grgecis, fed Scy- 
this, a quibus & fuas Grseci, Scytharum foboles, acce- 
pere. Notae vulgares numerorum nihil aliud funr, quam 
litterae Scythicae. Indi eafdem numerales notas habent, 
fed habent a Perfis. Perfs autem ortu funt Scythse. (a) 

.(s) Commen. in Homer. nUd Z. p. 489. 
(y) Vit. Apolonii. L. i. C. i. 
(z) CL Milliat Orat. de ^ab. Orient, p. 77. ' 
(a) Boxhomitti Orig. GaU. p. 106. See the Irifh numeral! collated 
with the Indian. CoUeaanea, No. XII. pi. 11. 


IN T.I^ O D U CT lO N. 6i 

L'AIphabet encore a pr6fcnt en ulage chez la plupart 
des pcuplcs dc TEuropc, rcmontcy a ia plus haute anti- 
quite : il eft mcme anterieur a Parrivee des Pelafgaes 
dane la Grece : Le9 caraderes Pelafgues, vfi Icur ori- 
gine, devoicnt tenir a ceux des ^^fr^^/^i, & comme 
on a d^couvcrt dc nos jours, que les plus hautcs Sciences 
furent cultiv^es avec le plus grand fucees dans le pays 
habitus par ces m8me8 Hjperborcens, x^us avons lieu dc 
foupfonner que les monumens litteraires, dctruits dans 
la Grece par le deluge dont la tradition s'eft conferv^ 
tenoient a ceux des ces penples, & que les Icttres P^- 
lafgues, furent a peu pres les mSmes dont fe ienroient les 
Hyperboreens. . Dc tons les alphabets, auxqucls on peut 
comparer celui des P61afgues, il n'en eft aucun avec le- 
quel on lui trouve plus dc rapport, qu^avec celui des an- 
eiens IJlandois. Cet alphabet appel6 Scytique, Danois, 
ou Rhunique, fut autrefois employ^ par les Goths. Rien 
n'eft plus iingulier dans les caraderes Iflandois, que les 
lettre^ S & T : elles ont tres exadement, la ferme de 
celles des plus anciens Grecs, ou des Peiafgues ; mais 
I'une port le nom de ^U qui de la langue Pelafgue, af«- 
furement originaire de Scythiquc, paiTa pcut-^tre dans la 
Latine pour exprimer le Soleil diurne : & I'autre qui la 
fuit imm^diatcment, porte le nom de Tyr^ qui dans la 
langue Iflandoife fignifie Taureau (b). Les Caraderes 
Peiafgues ant^rieurs a Cadmus etoient done ceux que Ta- 
cite appele Us plus anciens carafferes Grtcs. Nos lettres 
capitales font done les m8mes que celles des P£Iafgues & 
des anciens Attiques. 

That the Pelafgians were fouthern Scythians dcfcend* 
ed from Magog, mixed with Chaldean Dedanites (c), we 
flatter ourfclves has been ftrongly proved in the Preface 
to the Xllth No. of the Colledanea de Rebus Hiber- 

nicis ; 

(b) Recherches fur POrig. & les Progr* <!«> Arts de la Grece, L. a. 

C. 2. 

(c) The Arcadiaos challenged the name of Pelafgi from their pretend- 
ed founder Pelafgut, who did get fvch footing in Peloponefus, that the 
whole Pcninfala was called Pdafgia. (Univ. Hiilor.) 


62 introduction: 

nicis ; and» we tnift, the Reader will 1>e convinced in 
the foltowinj^ P^* (bat Gidmos fprang from the iame 

Our Phoeniclani^ did not always leave letters where 
they came ; the ancient Poeni of Africa and the Baleares, 
both Phsenician colonies^ were ignorant of letters. Li- 
teras vero antiquiffimi Pceni in Africa quoque ignora- 
rant, & iifdem Baleares, indabia Phomicum colonia, ca-^ 
rucrunt^ videnturque poflerioribus temporibas demum in 
Africam illats. (d) 

. But thefc old Poeni and Phoenicians were not Tyrians, 
as the Septuagint and the Greek hiftorians imagined ; 
they were our fonthern Scythians, a maritime people that 
dwelt on the coaft of the Red Sea, from Mount Cafius 
to Dor. Phoenice enim, & amgeniffima erat regio & ob 
mercaturam ditif&ma, que incolas afFatim alebat. Hoc 
nomine Lxx interpretes terram Canaan yocare folent ; 
propric autem ita vocabatur ora ilia maritima, in qua 
Tynis & Sidon urbes commerciis olim florentiifimae, 
fits erant ; hinc incoise Phoenices. Ci. Millius. DiflT. 
de Terra Canaan, p- 130. 

Oor Iri(h Royil lUIendar makes Plafg a Taatba Dadann, or Cbaldcao 
Dedanice^ via. 
Anno ante Nativ» Xti 1896* 





Blo%. or Plafi;, 
Cd] Kom^ de Orisia. Gent. p. 122. 






C ■ J 

I « • 

' » 

HI II I *^ 



• I 


C H A p. L 

THE Irifli Hiftory opens wkh thdr defcent 
from Mago^, in two Lines ; one called the 
Firbolg, or Scythian Line ; the fecond, the Phe« 
noice or Phoenician Line : to thefe is added the 
defcent of a Colony of Dedanites, or Chaldseans 
their Allies, whom they trace to Chus« 

The FIRBOLG Line. 

Aiteachta alias Fathochda 

Broum al Braniont« i. e. ce Bacche, 

A Eafru, 

A Vindicmim rf the 

EafrUy Afru, or Ofru 



Nemed. * ^ 

Stairn or Efs-tiearnay i. e. Dux Navium, u c« 

pt3-*»^ Si-tom. r ' : r. ' ' 
Beoan i. e. TQ doun.' prudentem cfie : Hercules 
Ogham or the Philofophen 
J Earcoloin i. e. ^Tl Erkol, the Merchant, or 
^ Trader, from the Irifli Earrdha, Wares, 
. Q)mmoditi^,^ Merchandize, . ^ . , , , 
NSienieon or ^ihi> Albreac, the Dux Navium, ei^ 
original Hercules : the Sem, Som, or Som- 
noutha of the Egyptians, (a) 

Orteachta • *■■■ — 



Tribuait .] . i -l :^ 



.r..Ru|ghre .,, .. • ...! ,.; , , .;, , « , i,,. 


Siainge. ^ 

(a) Moft Nouns in the Old IrifK, Perfian, Arabian and Chal- 
dsui languages, wl^n ^^V)fiitp juij t^in^htLymf^life, fbnndieir 
plurals in An; the'nmeof'peb^Ie; fUidonSy &c.'^and of die fin* 
gular in n by way of eminence. Stairn, Beoun, Earcoloin, Se- 
meon, &id to be die 4 Son^of Nemed, I think were difllerent 
names of one perfon^ the ** Vitrcuh^^fth^^dlt;^ 


dfUieni Hj^dry rf Ireland. 

The name Aiteach-ta, (b) i. e. he who u elcteft^ 
has led tibe Irifh Seaxutchies to itfcrt, he was the 
clddft Son of Magog, whereas it only here implkt^ 
that Fathocda, was the eldeft in the Magogiau 
Line,; to whom their hiAory extended. 

Broum or Ke-Bacche, the illuftrious Bacchua« 
Ke or Ce, is ftill preferved in feveral ancient Perfic 
names, icfig^ilics a Prince (fays Sir Win* Jone$ in 
his life of Nadir Shab.) This Broum or Bacche 
overrun the Indies. Bacbt in Iriih fignifies 6rc, 
bacban or beocan^ a fmall fire : beocas or btiacas^ 
the lighted wick of a Candle — baeuasj an Oven ; 
bacalay a bakehoufe ; hence the EngUih to bahk 
Bacbt fignifying ^re^ became an Epithet of Cb^ 
Sun ; hence Aufonius obfervcs, that in Egypt tbey 
call bim Ofiris^ but in tbe I/land of Ogygia^ thgy gsv€ 
Inm tbe name cf Bdccbta* (Epigr. 30^} 

This derivation from the Trim or ancient Perfian 
Languaf^e^ is one ftrong proof of Monf. .BaiUyj^i 
aflertions, that the andent Southern^ Scythians 
or Periians, were the original. Inhabitant! of Ogyt 
gia or Atlafttisi (See hnLet(6r» fur TAtlantlde, 
p. 402.) — Les Atlantes, aiant rompu la ligne de 
feperation, & forc6 le paffage, fe repandirent fuc* 
ccffivcmcnt de prcche, en pfochc & de ficclc & 
fiecle, dans les Indes, dans la Phfinicic & dans 
TEgyptc. (ib. p. 471.) — Ics traces dcs origines 
fe confervent dans les langues : une fcience ell iflue 
du pais o{k les mots techniques dont eUe fe fert ont 
pris naiffance : c^cft un principe inconteftablc. 
(ib. p. 393. — (c) The Root of this word is Scy- 

A 2 thiaa, 

(b) Hyjyjf ttica^ prifca. Arab. Atik. 

(c) Hence Bacanach or Paganach. (P &r B and g for c) a 


4 A VirtJkatim rf tie 

thian, vis. bacam to heat, wlienoe BaaBm^ die 
origin of heat, it is comipced to JEUcf and Bc^,, 
whence in the Oriental we have (9(00 Bott, luct** 
dum, and Botta, Splendor : in like manner the 
guttural in bocbtj poor, h Atopt in the Oricalil, 
and written ^IQD Boti, i. c pauper* (See Dav. 
Depomis.) fd) 

Eafru or QTru, was the Father of die Ofihoeni^ 
or Parthians. Ofron vel Ofrcns cognomine dido 
a viro qui ibi regnavit fuperioribus tetnp<ms, cum 
homines qui iftic cotebant in ibedere eflent Perla- 
rum. (Procopius). On which paffage, Bayer 
notes, Perfas vocat qui tunc quidem Pardii fiierunt* 
(Hift. Ofrhoena, p. 34.) 

Theod-Cyrenenfis fays, qus Ofrhoene turn erat 
cam antea Parthyacam fiiifie didam.*— It is the 
fame thing if called Ofrhoens Parthians or Perfi-* 
ans, for they were originally one people. Scythat 
Parthos, Bactrianofque condiderunt. (Jnftin) Con* 
fequently Broum, the father of Ofru, wasdieBac« 
chus of Badria. All that part of Meibpotamia 
including Media and Partbia, was called OJruan by 

Heathen i. e. a fire worAiipper* and nor from Para a VtllagB; 
fs Dr. Johnfon has it, or from Pagus^ Gens as Sumafioi^ or as 
Barpnios thinks, from the Chriftians becoming mafters of the C^ 
lies, and the heathens dwelling !n the Villages. 

(d) Porro cum Lingtm Scythica cajus propaginero aoftnms 
eognataique phires dTe, infra dooebimn% fccimdum Ebraamao- 
tiqutffima fir : fieri nm poteft^ quin fub ea Ticifliciidinrp cut Can- 
nes fubfunt lingue, vario& in hac reoBanferint, qwe primsevs cog- 
nationit indicia perfaibeant. Et illo fiuidamento nixos quam plih> 
rinKM eruditorum origtnes iinguamm Eoropoetrum ex OnciMe 
deduxilTe videmus : & quia non pauca feliciter fnccefienmty ope* 
X<^o Ja Jore quioquid habent iingux Occidentaies ab Ebroea deri* 
vare, aggreili funt, (CI. Ihre prooem.) 


Jmknt l^fhry of Inland 5 

our ScTthi ; Shiruan by the Perfians and Al Mob 
by the Arabs. (Hyde de Vet. Perf. p. 415O 

Parthi, gens oUm Scythica, tandem higerunt 
vel tranfmigrarunt fob Medo ; fie didi a Me- 
disy propter naturam Soli, in quo confederunt: 
quod paludofum eft, & humile. (Stephanus in 


The PHEKOICE Line, fromPtismus. 

Baoih or Bith, 

Fhenius Tarfa, from whom Riarz or Pontus and 
Fars> Paras or Perfia. 




Ealru, . 




Agaman or Achemon, Father of Uranus, firft 
Kinff of the Antlantldesi See Introd. hence 
Perna was anoiently called Achemenia. 




Emir gluin Finn, 

Agmon Finn, 







6 A Vindicatim of the - 

Baatha, * 


BiTc, '• 

Golam, or Milefs, 


According to the Irifh Annals, Magog^s pof- 
fefCons contained ail Armenia, Pontus, and Me- 
Xopotamia. . His defcendants, one of whom was 
Baath, Baoth or Bith, had the Country border- 
ing on the Bofporus Thracius, from him named 
Bitb'Aorij the territory of Bith. (e). . Of his Son 
Fhenius Pharfa we ihall treat in a particular Chap- 

Bithynia was anciently inhabited by ^various 
nations differing in manners and language, viz. 
the Bebryces, Mariandyni, Caucohes, Dollioncs, 
Cimmarii, &c. &c. to enquire into the origin of 
thefe different nations, would be both a tedious 
and ufelefs talk, fay the Authors of the Univerfal 
hiftory, and as to the beginning of this Kingdom, 
swe^ are quite in ibe dark, (f ) It is one of the moft 
ancient Kingdom? recorded in profane hiftory ; 
Appiatt tells us that 49 kings had reigned in Bi- 
thynia before the Romans were acquainted with 
Afia, confequcntly Bithynia muft have been a 
Kingdom before the Trojan War. It was known 
by the name of My fia, Mygdonia^ Bcbr^^cia, Ma- 
riandynia, and Bithynia. (g) 

(e) Aon or Aoin, is the diminutive of Aoi, a Region. »K 

(f ) Un. Hift. V. I o. p. 1 24. 8vo. 

(g) Herodotus, p. 406.- Sieph. Byzant. p. 223.--Appianus 
Vol. 2. p. 296.— Schol. Apoll. L 2. — Eufcbius p. 13. — Ea* 
ftath. in DionTs. p. 140.— Solinus C. 42. 


AnciMt Hj/lory tff Ireland. . y 

* ; Her€u)otus &y,$y. that thofe who, fit&, conquered 
^tliis' Countryp ci^c from thp. borders of Strumon* 
Stqphaqu^y that it was called Bebrycia from Be- 
brjpc, and B^^hyiua from Bith^u^,. who wqre 
.both the Sons of Jupiter and Thrace. Solinus 
fays the fame ; but Appian calls him BiOvr Bithus, 
by whicjliibe certainly refers to ,our Bith or Bi^oth. 
iUrian ifn^ys, that l^aynus ^d jl^ithynus were the 
Sons of Phincus; w;hereas rhehTus. in the' Trii)i 
.Annals is the Son of Bapth^^.^tTJie. River Bkr- 
tonniif (or fjic Wayeful- Water,) ' Jfq>arated Bithy- 
nia from Paphlagonia ; the: Creeks named it the 
Porthenus, aiid there was^ the iiliancl ^ynus at its 
mouth ; henc^ the Tunny Fiih^ a name given it, 
from its rifing and defcending IjJ^e waves, which 
probably gave the appellation of the J^ior-tonnis 
and Ifland Thynus ; Chalcedon oh the Bofporui;, 
wjis famous for the Pelamides pr Tunny Fi/h, as 
Gellius and Varro inform us; 
; Hefiod alfo makes Phineus the father of Bithy- 
nus and fo does Eufebius, if Salmafms conjefhires 
right, for he obferves, that Author always fubfti- 
tutes Phenix for Phineus ; but Euftathius contra- 
dids them all and avers, thcfe Princes were the 
Sons of Odryfes King of Thrace ; he does not 
mention his authority, (h) . However it is evident^ 
that the Greeks carried the Gencalpgy of Bithus, 
lip to the moft remote times^ and according to 
Cuftom, he was the Son of Jupiter. 

(h) Pindar. Nomeor. Od. 1 1 .— Pcol. rtephcft.— Epichatmu^. 
— ^Pifander.— Phcrecydcs as quoted by the Scholiaft of Appollo^ 
Dius mentions Amyctis and Pbyneus, as b(xli^ret|ning in Bichjnia 
at the time of the Argonaotic Eicpcdition*--in ihort the Greeks 
can carry no hiftoricalfa^ bey<md that Epoch. 


8 A Tindimkn tf thi 

By theif fabulous Accoontt the Bcbiyci inluibi* 
ted Bithynia in the time of the Argonauts ; Amy- 
ctrs, they fay^ was King^ and was flaift in fin^ 
combati fome will hare it by Pottozy others by 
JfafoHs ^^'^ others that he wat carried home to 
' Greece in Chains, (i) 

The Bebrycians and Gimrncrians were Gome* 
ritei, and the Irifli Hiftory infers that the Mago- 
gi^nft were routed from this Country by the Sons 
of Corner^ and fome were conftrained at length to 
defoend the Euphratei^ till they fettled at the Bor- 
ders of the Perfian and Arabian Gulphs; and along 
the Eaftern Ocean in Oman^ where we (hall pre- 
femly find them under the name of Men rfOman^ 
or Fit-D*Omanan, 

Thefe Bebryci and Cimmerii were in their turn 
driven Noribward^ and pufhed up the Bolga or 
Volga into Germanyi from whence they penetra- 
ted into GauU The Bebryci firft fled into Cyzi- 
cus, that is one part of the Kingdom of 

(i) See nlfo Silius TtaHcus. F.< i. V. 40. Tr^zes. 
LycopKr. -^ Feftus Avienut-*Steph. ByzAUt - Euftackius, &«. 
I cannoc tgree with the Marq*.de 8. Aubin that die Cimmerii 
vrere fo named from Gom^r I Cluveritis, Grotiui, Ponunusand 
leibnitt, have futlv proved in taj opinion, that the names Cim- 
merii and Ciitibfi, tr^ not fynonimous with Corner rbongh cSey 
^ere Oomerinns. The HfK language affords a derivation 
adapted to their KitiMtiony vis. Cummiar^ a Valley, Cwima^ 
raiit^ people living in a Country lull of Valleys and hills, 
and t cake the Arabic Kumra to have the fame iignification, 
though commonly .tnvi(kte<l Rocks tumbled from Mountains 

Infemis prtfTas nebulis^ pellente fub Umbra 
Cimrnerias jacuiiTe doinos, nodtemque profimdam 
Tanarese naftanturbis.- 

Sjl. Ital. L. It. 


Ancient Hijlory of Ireland* 9 

ihey were driven entirely out of Afia by the 
GEoHan Greeks under Orefies^ fome years after the 
taking of Troy. Here they mixed with fome fu- 
gitive Trojans^ and together came inco Gaul^ as 
we coHed fVom Ttma^nesy copied by Ammianus 
Marcellinus. Quidam aiunt paucos pod ezcidium 
Trojoe funtantes Grsecos ubique difperfoa, loca 
haec rGaiua) occupafle tunc vacua. — ^Hence the 
tradition of fome of the Oauls^ of their being 
Trojans, and with them the idea came into Bri- 
tain and gave rife to the Story of Brutus. They 
fettled in France about Narbon. Fcftus Avienus 
lays it was their Capitals 

Genfque Bebrycum prius 
Loca iMtc tenebat : atque Narbo civitas 
£rat ferocis maximum regni caput. 

The name Bath in Irilh is fynonimous to Cutha 
or Seutha^ and implies a Seaman, a Navigator. It 
is remarkable that the Glaific Authors have made 
Amyeiis, die firft King of Bithynia^ the Son of 
Nej^tune by the Nymph MiAm Melia^ that is, the 
Sea (k\ Appdllodorus calk her Bithynis,-*and die 
Son of Amycus was Bates,— PwV*, ^oiA»r¥, ft«Tr, for 
the Greeks write the name varioufly, and he was 
beloved by Ventu ; from whom came Eryx, who 
afterwards reigned in Sicily. He and many of the 
Princes of Aha, are faid to have come to the 
Afliftance of Khig Priam. In fine, the Greeks 
feem to have had feme knowledge of our Irifh 
Baith Phenius and Magog, and to have ground- 

J, I. 

(k) n^. Melah from whence Mtlah a Stilor in Irifli. See 
♦lo. 14, Coll. 


ID A Vindication rf tbe 

ed their fable on the Irifli Stoi;y, ,trtte ,or faUe : 
it muft furely appear to every iiii|3aitia^ Rjead^, 
diat this hiftbry of Ireland is not th^ fkbrifration of 
illiterate Monks of. the. 9th and loth Centuries,; 
but that it was the hiftory of the people from whom 
they defcended in. Afia» and the tradition brought 
with them into this Country. 

Nee mora : cotottnuo vaflis cum viribus effert . 
Ora Dares, magnoque virum (e murmuretollit: 
Solus qui Paridem folitus contendere contra ; . 
Idemque ad tumulum^ quo maximum occub^t 

Viftorem Buten immani corpore, qui fc 
Bebrycia veniens Amyci de gente fercbat, 
Perculit^ et fulva moribundum. ext^ndit ^arena. 

Virg. iEneid. 5. V. 364. 

_ r 

The learned Bochart, h^ppy in moft of his der jva- 
tions, has certainly failed in that qf Bithynia ; he 
derives it from 1t32 beten, interior ; whence it 
iignifies the womb as the mod interior part. Tl^e 
Geographical (ituation of Bithynia will not allow 
of ftich an Etymon, two Sides of it being waihed 
by two Seas, the Bofporus and Euxii^c. — ^Wc muft 
not pafs over the City of Pronedus in Bithynia, 
which Stephanus informs us, and Bochart con- 
firms, to have been a Colony of Pha^nicians.— - 
ProncfluQ he 4i^tiyes from the Syrian Biranta, 
which is the Iri(h' ; Bronteach, or Brainteach, a 
palace^'-— HpcrrXT©: Pronedus Urbs Bithyniae propc 
Drepanem, quam extruxere Phaenices*. (Stepha- 
nus.) Socrates writes the word Prenetos. Cedrenus 
makes it Prainetos. £a£tum videtur nomen <ex Sy.- 


Ancieni Hi/lory of Ireland. 1 1 

TO WSOrfO, BiraBta ; quod pro Caftro vel Palatio 
paffim occurrit in Paraphraftis. Sed et Hebraic^ 
rVf^T)^^ Bimajot funt Arces aut Caftella (I). 
Bfontcac is compounded of two Scythian words, 
viz. Bran Princeps, Teach Domus ; whence 
Brainteach a Palace. Arabic^ Teihtj the Royal 
Refidence. Tak an arched Building, Tawkia roof- 
ing a houfe ; whence the Irifh teacb a houfe. 

S ome of the Perfian Writers fay, that AganiM 
was the firft King of Perfia, the name in Irifli 
fignifies excelling in battle; and fo Capellus has 
tranilated it. Achaemenes ipfo interpreter beiia^ 
tor bonus (Reland de vet. Ling. Perf. p. 1 09.) 
Agfaimy, Perfam notat, aghim, Pcrfiam, unde 
Perfoe. Aghemian et Azjemian et Adiemoenii, 
Romanis Achaemenii. 

Alter Achaemenium fecludit Zeugmata Perlan* 
{Statius.) Videtur itaque quod apud antiquos Per- 
iia di&a fuerit Achxmenia ut diftingueretur a 
Partia dida Erak. Perfia a Sinu Perfico orienta- 
liter, apud Autores alios vocari folet Achannenia 
ic Perfac Achaemenes. (Hyde. Vet. Rel. Per£ 
p» 416.) 

. Bochart derives the name from nd*^rM Achiman, 
ad vcrbum ^uis f rater mens i — ^idem potuit eflfe 
cognomen primi Regum Perfoe quern Graeci vo^ 
cant Achsemenem. Achiman, frater prceparatus, 
vel frater dextcrse, aut frater quid ? filius Enae, 
Numb. 13. 

Emir-glun Finn. Emir glaf. &c. Arab Jmer 
a great man pi. Omra, kai is Synohimous whence 
Kai-Sru, Kai-Eafro^ &c. 

(I) Bedb«rt ,0eog. Sacr. L. i. C z. 


12 A Vindlcatim of tbt 

GluHy the knee, a generation, pa antreasglun^ 
to the third generation ; (O'Briens and Shawes 
Did :) Thus Emir gluin Finn in the Genealogical 
Table fignifies Emir of the race of Finn : the ex* 
preffion is truly Oriental, Gen. 30. V. 3. Go 
in unto her and flie fhall bear upon my knees that 
I may alfo have children by her— -et parit fuper 
(•»3'Ta) genua mea.— Targum. Pariat liberos quos 
ego exdpiam, gremio geftem, fofcam & educem 
ut meas. Infantes fuper genua coUocantur i nn^ 
tricibus (z matribus, gremio tenentur & geftan«> 
tur (Schindler)— Can this be the explanation of 
the following verfe^ Gen. 50. v. 23. Etiam filii 
Macfair, filii Manaffis, nati funt fuper (^1^ ^^HS) 
genua Jofeph— Targum. Quare me excepenmt, 
cum in lucem ederer, genua obftetricis incurva- 
tzi necaderem? 

The Iri{h word Raigh^ the ^rm from the flioul- 
der to the elbow— the thigh from the hip to the 
knee, has the fame fignificatioti^ whence iifa^ 
peperit, Ihe brought forth, Raigb^ Raigble gene- 
ration : this is from "^T & tfTf^ irak and iraia^ 
femur, the thigh. Et filii ipforum egredientea 
femorum eorum, i. e* e femore eorum. Cantic. 7. 
V. 2.— Hie fceptre fliall not depart from Judah, 
nor a Lawgiver from his (^^*i R-s^gil) generation, 
until (}f?*»l&; Shiloh fliall tome. Gen. 49. V. 1 o. 
trShiloh, the Irifli Sbiol the Son, i. c. the Mefliah. 
The Leabhar Leacain or Liber Lecanus, fays, 
that the Genealogies of families from the deluge 
to St. Patrick^s time, were written on the knees, 
(gluinibh) and on the thighs Jorgaibh) of men, 
and on the holy altars. (Leab. Leac. f. 14.) the 
meaning of which is, that the genealogies of the 


JneiM Hifiory if Ireland. $ 3 

dired line and collateral branches, were engraved 
on the altars in pagan times, (m) 

The third Genealogical Table in the Irifli Hif- 
tory, is that of the Qialdxans, called Tuatha- 
Dadann, being a colony or tribe of Dedanites^ 
who mixed with our Scuthi, when feated on the 
Ferfian Gulph. As we Ihail treat of this people 
^ at large in the 6 th chapter, we here only (hew 
the line up to Chus, according to the Irifli 

Stam-fiacla, ^ 
. Ned, 

- (m) Qvcre. Rtfaj not thit be the origin ol thofe Infcriptaom we tnd 
00 the Thighs «ii4 Ariiu of the fitnifcan Figum ? 




14 A VbuScatim tf the 

c n A P. n. 


The Topogr(^bical Namei of ^Ireland. 

i.TNIS NA FIODHBHAIDH, i. c. a Woody 
J[ Ifland. It was fo called, fays the ancient 
Bible, by Nion, fon of Pelus, who difcovered ft. 

A fable it certainly is,- as relating to Ireland* 
The Irifli hiftory fays, Adna, fon of Bith, of the 
family of Nion, firft difcovered Eirinn, 300 years 
after the Samothracian flood. See ch. 3. — ^This 
woody ifland was probably one of the ^Sgean 
Iflands, fuppofed to have been formed by that 

2. Crioch na Fuineach* T^c territory of Fu- 
ineach, that is, fays ^eating, the neighbouring 


If the author had attended to the original, he 
would have found a full and proper explanation of 
the word, viz. obheith a Uifu^nead chrioch na 
tri rann don Domhan : ionan.Foine agus Crioch. 
Fuin Laidne Finis, i. e. from being the end or 
extremity of the three divifions of the world : 
Fuin dgnifies End, Extremity, and Crioich Coun- 
try. Fuine, in Latin finis. There cannot be a 
fuller or better adapted name for Ibernia, which 
is I the Pbsenician tranflation of Crioch na Fuin- 


AncitfU Uyiory of Ireland. 1 5. 

each. Fuin alfo fignifies the Weft, as Fuin-trath, 
Occafils ' 'vel inciinatio Solis ; it is both a Pheni* 
dan and :a Syrian word, i<^jg phcnia vefpcr. 
(Oialdee). Phenia da iuma (Syrian), i. .e. the 
end of tte dayj Vcfpera. Pbinicha^ (Syt*) fini«, 
terminus ; plaga mundi. .: .\. V 

3. Ealo A :; that is, the Noble Illand. 
' 'Remark. 

There is 'ho foundation in hifbory for this name* 
The firft'difcoTcrers of the Britannic Ifles, wx>uld 
certainly have given that name to Britain, by pre- 
eminence. Mofl probably this name alludes to 
their fettKng in Elgia, or Elegia, a town and dif- 
u\Si o£ 'Armenia Major. 

4. Aeri or Eire, fo called, fay they, from 
Aericr the old name of Crete^ or from JEria^ that 
ipQxt of .£gy{A from whence the Gadeli czme ta 
Crete f when Sru^ fon^tf, was baniihed from. 

Rem A'R k; * 
jEria was one of the Thracislii Ues^ Eirene.anc 
of the Iflands of the Peloponnefus ; and there 
were the Eirinaij feated between the mountains 
of Ceraunii and the river Rha\n Sarmatia. No- 
thing more > can be faid of this derivation, than 
that the name was common to that part of thd 
globe from whence they tn*igihally came. Aoria 
m Ghaldee signifies the Weft M^y^ 

$• FoDHLA, fo called from the wife of Mac 
Ceacht, a King of the. Tuatha Dadann, named 
Mac Ceadbfj or Featbor. 


i6 A Vindicathn cf the 

R £ 11 A R K. 

A more eligible name cannot be given to the 
wife of a Prince who bears the name of the 5^;i (f 
Science. CSSH chacam, Fodbal^ or iVMt6&i(n)»ftgni'- 
fies the Graces, les Vertus ; it has the fame mean- 
ing in Arabic, fee D'Herbelot at Fadbail : hence 
one of the learned Irifh Kings was named Cinn 
Faodhla na Fodblama^ i. c. the Head of the Learn- 
ed. He was alfo called Cinn Fadhla Mac Ollam. 
Fadhdily Les Vertus ; c'eft le pluricr de Fadhilah, 
i, e* Vertu ; hence Fadbel was a common name of 
the . Arabians. See alfo Fodbful in D'Hcrbelot. 

6. Bamba, from the name of a third Queen of 
the Tuath Dadann, who was the wife of Mac 
ChoU, otherwife called Eathor. 

The Dadannites were Chaldeans^ as we ihall 
prefently ihew } and as they had a fettlement . on 
the Euphrates named Banbe, not far diftant weft 
of Babylon, our Magogians might have poflefled 
this place, as it will: appear hereafter, that they 
mixed with thefe Dadannites, the fons of Rhegh- 


7. Inis Fail, or the Hland of Deftiny } from a 
ftone that was brought by the Dadannites into 

Of this ftone we have treated in a former Num* 
bcr of the CoUedanea, to which we refer, and 
fiiall fhew its origin in the chapter Tuatha Da- 
dann. See alfo Chap* X. 

(n) Cinn Faodhla na Podhlauui, the Chief of theGncesof 
the ; earned. Cin Fadhla Mac Ollaai. The Chief of die Graces, 
Son of the Sciences. Arabic tdm^ yltm. Heb. & Chald. n^ alaph. 

8* Muc 

Ancient I^(ny if Irelandi i j 

8: Muc Island. ]Wlien the Dadanns found 
^ ,t^ MjL^aps attempted to la^d; by their magical 

f xochantment^ they threw a cloud .oil the ifland, by 

'- tvhich it appeared no bigger than z jiog's bpck.— ^ 

'• Muc is a hog. (Keating!; 

- r 'Muc was the name: of an Ifland iii Phsnici/a^ 

and of another in the Perfian Sea ^. bpth n^im^d 
. I by our ]VIagQgiails, who proceeded from the jPcr- 

fic Gulph, through Qnv^n to Fhsnicia : of which 
hereafter. Ut in £^hasnice duae fuerunt infutas 
n>^gni npmifiis, Tylus nimiriim & AradUs^ ita in 
.JO^^ri PerOco [Ii'ylugi,.& Ar^um.infulas 6eographi 
.defcribjunt, ;^qv^ in iis vetui^ templa in Ph^aenii- 
ciorum ^odum extruda: (^ochart, Canaan^ 
rP* 68^9.) — ^Moch is white ; whence Moc-trath, Au- 
. Toi;a^ In and -^p Mok^ Heb. . Cotton^ Moch ' is 
;tbe fame as ffabU Alban, (white) and iignifies the 
.dawp[i^iig of the day^ Aurora ; hence wakh in Per-^ 
fic, Aurora. — ^It is .evident this name would npt 
have be^ .given to a Weflem Ifliej or to any of 
their wei^ern difcoyeries; but mpft properly in 
their ro^te Ea/iward to the mouth or the Periid 
.Gulph.-^M0^>& is in cpmmon ufe at this day td 
e^prefs the dawn of day ; ri^atutina lux albefcere 
<;um^prim\im oritur } and ,Tylus was alfo calleid V 


,9. ScotiA. This name is fiid tobe given it 
by ,the fons, of Milefius,. who named it Scotia^ 
irom their mother's name Scota, or perhaps from 
themfelves,^ they bqing originally of the Scythian 

B Re- 



1 8 A Vindication of the 


The name Scuth, \tre have fhewn in the Intip- 
dud;ion, (ignifies a Ship, whence Scuth'-aoi, Scy- 
thi, i. e. Ship-men, mariners^ 

1 o* Ptolemy calls it Iverna : Solinus names it 
luerna : Claudian fliles lertia, and Euftatius Ver- 
na. And it is the general opinion^ fays Keating, 
that thefe Authort, not perfe£lly underftanding 
the derivation of the word, varied it according 
to the particular fenfe of each. 


All thefe navies proceed from the Phoenician 
fnnti Ahatun (m), extremus & occidentalis. Oc- 
caius Solis. lemia or Eirin as the natives at this 
day write it, was not only called fo with refpeft 
to its pofition from the place of its firft difcoverers, 
but alfo as being the wefternmoft of the Britannic 
Ifles. Brittain being to the Eaft of Ireland, was 
by them named Alban and Albania, the Eaftem 
Ifland, i. e. *»M-)*»2f?n- Itaque cum in Circejo con- 
ftet locum fuifle confpicuum, & in mare promi- 
nentem npminatum ab Elpenore ; credibile eft 
Phxnices nugivendos, eodem morbo correptos quo 
Grsecorum grammaticuli qui ad fuam lineuam 
omnia referunt, voluiiTe hunc locum ita dia non 
a Grseco Elpenore^ fed eo quod citius ibi fcilicet 

pofiremum occidens inde )nn)D Moharun, i. e. Mauri, quafi 
poflremi vel occidentalis diai. nM3*inH Achernae vel perapher. 
HKMh Chernacy Piinicd, Ultima habitatio Ceme infula inde 
di6a. Hence A&'py^ Taiteflus eft Hifpanica urbt circa lacus 
Avemtini. Avernier Gnecd kiff^ Punice bitfa Aharooa, i. e.La* 
cus eztremus. jn*irmn * CD'H im h'hanm, mare occidentale« 
Deut. xl ft4. (See Bocimrt, vol. i.) 


Ancient Hijibry if Ireland. 19 

*11t4-)^a^n bilbin-or^ albcfcit lux matutinau Ma- 
tutina lux albefcerc dicitur ciim primiiin oritur. 
Unde eft quod albam vocant fermone yemaculo. 
Bocbart, Canaan, p. 592: 

IT. Iberkia, or Iber-naoi. This name tira^ 
given it by the fons of Milefius^ who came from 
Spain; Some fay from the river Iberus in Spain ; 
others from Heber the fon of Milefus : but Cormac 
Mac Cuillenah fays, it was fo called from the 
word Ebety which iignifies the Weft, (n) 


There cannot be a ftronger proof than this paf- 
fage in the records of Ireland^ to point put wh6 
were the people that gave this name to Ireland t 
it coiild not have been the Gauls, Britons, or any 
other Northern Nation^ we are Certain, becanfe no 
fuch word exifts in any of thbfe diale£ls as Eber 16 
denote the Wdft. Bochart allows that the Phae- 
nicians were acquainted with Ireland^ and that they 
named it nW*l!iy Iber-nae^ i. e. ultima habitatio J 
becaufc^ fays he, they knew of no place more weft- 
ward, thaii a vaft Ocean. Eber in the plural makes 
^•^•Tay Ibrin, terminos & fines fignificat, and •JM 
fii is an Ifland or Country, whence aoi, and naoi^ 
in Irifli ; and if we recoUcft that ]^^^ hilbin, and 
t**!l^M albin, imply the Eaft, Ortus & Aurora, there 
certainly csinnot be a doubt, but thefe lilands were 
fo named with refped to their fituation of each 
other. The Words are Iriih and Phsenician ; but 

(n) Eber and E&rb^ or Eoip^ (whence by corrnpcion Europft) 
iifc IfilK and PhaBnician words, fignifying the weft, die extro* 
M\tj ; from 3*1^ orb) n3y eber, and ^ny omp. Occideiif» 
trans, dorfum. 

B a they 

ao A VtMcatiith if the 

dicy are not Wdch, iSauMi, or Danifh. <See 

12. Ir^ Ir£, Iris. It was called Foriny or^ jRr- 
aaran Ir^ &c. that is the land of /r, who was the 
firft fon of MSefiu^, that wis buried in this ifle. 
It 11^8 ^0 xrklled Ireo^ that is the grave of Ir — 
thiKS Keating. 

R £ M A "r K. 

Ira or leraa yrrf* was certainly a proper 
name in the Eaft'ern Conhtries ; there was leraa 
(Luna aut menfis) Servus ^gyptius Sefan filii 
Jefi. I par. 2. — Stej^anus. 

fcrfei PpNV Thnor domini Jcrc. 37.. irn*» 
f efihb or ^Jericho, Luna, Civitas in 'Benjamin 
iVibu. There was Ir-fhemefh, a City of Chanaan 
ttsit fell tt> the "Tribe of 'Dan, and Ir^peel in the' 
Tribe of 'Benjamin. But as this Ifland was well 
khoyn in incietit hiftory, by the Greeks, by the 
iSpithet of ^^/|r^ I am of opinion, both M^r^ and 
7rti, ^fighlfjr the holy Ifland. Much in Irifli is an 
Ej>ithet of thelieity ; and Ir, Ire and Iris, fignsSy 
Reteiott. In Arabic butaey Religion j and . 
ttitiekdus is holy. 

1'3. Aka, An an, Anu or Nannu. Another 
haihe of Ireland, 


Ith Nanu, i. e. Infula Veneris feu Matris Deo- 
iuxti. See her Image, chap. 6. 

(o) Iran is the name of Perfia. Iran on Touran, i. e. Perfia 

>ind. Twckkj, or Scythia, both peopled b/ the defcendants of 

-our MtfpAn Sqrthians; and in another part of this hHlory, 

we are told chat If was bom m Irene, an Ifland fituated in the 

Thraciaa Sea. 


Ana or Anu, and fometimcs ^aoa, vdik a para- 
gogick N as Nathar fatbcx foe Ad»r» ficc. &;<;, 
we have fliew^d in the lall Number, Vas wor- 
ihipped in Ireland as Mather or prima cai}£i» 
was the An3ea or Anaids of the £aft. fiSany 

temples wqre dedicated to her, among otbeo 
Agb*beitb^4n^ or Agbetana, or Ecbatana, m 
Armenia* There war Ani in Armenia (De Her* 
bdot) ^ TO TOf 'Avflt4«s fipor and Anasx templunu 
(Strabo) i^ e. Anaitidis Bochart Rial, p, 345. 
She was the Venus of foine and the Diana w 
others (p). Qui primus erefta Veneris Anaittdii 
ftatua Babylone & Sufis, & Ecbatanis, & in Per^ 
fis, & Bactris, & Damafci, & Sardibus, Deam 
oftendit eflie colendam. Anaitidi multi Dianam 
efle voluerunt, quia, communi fano cum Deo 
tion Omano, id eft. Sole, colebatur j ut teftatur 
Strabo Lib. 1 5. Viciflini alii Venerem effe nm- 

luerunt. (q) 

Csetcrum ex loco Strabonis, in quo ver&mur, 
in quo 'Amici Anaea vocatur, quae aliis An^itis, re- 
ftituenda funt loca de eadiem Anaitide. 2. Mac- 
chap. 1 . V. 1 3. 1 5. In iis enim pro *AK*jot Scrip- 
turn NaiA*. Nempe in his verbis 9%f\ rJr Kctir«/#r 
N initio vocis aflumptum ex fine praecedentis : inde 
ortus error latius fe propagavit ; nam & eodeia 
verfu legitur rotr Nwauov i«p« per T«f^Ar«i«f, ut in 
Strabone, and ver. 1 5. m N*y«i» etiam fex9 mu- 
tato. (Bochart, vol. i. p. ?45f) 

(p) See Stxubo, Agtthias, Lib. a- Piufimiu in Lacon, Plu- 

tarchus in Artazerze. 

(q) Bochart. She is the Ani of the Thibctami whence one 
of their religious fefts is fo called, (Alph. Tibctaauin, Georr 
ga,p.i^qo. gj^ 

fid A Vindication of the 

She vas worfliipped in Ireland under die name 
of Ana^ Anu and Nana. Many places and rivers 
were dedicated to her, as the Nany water, a river 
between Dublin and Drogheda. 

Thefe are the Ainm Ebirt or Topographical 
names pf Ireland* Ebirij i» e. Eb-irt^ or Eb-artj 
the defcription of the Earth, from N^y Eba com-: 
pofuit, in ordinem digeiBt. x^N arets. Terra. X^N*^ 
ay. Ebarts. Berofius tells us the Phsenician word 
was Aret. Noah terram vocaffe Aretiam^ hence 
die Iriih artj or irt for the Hebrew Arts^ hence 
alfo the Arabic and Irifh ard aiid the Latin (iri^ 


Antknt Hiftory of Ireland. 33 

C H A P. in. 

PAitTHOJ[^AM or Par-tola M. 

THIS Qiapter Kbatino entiUcs, « oftbejirft 
Inhabitants rf Ireland after the Flood.'* He 
draws the coptents from an ancient Poem, record- 
ed in ^e Flklter of Caflicl, and mapy other M3S. 

The fabftance of the Poem is as follows 

Adhna mac Bitha go ccdl) 
Laoc do muintir Nin mac Peil 
Tainie aa Eirin da fios 
Gur bne^n i6zr a bhfidhinis 
Rug Ipis Ian adhuim da fgar. 
Teid da thig ^inifiii fg^al 
Afi fin gabfaail go gnnn 
As giorra da bfiiar Eirinn. 
Tri chead bliain iar ndilin 
Is fg€al fior mur rimhim 
f2i his Eire ui^e Qg 
If o go ttainig Partola% 

i* e* 
Adhna fon of Bith, a champion of the family 
of Nin, fon of Pelus, (r) went to explore Eirinn, 

(r) Pdu, TcI Pelagus, the Water-uuui. Bidiiit filhis Pofi* 
doius. ^cptiini, coffoinis ent ante Hefiodi teoipor^ teOe 
Eulbuhioy pt t3> in UL K« 

(i. c. pVH* the Weft.) lie pluckt a handftil of 
grafs, and brought it home as an example of the 
fertility of the foil, and Jtic was the ^ft that fettled 
inEirinn ;or the Weft.) Three hundred years 
after . the flood, yfc atccojant it for certain (Eire 
uile ) all the Weft lay wafte, till Partolan arrived 

.. To this k is added, that Partolan fct out fronx 
'^lidm* The poem concludes ^ith ^ lift of the 
ptihcipsd tiffic^rs that ac!c6nif)ahielj MtA^ and 
with ffifcm it is MA; ^it Mht^l t^ Smi OOhd 
peartHuiif)^^ i; e. fii6baUti:d ftabel^ tWe^ahabftk^ 
or Merchants. 

As otir Iriih fiittdiaiis tfcrould not \WfeAgly want 
an xra for this expedition, they have afligned the 
idate to twenty-t?*p yiAfs btfote the Wftfc of Abra- 

I think there, can Be iX) *donbt, Mtttie flood 
here mentioned, \iri's tJfikt ckftfed by l^idbrus and 
Stiabb, the S&ttidthrkdkifi^obd, wKicfr,%s Dio- 
dorus, *f The Sittidthr'dcian Ihiftdi^ Sflerts to 
'' have happened beiPohe anV feofls f ctorded of 
other nation?. The d'dlug^, fays lie, "was pro- 
duced b^ the erujitldli df the waters, isrhich at 
firft broke throUgh the tyailfcian rocks, and 
afterwards rufhed intb tiife Heil<?fjpdtit. The 
Euxine fea, formerly li *gf'eat lake, was then fo 
much fwelled by the waters which entered it, 
that ndt being .capacious 'enoagh to ccmtaiii 
theni, .tftey. overflowed into the H^llefpcnit, 
where they fubmerged a great part of the maii- 
iimeAfijt, 1aildalfot)v6t^vhelmedgre!at diftrifts of 
5« Saiftdfhrtce. 4hx(WifiiWati6h of this^ ;fiihermcii 
f^ in latter times have dragged ri^ -ftofite ^- 

" pitals 





Ancient fBfhfj of Irekmd. 35 

^* plttfe of {>illars in their nets, which prove that 
^^ the fea coverefl the ntitis of their ancient towns. 
^^ It is reported that die inhabitants who efcaped^ 
^^ fled to the more elevated lands, but the fea 
" ftill iilcreafing they invoked the Gods, and 
thereby being delivered from their perilous fi- 
tuation, they encompafled the places where 
th^y were pteferved throughout the whole Ifl- 
^< and, and there raifed altars, where at this day, 
** they perform fatrifices to their gods." (Diod. 
yol. 1. fee. 2^%.\. 5. p. 369. WcScl.) 

As to the firft inh2d)itants of Samodn-ace, adds 
piodorus, there is nothing handed down to pof- 
jterity relating to them, which we may depend on. 
They had anciently a peculiar language, not un- 
derftood by any o^er people of Greece, whereof 
fome woroB were ftill ufed in the worfliip of their 
gods, when Diodorus wrote his hiftory. (s) 

OuF Southern Scylhi, inhabitairts of Armenia,' 
hadejftended to Pontus, Bythina, and Paphlagonia^ 
(t^ bordered on the weft by the Eusinc and Hcl- 
Idipbnt. The Samothracian flood recorded by 
Diodorus, had deftroyed Eire uiky all die Weft of 
t*hi8 Country, and 300 Years it lay waftc, till Par- 
tholan made an excurfion to thofe parts, and 

($^ The Grc«b at that time were well <acquainted with the 
TjTiafly or, as the7 called it, Phxnician knguage, and with the 
Pelafgkb, a!id Thfacian or Phty^an ; and thefe are the only 
mtibns 'recorded by Aem to have inhahired this Hfe. In a for* 
mer work 1v« haveftcwiiy that die Oabiri, jyktaui, te. were 
of Iriih origin, tuid that AneaiedonisfBenlions the&mothnician 
facred rings to have been ufed in Ireland, many of which are 
found at this day in our bogs. See Collectanea de Reb. Hi- 
bcm. No. 13. 

(t) See chapter Pbehius Pharia. 


a6 A Vindicnium of the 

brought back to Armenia^ a handful of grafs, as 
a teftimony, that Vegetation had again taken place, 
after fo dreadful a Cataftrophe. 

An Iriih MSS. called the Book of Leacan is 
more particular with regard to Partolan. It in- 
forms us, Partolan arrived in Eirinn in the 6tb 
year of the reign of Ninus ; and in the 1 8th year 
of Mamyntas the nth Emperor of Aflyria, the 
plague deftroyed the race of Partolan, for having 
murdered him as well as his wife and children who 
were taking care of his patrimony in S$thiana or 
Scythia, during his abfence^ whence the Son of 
Partolan who was concerned in the murder receiv- 
ed the opprobious name of Tahmacb or Telemacbus. 
(u) Hence it appears our adventurer did not take 
his wife and family on this expedition. 

If we turn to tne a<:count of th^ Ogygian and 
Deucalion floods, recorded by the ancients, there 
fecms ftrong fufpicions of their having blended the 
hiftory of this flood, with that of the general ope of 
the facred fcriptures. 

Nothing in the antiquities of Greece is more 
obfcure than t^e hiftory of Ogyges and of the De- 
luge wl^ch happened in his time, fays Abbe Ba- 
nier, and ^dds he, whether he was a Grecian or 
a foreigner, or at what time he lived. Monf. 
Fourmond ipakes him an Amalekite, the fame vdth 
pg, Agag, orO^og, who left his country and fet- 
tled in Greece. Some place this delude in Atti- 
ca, others in Egypt, and St. Jerome thmks it was 
the Red Sea : thus much is certain, fays Banier, 
he was npt a Native of Greece ; his name ihews he 

(h) Taoknac a parricide, Shawes In Dj^ 


Ancient Hifiary nf Ireland. ty 

f7B8 a foreigner, but of what nation, I cannot det 

O^yges, as I have Ihewn in a former number 
of this work, is a Scythian name, compounded of 
Og or Oigj i. e« Dux, heros, and l^ge a Ship, 
Deucalionj was a Scythian, the Son of Promethe- 
us : his name bears the fame fignification as Ogy- 
ges, viz. Deuc^ the floater, (natator) Lion of the 
Sea, and hence the name may refer to Noah. 
Oguige may have been one of our Scythian Chiefs 
who had led a Colony to the weft of Thrace, and 
there have perilhed in the Samothracian flood, be- 
fore the expedition of Partolan took place ; This 
flood was the moft ancient known to the Heathen 
writers, as appears from Diodorus ; and according 
to Salinus it was the Ogygian flood. — ^Primae no- 
vim aftris inundatio terrarum, fub prifco Ogyge. 

It is remarkable, that the Greeks record, the 
marriage of Ogyges with Tbebe^ of Hercules with 
JErytbiaj and our Irifli hiftorians marry Mil-efs to 
Scota \ but TbebCy Erythia and Scota^ are fynoni- 
mous names for a Ship ; thefe and many other cir- 
cumftances in the hiftories of thefe heroes, tend 
to fliew, the Greeks, as Monf. Bailly has prove4 
in his Atlantis, owe the bafis of all their fable to 
the ancient Scythians or Perlians. 

Sir L Newton fixes this deluge 1045 before 
Chrift. Petavus, and Banier at 1796 before 
Chrift : fome Centuries later than the period af- 
fixed by our Irifli Chronolorifts. 

Partolan fet out from Migdon, which was the 
liame of Bithynia the refidence of our Magogian 
Bcythians at that timc« There was another Mig- 
don feated on a River of the fame name, which • 
waters Nifibis and Uir, and then falls into the 


i8 A Vindication cftb^ 

Tigris, (x) Thefe Migdons are both in Migiqgf 
Country, but it is more probable Partholaa dq>ar- 
ted from Bithynia and fettled in Eirion i. p* the 
Weil, in an ifland near the Shore, which points 
out to us that of Samotbrace. 

The names Adbna and Partolan are oriental, 
py Adin, a proper name, i Efdras 2, and 8, the 
fignification of the name in Hebrew and Iriih is, 
delicioftisj aut ornatus. 

Par was a common Epithet in the Eaft, parti* 
cularly in'Mefopotamia, (y) Paradajb bar Gabarou 
was third King of the Qfrhoi, — there were Par^ 
thamafpqtesj PamatafpatiSy Para/manes^ ice. &c^ 
&c, (z) There was yfr\F\ Tola, Son of Iffachar, 
Gen. 46. I Paral. 7. Jud. 10. ^tt>*bA T^a- 
laffar. Regis Syriae, Ifai. 37. rfjfi Thale, nomen 
viri, 1 Para. 7. p^*>n Tilon filius Simon, i Par. 
4« the name Tolan^ or Tolam iignifies a Peach 
Tree ; our Didionaries tranilate it, the holm 
Oak. — Periice Talane, a fruit refembling a Peach. 
Arab. Talnak an Apricot.— *The reafoxis of thefe 
names we fhall treat of hereaiter. 

Talmai, was one of the Sons of Anac^ whom 
Caleb expelled from Arba. Jofli. 15. Ch. 14. V. 
& expulit inde Caleb tres fitios Anac, viz. Sefac, 
Ahiman & Talmai, natos Anac. We (hall ihew 
in th^ Sequel, that Anac and Gadui^ were the 

(x) Bat fajrs-Keating, Migdon was in Greece, and in tliis.ip4n- 
ner has perverted the whole of tjie Iri^ Ujflpxy : — ^kcjliQg 
can be nore clear, than, that the eari^ ^rt of Iriih hjilfryy 
rebates to the trsmladtions of their Anceft9rs m Armenia, Bithjniay 
Parthia, Perfia, &c. 

(y) 2n3 Bara. para Arab. ExcellaiC-Scientla. prBBotUait ca 

(z) Bayenhiftoria pfrhoe^^. 


Ancknt Hi/lory tf Ireland. a 9 

peculiar Epithets of the Sons of Magog, who mix- 
ed with toe Canaanites in procefs of time. 

The Poet informs us that Partolan and his pro- 
geny pofTefled the Ifland 300 Years, when all the 
inhabitants were fwept away by a peftilence. 

Thus our Maeogian Scuthi of Armenia conti- 
nued to extend their depredations towards |^^nM 
Eirinn or the Weft, and to gabby wherever they 
went ; gabb is the verb- made ufe of in all the Irim 
MSS. it fignifies to lay under contribution ; the 
N6un is Gabhaily as Gabhail Eirinn^ the Book of 
contribution, cdmmonly called the Book of Con- 
quefts in Ireland ; this book contains the contri- 
butions of every State to the Monarch. We have 
oft<n quoted it in the preceding Numbers of this 
work : the Word is Oriental, as NVfiJi ^3:1 Gabhi 
Gimela, Gameli tributa, (Bochart V. i.p. 1148). 
It 'i\So 'fignifies to govern, in both Hebrew and 
Iriih, hence ^^ Gabhar, guberno. Arabic^ 
gabbi CoUedor tributof Um. 

This expedition of Partolan's, took place ac- 
cording to the Irifli Annals, a little before the 
birth of Abraham. During the life of that Patri- 
arch, we find the Scythi of Armenia making war 
on the Ganaanites. The infpired penman having 
occafion to fpeak of Abraham, has recorded this 
faft ; and but for Abraham, we fhould probably 
not have heard of it, Genefis 14 Ch. ^' And it 
came to pais in the days of Amrapbel King of 
Shinaar, Ariocb King of EUafor, Cbedorlaomer 
Kiag of Elam, and Tiddal King of the Goim ; 
^^ that thefe made war with Bera King of Sodom, 
and with Birjha King of Gomorrah, Sbinab 
King of Sodom, and with Shemeber King of Ze- 
bourn, and the Kicg of Belary which is Zoar, 

'' -All 



30 j^ Vindicdtian <^thi 

*' — Ail thcfc were joined together in the Vale of 
** Siddim, which is the Salt Sea. — Twelve yeari 
** they ferVed Cbedorlaomer^ and in the 1 3th year 
they rebelled. — And in the 14th came Cbedof- 
laomer and thd Kings that were with him, and 
fmote the Repbainu iii AJhterotb Kamaimj and 
^^ the Zuzims in Ham^ and the Emims in ShaveB 
** Kiriatbim. And the Horites in their Mount 
Seir, utito El-paran which is by the trildetnefs.' 
-^And when Abrarti heard that (Lot) hi$ 
brother was made captive, he irmed his train- 
ed Servants, born in his own houfe^ 318, and 
purfued .them unto Dan, and unto Hobah which 
*^ is on the left hatid of Damafctls^ And he 
*^ brought back all the goods, and his brother Lot^ 
^^ and his goods, and the women alfo^ and the 
« people." 

The Syriaci Copy calls Tadal^ Taril K. of the 
Golita .* The Arabic veriidn has Ariocb King of 
Sarian, Cbadbarlaomar King of Choraftan and 
Tbddaal King of the Nations. The laft is named 
Tbargol by the LXX. and is faid to be King of the 

Jofephus ialls this the Wat of the Affyriansj 
who had united with the Chaldaoan Dynafties: 
Mr. Baugmirten obfer ves, the conqueft of the Ca*. 
naanites by nations fo remote, muit be treated aft 
an abfurd impoffibility* 

Aquila, Symmachus and Procopius, think, that 
Amraphel was King of Pontus, not the PontuS 
Euxinus ; but a City in Coelo-Syria (ince named 
Hellas. See alfo Menochius and Com, a Lapide[. 
Amraphael, fays Dr. Hyde, was King of Sht- 
naar, not in Chaldsea or Babylon, but Shinaar ih 
Mefopotamia, .(a great city at the foot of the 



Ancient Hifiory of Ireland. ji 

Mountains 3 days journey from Maufil,) now writ^ 
ten Sinjar in the Arabic, the Singara of Ptolemy, 
with him Abraham foughjt, as Eufebius fully 
proves. At that time Auyria feems to have been 
wrefted from Ninus and to have fallen into the 
hands of the Perfians^ as at the time of this war, 
all the neighbouring Kings were confederate with 
Chedorlaomer Eling of Elam. As therefore there 
could not be two monarchs in one place, Ninus 
muft have been excluded from Aflyria and retired 
into Chaldasa from whence he came, jlrioc was 
King of EUafar : according to Eufebius his name 
was "Affi^ i. e. Martins feu Martialis, for yi*^^ 
Arioc as the name (lands in Scripture is not a 
Ghaldaic name, and as far as we know, has no 
fignification. (Religio Vet. Perf. p. 46.) 

The Perfijans were Scythians, Farfi or Pheni as 
we (hall prove hereafter, and Aireac a Puno-Scy- 
thic name or title fynonimous to "Agci^ : thus the 
Perfic Cofrotij a title of their ancient Sangs, in 
Irifh is written Cofracbj i. e. mighty, powerful, vic- 
torious, corrupted by the modem into Cofcardchd. 
Khofrou, ou, Cofroe, nom commune a pleufieurs 
Rois dc Perfe. (D'Herbelot) — Armeni dicunt 
Cbuefreuy quod vetus Parthicum vocabulum fuifle 
non dubito, nam Haicana lingua nobis veterem 
Parthicam confervavit. (Bayer, Hift. Ofrh.) 

Shinaar or Shingara was in Mefopotamia, 
then in pofleflion of the Magogian Scydbians ; they 
had alio extended themfelves mto Arabia and been 
feated early on the Perfian Gulph. Grotius 
brings Arioch from the Elifari of Arabia, menti- 
oned by Ptolemy, and Bronchartus declares it is 
very uncertain where this City was. Elam was in 
Arabia* EUm locus in deferto trans mare ru- 


34 ^ V^dieathh <f the 

that the Phatoieians h&me<t t^e God of the Sea 
Ogtfa^ for this was th^ fiaTni; of Neptune at Myliffa 
in Caria, a Phsnidan Colony; hence as I have 
before obferved' Oiguige^ was one of the Seythian 
names of Nbah (f ) (C). : 

From thefe arguments, ' I WttjeSure that Thadal 
or Thifal iKiftg of (he Ghittt was feated fome- 
where in Oman, near Mount Seir, or the fettle- 
ments of the Canaanites. His name feems to im^ 
port *hat he W*s a Kittg of a maritime people ; 
and from the* words of Moftsi it isf evident that he 
alfo contributed his quma' of land forces, in this 
expedition. The nftmfefe of thefe Princes, is ano- 
ther reafon to think they were Scythians. 

Amra-phel, is an Irifli title, fignifying, Lord 
of LbrdS) Kittg of -Kitigs. (See Genealogical 
Tables of Magog at beginning ' of Chap. I.) 
-rfwr^ is the plural of £i!*/>, a noble, a chief, ^nd 
Fal or Phal is a King> ft-Pfmce^ a Lord, inr Arabic 
Amer, Emir ol- Omar is a prince or Teader, in the 
plural Omra^ Ommera^ ^nii Falj fupcrior. Omar 
is a title given to all hobility of the firft rank in 
the Mogul Empire, (another feat of the Magbgian 
Scythi ;) it is alfo given to commanders of bodiei^ 
of troops : in the plural it is Ow^w^^z, that is^ i%z- 

> * - 

(f) iRtiSt a]i2L Nose cognoibllu ineritiflim^ ^nfetui^fOgy^er. 
Dickenfoni Delphi PhaeniciT^rites, p,,;i68. . 

Atavus CceUus Phznix Ogygcs. X^Q|)hon. . ^ r • » 
Flutes inundationes fuerc. Prim c novimeftris ijjundatb ter- 
mnum, fob prifco Ogyge. Soljnus. 
• From XJige, ifee Chaldeaeans and Jeivs formed K*an Dughia, 
which Rab. Bcnj. p. 9. explains as R. Elias does, rvjH 
Dughioth, quae vocantur Gallerx. Hence I think the Iri/h ' 
nzmes Ugan-^fner, the great Saiiw. Dttganj DugA-ar/i, &c. &c. 


Ancient Uijiory of Ireland. 35 

hohs. (g) Phal or Fa/, is the Chaldce wni^lD Pholaba 
Magnates, (huomo di conditionc) (h) whence the 
Irifh FoUaghkn to govern ; and die diminutive 
Flaiih^ a chief. Chaldee ttf?D Phlat or Pbalat, 
Dominus, Pririccps, nomen proprium (l). Ara^ 
bice Val^ a noble, a prince, hence the Iriih Amra* 
phal the chief of the Emir's (k). Ctad-ar-uiUamra^ 
head of chief of all the Omra, va^ fynonimous to 
Emir aUomra^ or Amra-pbal^ and the title taken by 
Chedarloamar King of Shinaar. Aireac is alfo a 
common title of a Prince or chief, there ace fcven 
degrees of Aireac recorded in the Irifli hiftory (!)• 
It is the Cantabrian or Bafquenza ErreqUe^ wA 
the Arabic {trek. Tidal or Ttral is a proper haow! 
in the Iriih, and fuch it is here recorded by Mofcs'l 
he was I think the King of Oman^ ot, Panchaia^ 
i. e. Phanic-^aoi^ or the Country of the Phanic ot 
Phenij of which hereafter. 

Oman or the Sea Coaft of Idumsea, was origi- 
lially the fettlement of Uts of the family of Sem^ 
from whom all Idumaea was called the land oiUts^ 
(m) and the chief of thcfe was the King of Edom^ 

C a that 

(g) NiebuhrV travels in Arabia, V. 2. p. 15- 

(h) David de Pamu. 

(i) Idem. 

(k) The trifli Lexlconifts have omitted the fingular Numter, 
and all have inferted the plural, antra. See the Table, No. 14 
and 1 6, page 30. 

(1) See Colkdlanea No. X, and Shavves Irifli Dictionary, 
whence iu Iriih. Aireac -dalla^ and in Arab'c Eriani Dowki, 
lyiinifter of Sra^e. Aryk of noble blood, &c. &c. 

(m) Lamentations, C. 4. V. 21. Many authors agree that 
fome of the early defcendants of CulK, fettled firft in the land 
bordering on x)ie Red Sea, moving gradiiaUy from thence to die 
South extremity of Arabia, and a^erwards by means of the eafy 



36 jI Vindication of the 

that refufed Mofes a paiTage, wherefore he pafled 
along the Shore by the Red Sea, till he had clear- 
ed the territories of £dom : '^ And tiiey joumied 
from Mount Hor, by way of the Red Sea^ to 
compafs the land of Edoniy (n) for the King of 
Edom had faid : ^ Thou (halt not go through 
^* my territories ; and he came out with much 
^^ people and with a ftrong hand ; therefore Ifrael 
** turned away from him and took his paflage by 
" the Red Sea". 

From this Text of the infpired writer it is very 
clear, that Edom did not extend to the Red Sea 
in the time of Mofes, as Sir J. Newton has fuppo- 
fed : and it is as evident, that Oman was inha- 
bited by a people who gave protedion to the Ifrael* 
ites, in this troublefome march round the Sea 

pai&ge over the Streighcs of Babal mtndab tninfplanted them- 
ielves into iEthiopia. 

According to Eufebius this migration happened whilfl the 
Ifraelites were in Egypt. This perfedtly correiponds with Irifh 
hiftory .* they acknowledge one Colony to have been Cafhttes. 
See Chapter VI. Tuatha Dadann. And hence probably the 
Arabian Cu(hites were called Ahafim from Hahajh a mixture : 
this made the ^Ethiopians boaft of their antiquity as from Ham^ 
and of being older than the Arabians. See Ludblf» Hid. of 
iEthiopia. And further, the Cuthites, Scuthx or Irifh alTerc 
that they were feated on the Coafl of the Red Sea when Mofes^ 
made hb paiTage through it. See Chapter 8. They 'probably 
were the Trogloditesof /Ethiopia, being Mariners and Fifher* 
men, and Strabo tells us thefe people lived on fifh : Q^^D Sa- 
caiim m Hebrew may alfo (ignify Dens and Caves, as well as 
Tenxs. Some of theCataloniansand Bifcainers, the defcendants 
of thefe Cuthse in Spain, flill Jive in the fame manner, follow- 
ing the trade of fidiing and dwelling under Tents in the Caverns 
of the Rocks on the Sea CoaA, of which the Audhor has had 
occular proof. 

(n) Numben 31. V. 4. and Ch. to. V. 14. ac. 


Ancient Hifiory of Ireland. 3^ 

<!loaft, or Mofes would not have ventured into 
fuch an ambuih; for here would hav£ been a proper 
place for his enemies to have attacked him, with- 
out the poilibility of a retreat. We (hall hereafter 
find, that the Greek writers have placed the Scy- 
thians in this trad of Country (D)* For God had 
enlarged Japhet^ and he was to dwell in the Tents 
of Sem^ and Canaan was to be hii Servant. The 
Canaanites had now ferved the Japhetans 13 years; 
there is no trace in Scripture that the Scythians 
retained the Sovereignty after the lofs of Pentapolisj 
but there is ftrong proofinthefequelof ttiishiftory, 
that they united with them and became one people, 
known in profane biftory, by the name of Phani* 
dans J and in Scripture by the name of Canaanites. 
It is not clear from Scripture that all the Canaanites 
owe their origin to Canaan the Son of Ham, for 
^y^D Canaan in Hebrew is the name of Noah's 
Grandfon and alfo a Merchant. Qur "b/JiZgogiaak 
Scythi being the firft Navigators and Merchants 
would call themfelves Ceannaith an4 Aonaic^ that 
is. Merchants. If, fays Bates \SI^ Canaan is from 
^^2 Canaa whidbi cauAPJt be difp^ed^ then it is a 
miftake, though a common one ; tha,t a merchant 
was named from Canaan, Qrandfon of Noah and 
father of the Canaanites, becaufe the word figni* 
fies Qierchandizing independent of them ; and the 
land as well a^ the people of Canaan, was named 
from their trading, and Job, Ifaiah and Hqfea, ufe 
the word a$ a merchant. Bates Critica SLebra^^^ 
p. 376. 

Thefe wor.ds ceanndi-gim to buy or fell, and Aonaf 
a fair, a place of trafEck, are in common jufe in 
Ireland at this day* Aonach Tailtean, was the general 
mart of thp ^yhgle Kingdom, Keating p. 359. Anac;^ 


3* -rf Vindicatim 9/ the 

A&nac or Eineacj fignifies alfo a Fir tree, a tall 
ifaraigbt tree ; a prop, pillar, fupport, a Column, 
end hence metaphorically, prote&ion ; Example^ 
tttg ced bo in a cineac^ he gave 20 Cows for his pro* 
teftion.— Whence it became an Epithet to many 
petty princes : in Arabic anuk, a column, a pillar, 
a root, a caufe ; hence the Gaduli or Magogian 
Scythians, being of tall ftature, might have taken 
the name of Anakim ; and for this reafon Arba 
might have called his Son p3y Anak, i. e. the Fir 
Tree, the Column, &c. Jof. 14, 15. et expulit 
inde Caleb tres Alios Anac, Seffai^ Ahiman^ and 
^almaij natos Anac ; here we meet three Names 
correfponding to this IriOi, viz. Anacy Acbamon^ 
Atid Tolam. 1 he Jews invented ftrangc Stories of 
thefe Anakifn* Benjamin Judaeus, in his itinerary, 
fays^ that in Damafcus^ he faw the Rib of one of 
thefe Anakim^ that meafured 9 fpani(h palms in 
length, and 2 in breadth ; it was prcfervcd in the 
palace, and had been taken from a Sepulchre : — 
dicitur ille fuifle ex antiquifTimis regibus Anaky 
homine Abjhama^ ut ex Sepulchri illius lapide in* 
fcripto eft indicatum : in quo fcriptum etiam eft, 
ilium toto orbe regnaffe. The Hebrew language 
has loft the proper fignification of the word pjy 
Enac, Grigas. pi. Enakim, ad pmnes Gigantes 
tttidudufti, q. d. Torquati, (Cq/i.) vel quiaj injice- 
i-unt terrorem Statura Puay (Benjamin).) — The 
Syriac Vl^ysS Anakia, wnich alfo in the Samaritan 
iigniiies adjuvit ; fubvenit alicui. Ramus propa- 
go, comes neareft to the fenfe of the Iri(h \ the 
Arab, moj a fir tree is not far diftant, 

Arha the name of Anaks father, feems to point 
out that they were Merchants or Shipmen, for 

>»31W arba in Chaldee, is, Navis. "STWk with » 

» • • • 


Ancient Hiftvry tf Ireland* 39 

in the termination fignifiesybt^r, whence J. Capel- 
lus thinks he was a Giant oi four Cubits ; quatuor 
cubitorum ftatura minor fuerit, quam ut famae 
refpondeat, obferves Bochart. (Geogr. Sac. L. i. 
C. I.) — Again, Arba in Arabic fignifies Negoti- 
um ;. as the y is frequently written for ^^ in many 
places of the facred Scripture, I am of opinion Anak 
and Arba imply a tall Gigantic race of M«i as our 
Scythians were, and Merchants. It muft be pb- 
ferved that Anac in Irlfh does alfo imply a man. of 
extraordinary Stature ; but when it fignifies a Gi- 
ant, that is, a wild ungovernable ftrong man, 
robbing and ranfacking bis neighbours ; the word 
Fi (i. e. bad, wicked) is always praefixed, hence in 
our Irifli Lexicons Fianach a Giant. 

From hence I deduce p3jr**Ttn CA^w/r^ Anak^ 
in Irifli, Cadhair Atmdchy i. e. the City of the 
Merchants ; the Cbadreanak or Carthage of Plau- 
tus, for in his time it was the Seat of Merchan- 
dize, and the Carthaginians gave it a proper name, 
i. e. Sedes Mercatorum, for liAnek or Bene Anak 
had been a preper name of the Phacnicians, as 
Bochart pretends, whv did not their firft Colony 
in Utica take that name ? — Where they were feated 
300 Years before Carthage was built ; the reafon 
is plain,— -this Colony was not conveniently feated 
for traffick — they were making fcttlemcnts on the 
terra firma, till Dido came to Africa, and built 
Cadre Anak. See next Chapter. 

The Poem on the expedition of Partholan, con- 
cludes with a Lift of the principal Officers attends 
ing him on the expedition, and with them, it is 
recorded, were Biobal agus Bebal^ a dha Ceannui- 
they that is, Biobaland Bebal, two Merchants; 
and this is the firft account of traffick in the Irilh 


49 A Vindicatim if tie 

CHAP. IV. . 

N E M E p or N y p M A D. 

NI O M A D (i. c. the leader of a multitude, ) 
is faid to be the Son of Achemon or Aghar 
pion. Son of Pamp, Son of Tatb, Son of Seara, 
Son of Sru, Son of Afru, Son of Bram, Son of 
Ai^eacht, defcended of Magog. Nemed failing 
out pf the Euxine Sea, came to Aigen, (that is, 
iEgina, one of the Infulse Atticae,) from thence 
he failed to Eire, (that i;, u£ria,) or Crete ; and 
purfuing his Voyage, S. W. landed in Africa. 

Here they Fcre inftruded by the Africans, to 
build houfe$ and palaces ^ the names of the Afri- 
can Architects who taught them this fcience were, 
Rog, Robhog, Rodan, and Ruibne. They had 
feveral Skirmiflies with the Africans, and in the 
fourth battle Nemed was flain : from this time the 
Africans grew more troublefome, and after feyen 
years, Siim ^reac, the Grandfon of Nemed, led 
a Colony to Greece j this weakened the main bo- 
dy, who fuffered great hardlhips from the natives 
of Africa, till the arrival pf the Firr D'Omnanm 
Siim Breac left Greece, and fcizing on the Greci- 
an fleet, failed to Spain, from whence they came 
to Ireland, and to Britain, where the poftcrity of 
this Siim Breac were fettled, when the Cndtne ar- 
rived in Scotland. The African Pyratcs called 
Fomharaigi), harraffed the Nemedians in their fet^ 
jlemcnts in the Weftern Ifle, and arq faid to have 
lucceeded fo far, as ta have lain them under con^ 
tribution in Ireland. , . 

Ancient Hijiory of Ireland* 41 

R £ iSf A R K S. 

Keating the compiler of the Irifh Hiftory, has 
committed many egregious blunders in this Arti- 
cle : from Crete he brings them to Ireland, but 
the bed authorities carry them to Africa, to 
Greece, to Spain; and fo to the Britanic If- 

The Punic annals reflefl a ftrong light on this 
remote part of our hiftory. We have flievn in 
the introduction, that the original Perfians and 
Parthians, were Scythians; who defcending the 
Euphrates, fettled on the Perfian gulj^, and from 
thence along the Sea Coaft, up the Red Sea to 
the head of it ; poiTefiing a narrow (kirt of (aady 
foil, called Oman ; whence Fir D'Omann : 
here they were known by the Greeks, by the name 
of Ichthyophagi, (o) and Troglodytar, fifh eaters 
and dwellers in Caves : by the Hebrews they were 
denominated Siim and Am^Siim S^^!f oy or ihip- 
men ; the Egyptians called them Nepbibyn from 
the Coptic Nepb a Ship, (p) hence the CS^rnnoS 
Nephtbtum of the Scriptures ; but the whole Coaft 
of Oman was called by the Arabs Al-muzun i. e* 
Terra Oman, pars Arabise, aliis quoque Nauta^ 
Naucleri (Golius & Gigg.) This great body of 
Scythians or Perfians and Parthians, pafled over to 
Amca, to the fupport of their Countrymen the 
ifemidiansy and eftablifhed themfelves in Numi* 

(o) Not only the inhabitants but the animals of this C^a&. are 
Ichtbjopbagi at thi$ day^ Monf. NiebufaTy who was latety in that 
CounMy, faySy they fised thpir Cows and Afleswith fifh, and tbe 
ground is poanurcd with them. 

(p) It is acknowledged that thie Greeks received the worfliip 
pf Neptune from the Lybians. 


41 A Vindicatim rf the 

dia, Ga»tulia & Utica, about 300 Years before 
the arrival of Dido from Tyre. 

Niomad or Nemed, the leader of the Euxine 
Colony, was fo named from Niomad a muhitude ; 
it is the Perfian Namadud, innumerable : Ami as 
the Arzhic habajh (q)or babajhut has the fame fignl- 
fication, and is fuppofed to be the root of the 
name Abajftnia^ given to the inhabitants of ^hi- 
opia, that dwell near the coaft of the Red Sea ; I 
have no doubt but the Arabic Name, is a tranfla- 
tion of our Niomad, becaufc the Abai&nians are 
fuppofed to be compofcd of a mixed body of peo- 
ple, who were conflantly croffing the Red Sea 
from Oman, and thefe were originally Scythians, 
Perfians and Parthians. 

Nemed having performed thefe Voyages, was 
honoured foon after with the name gf Siirn Abreac^ 
or Dux Navium, a name which defcended to his 
Grandfon, of whom hereafter. The Authors of the 
Univerfal Hiflory, under the article Numidians, 
obferve that Ifidore intimates that the Medes and 
Perfians in ancient times planted a colony in Nu- 
midia, and that Salhifl more than infinu^es the 
fame thing. The writer of that Article in the 
Univerfal Hiflory (r) has not done jufticc to Sal- 
lufl, he was not of that opinion although be was 
fo informed from the written Records of the Coua* 
try, and wtdt that extrad SaUufl has blended his 
own opinion, warped by the writings of the 
Greeks, who have alway confounded the Phaeni- 

(q) Srephanns prms Wotttscos vocatos tit, ac deimle ScytAas, a 
Scytha Hercuiis fifio. i(Gorop. Becan.) 

In Irilli Abhus, a herd, a flock, « nrnltimde j Aibbfioch, a 
great molritnde. w 

{r) Late Dr. Swiiicon. 





Ancient Hi/hry of Ireland. 43 

cians. The words of Salluft are thefe, '^ As to 
the firft inhabitants of Africa, and thofe that in 
fucceeding ages fettled there, and how they in*- 
corporated, I fhall give a very brief account, 
different indeed from the common one ; but, fuch 
as was interpreted to me, out of the Punic books ^ 
which were faid to be King HiempfaPs^ and what 
the people of that country take to be faft. But^ 
let the Authors anfwer for the credibility of it. 
The original inhabitants of A frica were the Gse- 
tulians, and the Lybians, a rough unpoliflied 
people, who lived upon fle(h taken in hunting, 
^^ or upon herbs like cattle. They were under no 
^' manner of confinement from cuftom, law or 
^' government, but, ftroUing about here and there, 
*^ took up their lodging where the night happen* 
** ed to overtake them. But, after Hercules died 
^^ in Spain^ as the Africans have it, his army that 
was made up of divers nations, upon the lofs 
of their leader, and a buftle made by a compe-- 
tition for the command, difperfed in a (hort 
** time. Of that number the Medes^ the Perjiansy 
^' and Armenians palling over by fhipping into 
*' Africa^ fcized upon thofc parts of it that lie up- 
^^ on our Sea ; but the Perjians lay more upon 
the Ocean, (s) They made ufe of their Ships 
turned bottom upwards, for houfes ; becaiife 
f* there was no wood in that country, nor had 







(s) De fuerte, que concuerdan todos en el origen de eftas Na- 
Ciones, Y que vinieron defde Oriente acompanando a Hercules, 
efpecialmente \o% Pharufiosy de losquales hacen tambien znencion 
DyoniHo, Ptalomeo, Eftrabon, y Mephano, que cita para lo 
{uefmoa Artemidoro. Efpana primiciv. V. i. p. 252. 


44 ^ Vindication of the 


they any opportunity of buying any, or barter- 
ing for it with the Spaniards : a wide fea and a 
language to them unknown, rendered all com- 
merce imprafticable. (t) By degrees, they by 
intermarriage mixed with the Gsetulians ; and 
becaufe they were often fhifting about from 
place to place to try the goodnefs of the Soil^ 
they called themfclves Numidians. To this day 
the cottages of the Numidians which they call 
Mapaliay ar^ of an oblong form bulging out, 
like the hulls of Ships. 1 he Libyans joined the 
*^ Medes and Armenians^ who lived nearer the 
*' African Sea. The Getulians lie more to the 
^^ Torrid Zone, and thefe quickly built towns : 
^* For, being divided only by a narrow Sea from 
^ Spain, they carried on a traffick there ; but 
^^ the Libyans by degrees altered their name, 
^' calling them in their language Mauri inftead of 

^< Medi. 

The greatcft part of our Pharfai or Perfians remained in 
Spain, Pharufii quondam Perfse, Comites ^iflfe dicuncur Hercu- 
Ib ad Hefperides tendentis. (Pliny.) 

Deinde Pharufii aliquando cendente ad Hefperides Hercule di«- 
fe5, nunc inculti, & nifi quod pecore aluntur admodum inopes* 

Eda dilatada relacion hace Saluftio de los fucceilbt, y Poblafi- 
4n>es de las tres Naciones del Exercito de Hercules, que defpues 
de fu muerre falieron de Efpana, yen la Africa poblaron tan dt- 
latadas Provincias a que oy correfponde lo que ay defde el Reyno 
de Tunez halla le ultimo del Reyno de Maurrueoos, defta fucr- 
te ; las Lybios, y Medos toda la Coda del MediterraneQ conlas 
dos Mauritania s Caefaricnfe, y Sitifenfe, y pane de la Tingitana» 
y los Getulas, y Perfas la Cafta del Oceano, y enella loredante 
de la Tingitarta con hs Deliertos interiores de Zoara y Bitedulge* 
rid...(Eipanapnmrtiva. V. i. p. 251.) 

(t) This muft be an obfervation of Salluft, who isad forgot 
that Hercules had eftabiiilied a Colony at Gades before the dif- 


Ancient Hijiorj of Ireland. - 45 







MedL (u) But, the Perfians became in a fhort 
time a flourifliing people. Afterwards too, the 
NomO'Numidiansj by reafon of their vaft num- 
bers, feparUting from their parents, poflcfled 
themfelves ^ of the Country about Carthage^ 
which is called Numidia. After that both par- 
ties depending upon the mutual alliftance of one 
another did, by force, of arms, or the fear 
thereof, bring their neighbours under fubjedi- 
on to them, and acquired to themfelves a migh- 
ty name and great glory ; but efpecially thofe 
** who bordered upon our Sea, becaufe the Liby- 
'^ ans are lefs warlike than the Getulians. Fi- 
nally the lower part of Africa was moft of it 
over^run by the Numidians, and the conquered 
people mixed with and went by the name of the 
** Conquerors. 

*' Afterwards the Phaenicians, fome to leflen 
the over-great crowds at home, and others out 
of a deiire of power, engaging many of the 
commonality to put themfelves under their lead- 
ing and dire£Hon, as well as others that were 
*' fond of novelty, built Hippo, Leptis afad other 
** Cities upon the Sea Coaft.— As to Carthage I 
f * think it better to fay nothing at all of it than 

" but 

perfion of his Army and their return to Africa, nor was the Sea 
coo wide, at the entrance of the Straights to Gibraltar, for Mari- 
ners that had navigated from the Euxine to Gades, and returned 
to Gsctulia coaftways. The Perfians that croflcd over to the Oce- 
an might have been in want of timber for fome time, to con- 
ftriidt boats for fuch a navigation : thofe that coafted the Medi- 
terranean, could not have penetrated far inland, when they re- 
turned at night to their boats and made houfes of them. 

(u; This ii a miftake either of Salluft or of the Original. 




46 A Vindication tf the 

^* but a little, bccaufe I am in hafte to rettifri ttf 
^ my proper fubjcft." (x) 

There is fo great a contradiftiori and inconfif-' 
tency in this ^account given by S&Uuft, we can 
hardly think the whole is of that author's coinpo(i-» 
tion. The Punic Account of Perfians and Arme- 
nians forming that body of .people that fettled 
about Carthage is certainly true, for they were the 
original Phaenicians, that is, otir Southern Scy- 
thians from the Red Sea ; and that thefe Perfians 
did fettle in Spain is confirmed by Varro and 

The whole Country from the Cafpian Sea, to 
the Perfian Gulph was in their pofleffion, and there 
could be no let or hindran<le to their E3q>edition, 
down the Euxine Sea to Africa, or to the Oma- 
nitcs following the Nemedians. 

The Punic, or Numidian account of the colo- 
nizing Africa, from the great body of Armenians^ 
Scythians, Perfians, &c. of the borders of the 
Cafpian and Euxine Seas, and of Oman feems to be 
confirmed by the prefent race of people inhabit- 
ing the Mountains on the back of Barbary, ex- 
tending from the ancient Carthage to the Promon- 
torium Her cults near Sta Cruz. Thefe very anci- 
ent people are named varioufly by the Moors and 
Arabs, viz. Breber^ Sbowa^ Shilhoa^ &c. but 
they call themfclves Amazing^ the plural of Jmazin. 

Mauri certainly derives from *VTP Mahar, pretium ; and from 
niP Tana, inercede conducere, was formed Mauritani ; they 
were Merchants and Navigators, from Mahar, by tranfpofiiion 
we liaveMcrces, Merx, Mcrcator.- Mahar or Maur, therefore 
was the contradled name implying Merchant : hence the Fo- 
Muirigh of Africa^ who difquieted the fettlemcnts of the Milcfi- 
ans in Ireland. 

(x) Bellum Jugur.h. C. 20^ and ai. 


Ancient Hijiory tf Ireland. 47 

They arc ntenttoned by Leo Afr. and by Dr. 
Shaw ; In a former work, I have flicwn the few 
words of their dialed: given by the Dr. arc Irifli. 
Mr. Geo. Hdft^ Dahi(h Conful at Algiers, has late- 
ly publifhed a more minute Account of this peo- 
ple, and an ample. Vocabulary* 

He fays the general opinion is, that they are the 
remains of the old Gatidiam and Numidians, mix- 
ed with Egyptians, Phsniciahs^ Turks, &c. grc. 
The name Breber^ he was tcJd, derived from the 
Moorifh bar, landy and beria, a Aorm — i. e. a 
Country always 10 troubles and war. It is more 
probably derived from Ban a Ship, Bari-bari^ 
Shipmcn j Showa feems to be the Hebrew T\TW 
Shabha natavit, whence Sacuth i. e* Scythi Ship- 
men,". (See Introdudion) and the Arab barj^ 
Nauta, Pirata, .is . very much allied to Breben 
Thefe Breber, are called Sbila and Amazing^ the 
firft,. I think is the -Arabic Gbiian or the CaifHan 
Sea, whence the Arabs call Oalicia in Spain, Gia- 
tiamy. that is,, a Colony from Qhilan.-'^Amazingf 
Mr. Hoft thinks comes from Mazr i. e. Mizraim, 
lieQoe'he coAckides they mean ^Egyptians ; I take 
it to' be the old, Arabic word, AUmazun, i. e Nau* 
tEBy Naucleru (Golius, Giggieus, in V« Oman. 
See Chap. 5. ) - 

..The ancient Scythians or Perfians were feated 
on thefe Seas, and on the coaft of Oman, and 
were the navigators of the Eaft ; they were there 
not confidercd a? a Nation, and are always menti- 
oned in Scripture by the name of Ship-men : it is 
probable that the moft wealthy formed the Canaa- 
nites^ and fixed at length, in Tyre and Sidon^ for 
there is no authority in Scripture, to fay they 
were the defcendants of Cbanaan, the name im- 

48 A Vindication of the 

plying Merchants alfo, ar we have (hewn in tlie 
preceding Chapter. 

Commerce and a defire of Conqueft to fecure 
that commerce, feems to have been the motive of 
the ramblings of the Omanites ; as Merchants 
and Traders they called themfelves Aonakim or 
Enakim and Ceananitbim : (y) and the place of 
their rendezvous was named in IrKh, Tocbraj 
Togbra^ or Togr/j ; in Syriac "Un Tagger negoti- 
ari. Tagger, Negotiator, hence Graece -nyyi^ 
Tingir, the celebrated Emporium ' of Africa^ 
i>nJl1D Tugro, Pasnis, commercium. (Bochart.) 
hence Tocar or l^ogar in old Irifli, fignifies a Fed-' 
lar. . 

The Son of our Nemed was named S'tarn^ z 
contradion of Si-tiearna i. e. Dux Navis and the 
Son of Stairn was Siim-*Breac i. e^ Dux Naviam, 
this was the Phaenician Hercules ; (z) he led the 
Nemedians to Greece to Africa and from thence ta 
Spain. Geryonem a (Grseco) Hercule devi&um 
non regnafle in Hifpania circa Gades, fed in Gcx'- 
cia circa Ambraciam (Hecateus) c there were feve-» 
ral Heroes of the name of Hercules ahA the Greeks, 
attributed the exploits of all to one, but our Stint. 
'Breac is the moil ancient of all. In the Sequel 
we (hall (hew that the ancient names of Hercules, 
as a Voyager (a) arc refolvabte into this one of 


(j) Irifli words (ignifying Merchfltnts, Traclers. 

(z) The Sons of Nemed arc faid %o be S aim, Beoan, Earco-, 
lln, Simeon, I take thefe names to have been common to one 

(a) Hercales in the Trifti Hiftory has two Charaflers, that of 
a Navigator and that of a Philoiopher ; at Hercules in Dccidui» 
terra: parti bus, primus Philofophiam inAltuit, fays Cei/r^mts. 



AHcieni Hi/iory of Ireland* 49 

Slim ^Breac (or Dux Navium.) Siim is the plural 
of Si a Ship, compounded with ^y Es a tree, it 
forms Effi or Efs as commonly written in Irifh. 
The Chaldec word is ^^ Si, which fignifies dry^ 
itefs^ (ficcitas,) hence it has been tranflated a de- 
fart or wilderncfs, but ThomafEn proves it to be 
derived from Es, a tree, becaufe the firft boats 
were made of trees. In the Chapter MiUJiusy we 
(hall find the Irifh hiflorians claim a fettlement on 
the Coafl of the Red Sea, at the time Mofes 
paffed through it, they fay, their anccflors were 
at that time entrufled with the command and care 
of the Egyptian Fleet. The divine Hiflorian makes 
no mention of thefe people, but they are recorded 
in all Jewifh traditions. The Author of the 7 2d 
Pfalm, particularly mentions them in the 9th 
Verfe : They that dwell in the C3^«nS (Siim) WiU 
dernefs, or Ships, fhall bow before him. — but, 
Afaph, the Author of the 74th Pfalm, has beauti- 
fully and poetically related the deflruSion of the 
Egyptians and recorded our Siim on the Coafl of 
the Red Sea. Here, Pharaoh is compared to the 
great iifh or Leviathan, which is faid to be fre- 

Hence the Romans named him ^em^^ and Bdius ; the fe-ft, from 
our Siim^ the next from Fad^ .Scieutia ; Fiodh Woods, Letters. 
(See hereafter,) In Gruter we have three infcriptions to Hercules 
under thefe Charafters, Sbmoni, Sanco, Deo, Fid 10, Sat- 
CRUA<, — Sancto, Sanco, Semoni, Deo, Fidio,»Sacrui^,^ 
Sanco, FiDio, Semo-patri.— -— Semo, Sagus, Sangus, Sane- 
nis, idem qui Fidius, five Hercules, Vofs de Idol. p. 46. 
putabant hunc (Fidium) eife Sanftum a Sabina lingua, & Her- 
culem . ab Grceca, (Varro). Propter viam fit facrificium, quod 
ed proficifcendi gratia, Hercult aut Sanco, qui foil icet idem eft 
Deus (Feibis^ hncc ^egthhrsga a Cicy of Old Spain, facred to 
Hercules and I think Saguntum alfo derives from this Name. The 
Egyptians knew him alfo by the name of Sem^ or Som^ and 
Somnoutha. lamblichus. Pan. Mgy. L. a. C. 3. 

D quently 

50 A Vindication (f tbi 

qucntly left upon the Sands of that Sea, by the 
fiadden ebbing of the Tide ; and his Army is liken- 
ed to Tunnv fifh, (I think) they are tranflated 
Dragons, (b) V. 1 3. ** Thou didft divide Ae Sea 
*' by thy ftrength ; thou breakeft the heads of the 
^' drasons in the waters, thou breakeft the bead 
*' of tne Leviathan in pieces and gaveft him to be 
*' meat to the people of &iim :" that is, they were 
devoured by fiihcs, the food of the Siim* The 
queftion is who were the Siim : The Targum ha& 
M^!3^S^ iparchia or aphricia, i. e. duces,, 
our 'Breac or *Barea€^ whence the Greek**' «tf x*'* 
Neptune ; (c) hence the Carthiginians named Af- 
rica npTin Ha Barca : (See Hyde)* 

It is curious to obferve all the opinions on this 
paflkge collated by Pole, but Bocfaait, Abea 
£zra, Gejerus, and Munftcrus, have certainly hit 
on the right meaning. NautoSy vel tranfmarim^ 
Ichthyophagi five illi ad mare Rubrum quo Salo- 
monis pertingebat Imperium, this refers to the 
7zd pfalm, but the 74th fpeaks of a tranfadion 
of a prior date» That the word is moftly ufed for 
a (hip, is, evident, from feveral other pa&iges in 
Scripture, as Numb. 24. 14. — The Siim from the 
Coaft of Chittim. — Ifai* 33. neither ihall gallant Si 

(b) pn Tanin, Draco, CsetiK, Balaena, Serpens, hinc eJnoc, 
Gftll. un TAm^ grand ior pifcis ^ Ponto E'uxino in mare Med it. 
incredibHs agmine fe fe cffundens (Tomaiiln). 

(c) £x Herodoto Nepnmum fcimus Libycum fiiifl*e Deum, 
cujiu nomen«o-' tflpx^V ^^ initio milli ufurpaverunt nifi Libjes. 
Bochart, Oco. Sack. L. 4. C. 29. The i£g^ptians have com- 
mitted the fame miilake in the name Gigon^ given to our Her- 
cules : derived fnom Uig-m^ the Ships proteCtor, whence Tiyctr^ 
necrAinof Oigon, Pataceus, ( Hefycb. ) Paracei funt Dii 
Hioenicum, in tuceiis oavium exculpri, (Herod. L. j. C. 37.) 


Ancmt Hifiory of Ireland* $i 

pa($ thereby^ Sec alfo Dan. 1 1 • 30. £zek. 30* 9. 

Thtk maritime people are again to be found 
ill Canaan, on the Sea Coaft, near Tyre; here 
they are diftinguiihed by Jofhua (and in King$) 
from the Caaaanites, by the name of Marine fe- 
regrinators^ or marine folksj i. e- yf^ mgo JVii^- 
hutb Der : (d) this place was on the Coaft of tne 
Mediterranean (near Tyre) in that lot, that f^ll 
to the half tribe of Manaflfeh : the Canaanites or 
Tyrians drawn thither for the fake of the tradi^ 
carried on by the ifapbuth Dor^ had fo well forti- 
fi4sd it, that Joihua could not take it, " hta the 
^^ Candanites loould diifeli in that land — Yet it came 
*^ to pafs when the Children of Ifrael were waxen 
^^ ftroBg, that they put the Canaanites to tribute^ 
•* but did not utterly drive them out." Jo(h» 
19. II. 

About this time, I think, they muft ^lib have 
fettled at ^tkfan^ a city at the conflux of the Jor- 
dan with the Lake of Cknefereth, where they ^Ifp 
followed their trade of fifliing, and perhaps caqie 
down the Cifin into the Mediterranean. Bjethfan-w^^^ 
known to the Greeks, by the name of Scythop^lis^ 
it is alfo in the half tribe of Manafleh, (e) the 
inhabitants of this City were alfo a terror to the 
Jews, having falcated Chariots, ( f ) fuch as they 

D 2 ufed 

(d) In Hfibrcso habctur Naphoth Dor ve] Naphathdor & 
Ncphatdor, & Dor Naphet, fignificat aut Dor generationem vel 
peregrinationem. (Bonfrerius, Clericus, Brocardus.) 

(c) 2»i;9o<yoA(r Coriarii Urbs, from the Boats of Hides, 
with which they navigated the Sea of Galilee. 

(f) Falcated Chan ts having been ufed .by the Welch Bri- 
tons and* not by the Gauls, is one ftrong argument ufed by Dr. 
Stukely, to prove thofe Britons were Phiaenicians and not of 
GaulUh ^xtrad. The Dr. did not know chat the Scoti the 



52 A Vindication of the 

ufed when in Europe. Jos. C. 19^ ii. ^^ the 
*^ Children of Jofeph faid, the hill is not enourh 
*^ for us : and all the Canaanltes that dwell in the 
^^ land of the Valley, have Chariots of Iron, bodi 
they who are of Bethflian and her towns — and 
Jofhua faid thou {halt drive out the Canaanites 
though they have Iron Chariots,'' eranf bi 
falcati currus^ qui falcibus & gladiis armati homi- 
nes & obvia qusque fecabant & demolebant. 
(Pole. Bonfrerius.) 

Of the fettlement of our Scythians at Bethfan or 
Scvthopolis, we have already treated at large in 
a former work (a), and fliall only here add, that 
at what time they fettled in that city is uncertain ; 
but as Dor or Napbeth Dor^ in the fame territory, 
dcxprefsly declares it to have been ai fettlement of 
maritime wanderers^ fuch as our fouthern Scythians 
were, it is not improbable, that they fettled in 
both places much about the fame time : fome of 
their defcendants remained in Scythopolis in the 
time of Judas Maccabaeus, who died 161 years be- 
fore Chrift. They are plainly diftinguifhed from 
the reft of the Canaanites, as at peace with the 
Jews } — ** from thence they departed to Scytho- 
polis, which lieth 600 furlongs from Jerulalem : 
but, when the Jews that dwelt there, bad tefti- 
fied that the Scythopolians dealt lovingly with 
them, and entreated them kindly in the time of 
their adveriity, they gave them thanks, defiring 



prior inbtbicants of the Ifland tvngtit the ufe of them to the Cim* 
Qierii or Welch Brkona, whom Oefar found in the Ifland. The 
Charioceenof cheold Iriih were famous to tb; arrival of St. 
Patrick. • 

(a) ColleAanea. No. XII. 

" them 

Ancient Hi/hry tf Ireland. 53 

^ them to ht friendly ftill unto them.'' (2d Macca- 
bees, xii. 29.;— And I think the tA/Jifhat^ or lafiviSraf 
of Maccabees, were the defeendants of our Oman- 
ites, removed from the Red Sea, and feated on 
the Mediterranean, near the Dorians. 

Bochart fcems to think, that all the Napbtbu- 
ibim of the Scriptures were Egyptians, defcend- 
ants of Mefraim ; in this number, he includes the 
Icthyophagi & Troglodytae of the Red Sea, with- 
out the lead authority for fo doing : he derives 
the Hebrew TX\rBi Nephthuah from the ^Egyptian 
Neptbyn^ from a paflage in Plutarch ; Niipevr vocant 
terrse extrema & montium abrupta, quas mare at- 
tingunt. Plutarch is fo far right in the word re- 
lating to maritime affairs ; but if the Reader will 
eonfult the Coptic Lexicons of Dr. Woide, or of 
La Croze or Jablonfki, he will find the word is 
derived from the Coptic Nefb a Ship, a word the 
Egyptians borrowed from the Scythians who na- 
vigated their Niobb or Niobhith, i. e. Ships; 
hence Niobb-fanj or Niopb-tan^ (killed in (hip-af- 
fairs, formed the name of Neptune, (b) 

Nephtin. Hoc nomine, juxta toties citatun;L 
Plutatchum, intelligebant ^Egyptii Finem^ Venerenij 
&f Viiforiam (c). Neptunus. Quid dc illo fenf&- 
rint j£gyptii, habemus ex Herodoto in Euterpe* 
^^ Neptuni nomen ab initio non ufurpaifent Pe* 

(b) The Iriih write the word Niob and Naobb» orNaoibh ^ 
the Arabs Nahbua, as before. 

(c) This is a miftake, Neith or Neidh, was Viftpry or the 
God of War : it Is a name well known in Iriih hiftory — but 
Naith or Natb» is 6cientia, Minerva, hence Seanacfai-Nach, 
ikilled in antiquity, formed the forged name of the Phauiician 
Sanchoniatho ; and hence the blunder of the Greciks jn coaking 
Minerra, the Goddefs of Science and qf War« 


54 ^ Vindicaim ^ tie 

lafgi, mfi Afri femper hiihc Deum m honore faa- 
buiflant* Sum .^Egypf ii igituf putant . efle ; fed 
nullo hoQore profequuntun^* (^uaproptcr notnen 
illius i£gyptiis etiam <^bminune^ cujus origincm 
hanc fere fuiiTc puto. Sicuc enim, ut fiipra dud- 
mus, Nefyhtin appellabanc eas ccrrae partes, quae 
mare attingunt : hoc nomine Venerem marinam 
dieam iiittelligentes ; ita porro ex cadem origine 
ihafcultnum nom«n eflFeccrunt Nephton^ fcu Nepb- 
ium^ quo fignificare voluerunt Numen illud litto- 
ribufi praefidens* Pafieruis, in Lexic. ^gypt-He- 

To make the God of the Sea, and the God of 
the Mariners, prefide only over the fea-fhore, was 
Ah indifferent compliment to his divinity-Jhip : but 
in the Scythian and Poeno-Hibernic^an language, 
mt find the real derivation Nlabb-tan^ fldlled in 
ihipi>ing; fynonimous to which is Siim'^Breac^ 
*Bar€'ac or Abrestc^ i. e. Dux navium ;* whence the 
Phaehician N*»D*1BW aparkia or 'aphmkia ; which 
the Greeks, not underftanding the etynHom, or re- 
folvcd to derive every thing from their own lan- 
guage, formed into av -apx^^^ i* e. Neptune, quafi 
^ initio : a name without any meaning for a ma- 
rine Deity, unlefs they alluded to Noah. 

Conformable to our Irifli hiftory^ and to the 
Punic annals in Salluft, the Breber-Afriker of the 
mountains of Barbarv, the inhabitants of that 
country prior to the Moors, fay, that they were the 
remains of the old Numidians and Gaetulians, and 
that they came originally from Arabia, under their 
great leader Mekk-Ifiriki. That is N*»S*10N"D*^n^O 
Melachim Apharikia, i. e. Dux Nautarum. ^^ Som 
*• bliver «u kaldede Breber-Afriker^ og ere af 
** Sabaeernes ftamme, fom med dcres Konge Me- 

*' lek- 

Ancient Hi/hty of Inland. 55 

*^ tek-^iki ere kommc fhi det lykkolige Arabkn 
*« til Africa (d)." 

Synonimouft to Siim Aphrakia^ was the Celtibe* 
rian name of Hercules, viz. Endovecelius^ cor* 
Tupted from the Scythic Anaoi^do-feifily i. e. the 
faibr of the veflel, or (hip ; a name originally Pu'- 
nfc, ^•^DSJ-MITW ana-da-phefil, natator navis, 
from iXM stna, natare, navigio vehi, whence ^3M 
ani, navi$9 Hibcrnic^ Naoi. bsv^ pcfil, (vel phe- 
fil) idem quod ^Q patfal, decorticare ; hinc ^a^nxor, 
Lat. phazelus, navis modicay cujufmodi olim fie- 
bant ex uno arboris trunco dolata & fculpta, vel 
etiam ex cortice, nam ^g, dolare, fculpere. (To- 
maflin.) (e) 

From all which it appears evident, that the voy* 
aging Hercules and Neptune were originally one 
and the fame perfon ; a Scythian of the £uxine 
Sea, who traverfed Afia and Africa, from whence 
he paflfed into Spain, and from thence his de« 
fcendants came to the Britannic Ides* (f) 

Bochart plainly proves that thelk Dorians c&ttii 
to Gaul ; Dorienfes, antiquiorem fequutos Her« 
culem, Oceani locos habitafle confines. Locuft 

(d) Travels of Mr. Hoft, Danifli Conful, to Marbko aod 
Fez. Breber u evidently our Bar-buris. Dux Navii. 

(e) Henct Saxon, Snacca^ Navis genus, apud anriq. Danot 
Snekiay Navis velox, ab j4ni, Navis, & bp Kal, vclox*— (To- 
malfin). The name En//ovecelius is on the moft ancient coins of 
Spain ; it was at length cbrrupted to Endovelicus, as thsCe of 
Hercules was to Goks. See Mufeo de las Medailas defcotiocidai 
Efpan. by De Ijifbnofa,' p. 66. 

(f ) From this Siim Breac, was feriiied the ftory of Btfbrfx 
K. of Spain, of his pafling into Bythinia, and there forming the 
nation called Be-brices, from whom defcended Amycus^ father 
of BtUes I hence the Hebrician Hercules^ ib ftmed in Grecian 
hiftory. See chap. 7. Feniufa Farfa. 


5§ A Vindication of thi 

fSi m Marcellino ; cujus apponam ipfa verba, quia 
maxime ad rem faciunt. " Ambigentes fuper 
originc prima Gallorum fcriptorcs vetcres, notiti- 
am reliquere femiplcnam : Sed poftea Timagenes^ 
.& diligentius Grscus & lingua, qu^ diu funt ig- 
norata collegit ex multiplicibus libris : Cujus fi- 
dem fequuti obfcuritate dimota, eadem diftinSe 
docebimus & apcrte. Aborigines primes in his re- 
gionibus quidam vifos effc firmarunt, Celtas no- 
mine Regis amabilis, & matris ejus vocjabulo Ga- 
latas dittos : ita enim Gallus fermo Graecus appel- 
Jat : alii Dorienfis antiquiorcm fequutos Herculcm 
Decani locos habitaffc confines (i). ThisTima- 
genes, Bochart thinks, was not the Milefian, but ^ 
Syrian mentioned by Plutarch, who extrafted ma- 
ny hiftories from Phasnician and Syrian records ; 
to which he adds, Antiquior ille Hercules non po- 
tell alius elTe ; quam Phaenicins, qui primus, imo 
folus, ufque ad Gades & Oceanum penetravit. 
Graecos enim nemo crediderit voluiiTe fequi barba- 
rum.ducem. Tacco quod Phaenicii aevo nulli fu- 
ere Dorienfes ; Nam Dorienfium pater Dorus & 
Phaenicius ille Hercules pares erant aut fuppares. 
Itaque non puto haec aliter pofle concili^ri, quam 
fi pro Graecis Dorienfibus, Dorienfes e Pbanicia 
intelligas ex urbe maritima Dora vel Dora. 

Stephanus explains all this difficulty, he tells us^ 
that the Greeks called thefc Dori o^ the Phaenici- 
an coaft, Dorites & Dorienfes. Dorus^ urbs Phaeni- 
ces, ut Jofephus & alii ; gentile Dorites ; Paufa- 
nias autem Dorienfes appellat. Bochart then con- 
cludes, An hi Dorienfes Hifpaniae amni Dorio vel 

(f ) MarccIIInus, I. i 5, c. 9. 


Antient Hijiofj rf Ireland. 57 

Durio 8z: Aquitanias Durano, hodi^ Dordonar^ 
nomcn fecerint, viderint peritiores. 

There can be no doubt, I think, but that the 
Don of Gaul and Spain were originally of this 
Scythian colony of the coaft of Phsenicia, and that 
they taught the Tyrians the way to Gades and to 
the Britannic Ides (^g). Bochart is fo clear, that 
•the Phoenician Dorites fettled in Gaul, that he has 
one long chapter, to prove the ancient Gauliih 
language was fimilar in many inftances with the 
Phaenician* Our learned author was not acquaint- 
ed with the Irilh language, or he would not only 
have found all the old Gaulic-Dorian words he there 
xfuotes, ^to have been originally Irifh, but fix hun* 
dred others that he has omitted, all correfponding 
'in letter and fenfe with the Chaldee, Arabic and 
Fhaenician ; but this was not the language of the 
Northern Belgae, or of Gaul in general. 

If then the Dorites from the Phoenician coaft 
found the way to Spain and France, what was to 
)iinderthem from finding the two great iflands of 

Britain and Ireland. 

» ■■ - 

Let us attend to that learned Aftronomer 
Monf. Bailly, L'hifloire ne- commence qu'avec les 
.cites : elle parle du fejour des hommes, & non de 

(g) Con las colonial que hemos referido de Curetes PerfaB, 
Medas, J Armenias, y aOn con otra de Dorienfes, que defpucs 
dirdmos, emprehendio Hercules fu venida a EXpana. Ya vi- 
jmas eomo toda la Antiqueda lo confcila. (Efpana priniicava. 
'Don. Xavicr dc la Huerta.) Tom. i. p. 1 88. 

Aborigines primos in his region ibus quidam viflbs efle 6rma- 
Tunt Celtas nomine Regb amabilis, & mairis ejus vocabulo Ga- 
latas difios : ita eiiim Gallos fermo Graecus appellat. Alii Do- 
rienfes antiquiorem fecutos Herculem Oceani locos babicalTe con- 
iines. (Amm. Marcell. 1. i s-) 


|3 A Vhdhaim if the 

4e \afft% voyages. Lee traces ^ ctt vofag^ tmtt 
6i€ cependent conferv£e8 dans la traditi<m. (h) 

Tbefe Southern Scythiatts br Perfian^, and the 
Doriies, Fotmed feveral colonies and (btttemi&nft 
in their migrations. They were efteemtd pirates 
hy tlie Settled nations, and widi fabmiffion to MokF. 
]ku)ly, we have more than tradition to mark tbeit 
fHi^rafhns and depredatiwu. Ihe Grecian hiftory 
records, that Minos King of Crete, who flouriflied 
S. C% 1406, was the firu Prince who equipped A 
4eet to clear the Grecian coafts and the adjacent 
ides, from the pirates, who abounded in thofe 
days, and were eftecmed an honourable clafs of 
adventurers. (Playfair, p. 87.) The author of 
Efpanna primiiiva, is ftill more clear. Entre Ifts 
naciones Orientales que havia traido en fu compa- 
1^ Hercules a Efpana fueron muchos moradores At 
la cividat de Dora, h Doro, una de las mas cele- 
fatas de la Femcia. Ellos pues accompannaroh a 
Hercules en fu expedicion a Francia, y poblatoti 
en ellas las coftas del Oceaho. Afli lo dexo efcrito 
J images^ y por fu autoridad lo rcpitio Ammiatto 

Thefe people Were afterwards joined in the Me- 
diterranean by Egyptians, Copts, &c. particularly 
after the routing by Nebuchadnezzar, and re- 
mained mailers of thofe feas till the day^ of Pom- 
pey, which We Ihall notice hereafter. 

There is every reafoft to think this expedition of 
Siim Breac from the Euxine fca and laft from Af- 
rica, was the firfl colony in Spain, becaufe the 
mod ancient names of Spain, I mean thofegiven 
it by colonifts, are Irijli ; for example, Tartefs 

0^\ Lettres fur les Scieaces, a Monf. Volcaire. 


Andeni Hi^ry cf Ireland* 59 

i(Tsrtdrul) is fynoaimous to lieris^ or Eher-aoi^ 
that is, tbe diftaat couotry or habitation. SciL 
Tar^ trans, Tefs habitatio, Ck>lonia ; and Sets or 
Sheijb fignify S«des, Colonia, hence Tariefs and 
H^arfheU or Tarfeis arc fynonitnous (i). There- 
fore when the Tydans were (hewn the way to that 
Country, by our Iriib or Scythian Navigators^ they 
tranflated Tartefs into their own Language^ vit. 
^itXXS Eber-Ai, (Irifh Iber-aoi), whence the Latin 
Iberia^ but Tarteflus was the firft name* Sinus 
ultra eft, in eoque Cartcia (vLt quidam putanc) ali- 
quando Tartefius, et quam tranfve^ ex Africa 
Phsniccs habitant. (Pompon. Mela. L 2. c. 6.) 
Tarteffum Hifpasis civitatem quam nunc Tyrii 
mutato nomine Gaddir habent. (Priicianus* 1. 
5. coi. 648.) Salluftius, 1. 2. Biftor. apud Prif- 

Hie Gadir urbs eft difba Tarteflus prius. 

■ ' '■ Gadir liic eft oppidum 

Nam PunicoTum iingua confieptucti locum 
Gadir vocabat ; ipfa Tartejus frius 
Cognominata dl. 

(Avienus, v. 267.) (k) 

(i) Hence manj places in Ireland were named Sets tiima^ 
the chiePs fettleroent or feat, now written Sidemagh. 

(k) Gader and Gades are d liferent names. The ifland was 
called GaJis or Gadas^ that is, the Ship Ifland. The town was 
called Gadir, i. e. Tarteflbs. Gadir in Phaenician and Iriih 
figuifies an inclofure, as Avienus obferres { but I chink it de- 
rives from rnj^ Ghadah, iranfire, and *vy hir, Urhs | and 
hence Gadhir correfponds to Tartefs, i. e. ultima hablcatio. 
Tarteflus ultra columnas Herculeas in qua regnavit Arganthoni- 
»s ; Urbs «tttem eft ad Oceanum magna valdd. ( Hefyehii 
in Gale). Cadhair, Cathair in Irifli has the ikme fignificatioii 
as Gadir, viz. Sepes, Anglicd, a ftzrrow. 


'6o A Vtndkation of ibe 

In like manner did they give the firil name to 
the iilands of Gades, or Gadiz, calling one Cat- 
inisj the Ship Ifland, and the other Artbar aoi^ 
the Ship Ifland, whenc^ Cotinufa and Fry- 
thraa (I). Long or Lonn, a Ship, was another 
name of Cotinttfa or Gadis. De faerte que es la 
Erythia antigua la que oy fe llama I/la del 
Leon (m). 

Gadir prima fretum folida fupereminet arce 
Attollitque caput geminis inferto columnis. 
Hxc Cotinufa prius fuerat fub nomine prifco, 
TarteiTumque dehinc Tyrii dixere colonic 
Barbara quin etiam Gades banc lingua fre- 

Pa&nus quippe locum Gadir vocat undique fep- 


(Avienus Defcn Orbis. v. 6ii.) 

This, I think, muft have been the firil difcovery 
of Spain, by our Southern Scythians, Iberians^ 
or Perfians, from the Euxine fea. The fecond 
vifit paid by thefe navigators to Spain was from 
the Red ISea, a voyage well known in the days of 

(I) Potto in medio fub vefperis columnis 
Extremae Gades apparent hominibus 
Infula e circumflua in (inibiis Oceani. 
' Ibi Vbaenicum hominum genus incolunt, 
Vcncrantes magni Jovis filium Herculcm, 
Atque banc quidetn incolse fub prioribus hominibus 
DidUm hodie Cotinufam^ vocarunt Gades. 

Dionys. Afcr. 

(m) Efpana primitiva. Dan. Xavier de la Huerta. T. i. p. 
194. So Alphm was the Phaenician name of Hercules and of 
Clialpe, from >dVh Alphi^ Navis. 


Ancient Hifltory of Ireland. 61 

Solomon, in whofe reign TarteiTus was called by 
the Jews Tarjis (or Tarihifli, as in our tranflations 
of the Bible.) (o) 

Phasnices praeclpue frequentarunt Gades & of- 
tia amnis TarteiTi, qui idem ac Theodorus & no- 
tiore nomine Bstis, ac Crvitatem TartefTum, quae 
videtur fuiffe Tharfis (Majanfius. Topogr. Hifpa- 
niae, p. aij.) Not to tire my readers with the 
accumulated proofs and learned quotations which 
the beft Spaniih writers have difplayed, in favour 
of this opinion, (fays the ingenious Mr. Carter, in 
bis journey from Gibraltar to Malaga, v. i . p. 
64.) we (hall content ourfelves with briefly ex- 
amining, whether the fituation of this country, 
and its produds, agree with the cargo Solomon's 
fleet brought from Tarfis, and then leave the fads to 
fpeak for themfelves. Mr. Carter then proves that 
Spain abounded in filver and gold, in monkeys and 
peacocks, and he quotes Pliny as a proof that 
the oppofite coaft of Africa was in his days full of 
elephants ; therefore as Tarfis was fo univcrfal a 
mart, it is no way furprifing that they fliould 
be fupplied with plenty of ivory from their neigh- 
bours. But in the preceding chapter we have 
(hewn from Salluft, that the Perfian colony under 
Hercules, or Siim Breac, did a£):ually fettle on 

(o) I could prove, fays Huet, that TarfliHh was likewife a 
general name for all the Weftem coaft of Africa and SfMiin, and 
m particular of that coaft in the vicinity of the mouth of the 
river Guadalquiver, a counti^ fertile in mines of Silver ; but 
thb was not fufficient for the exceilive expences of Solomon. I 
fhall undeniably eftablifli the truth, that the Cape of Good Hope 
was known often frequented and doubled in Solomon's time, and 
lor Unny years after. (Navigation of the ancients by Huet, btih- 
opof Avranchcs.) 


62 A Vinduation ef the 

the coail of Africa near the ocean, from whence 
probably fome removed to Jehuda and Madagas- 
car, where their defcendants are yet to be found ; 
the chief body remamed in Africa, and their de- 
fccndanta are now known by the name of Bre-* 
ber, &c* 

The people of Tarfi3 or Tharfia in Spain, arc 
faid to be defcended from Tharfls, fan of Javan, 
fon of Japhet* Primus Tharfis filius Javan, nepos 
Japhet, ad occidentem venit. (Pedro de Zaragosa 
MSS.) Tharfis a quo Iberi. (Jul. Africaaus ap. 
EufebO 1 harfis ex quo Iberi, qui & Tyrrheni 
(Ph« Labbe.) Tharfis a quo Iberi (Eufeb. in 
Tfaefl) From Tharfis came the Spaniards (Chro-^ 
nic Allex.) (Syncellus in Chronogn) 

I make no doubt but the Aboriginal Spaniards 
were Tharfites. All the patriarchal names in the 
facred icriptures were prophetic ; and this name 
was well adapted to the fon of Javan, and our 
Scythi may have accommodated the name Tar- 
fcis, tp Tharfis. In Ireland there were two tribes 
or clanns named, viz. Cl^mna Bao/cani^ or theBif- 
caynian tribe, and the other Hut Tairfi^ (i. e« 
Tharfii) or the fons of Tharfis. The latter, are 
faid not to be Gadelians^ but to have been the 
Aborigines of Spain, who accompanied the Ga- 
delians to Ireland. What a wonderful coincidence 
of hiftory at fo remote a period ! And 1 am of 
opinion, thefe Tharfites pafled into Africa with, 
our Gadelians or Breberi, after th^ breaking up 
of Hercules'sr army, as defcribed by Salluft. Qui 
in Africam trajeccrunt, crant Therftim^ fays Poly- 
bius. (1. 3. p. 187.) Or they may have been tran- 
fported thither by Siim 'Breac or Hercules, asthe 
Sicanians were to Sicily, from the river Sicamtu 



Jnaimt Hijiwy of Ireland. 63 

in Spaia, as Phili(lu3 (apud Diodor. h 5.) {aitb ; 
and Dionyfius affirms, they were a Spanifli people 
who. fled from the Ligures in Italy ; he nueaas^ 
iays Sir J. Newton, the Ligures, who oppofed Her- 
cules when he returned from his expedition againfl 
Geryon in Spain, and endeavoured to pais the 
Alps out of Gaul into Italy, for Hercules that year 
got into kaly and founded the city Croton. This, 
adds he, was the ^^ptian Hercules who had a 
potent fleet, and in me days of Solomon failed to 
the Straights ; he was called Ogmius by the Gauls,. 
and Nilus by the Egyptians. (Chronol. p. 18 u) 
See Niulj fon of our Fenius. Chap. 7. 

Goropius ventures to affirm, that Andalufia fup- 
plied the Tyrians, Grecians, Carthaginians, and 
Romany fuccef&vely with more gold and filvor 
than the Indies, have farniihed to Old Spain in 
thefe latter days* From Spain mofl probably was 
imported that great quantity of golden cups, in- 
gots, chains, flnelds, vafes, &c. &c. that Old Ire- 
land abounded with, and which are daily found 
in the bogs of this country. 

About 100 years after Solomon, Pharaoh Ne- 
cho manned a fleet with our tSf^s^ Sy am fiim^ 
and fent them from the Red Sea, with orders to 
return by the Mediterranean ; in this voyage they 
fpcnt three years, not from their unfkilful- 
nefs in navigation, I think, but in flopping at 
their colonies in this route, fettling favors and 
comptoirs. When they arrived to the mouth of 
the Streights of Gibraltar, Mr. Carter fuppofcs 
they met with fome Tyrian (hips, who might tell 
them they were in the Mediterranean Sea, and 
near home. This difcovcry I attribute to the infor- 
mation of the firfl colony, their countrymen, un- 

64' A Vindication of the 

der Siim Breac (o). Mr. Carter thinks Solomdn^i^ 
people were not fo enlightened, nor could it be ex- 
pe&ed from them, their voyages being at lead a( 
century anterior to the fettlement of the Tyrians^ 
at Carteia; for Solomon died 975 years bcforef 
Chrift, and the Tyrians did not fettle at Carteia^ 
according to Bochart, till about 896 years before 
Chrift, or 840 according to Eufebius ; then, fay» 
Mr. Carter, they either new-built or re-peopldd 
the city of Tarteflus, dedicating it to their tiitelar 
god Hercules, whence it obtained the name of 
Melcartbus or Melcartbeia^ fignifying the city of 
Hercules in the Phaenician tongue. 

If Mel-carteia fignifies the city of Hercules, 
his name muft have been Mel^ for the latter part 
of the compound muft here fignify the city ; — Mel 
fignifies a failor or navigator, from rfrJD Mc- 
lah, Nauta, Irifli Mellach, Arab. Malah; and 
doubtlefs this was converted by the Greeks to 
MUAON, the name he was known by at Athens (p \ 

(p) Ariftotle does verj pUinlj diftinguifh thefe colonies of 
Spain, but like all other Greek authors ft ill confounds our firft 
fettlen with the Phxnicians or Canaanires, tm: vparts;^ rotv 
foiv/K^r I'v] TflfplMeraav — they fay the firji Phitnicians (which 
he carefully by the word firft) diftingui/lies from thofe, which 
in the following words he ftiles ^o/iDccir t«V )tx7o/x^rW Ta,rar 
If If 9, xc\«f'i4«yci — ^the Phznicians that inhabit Gadir— for this was 
after the 6rft Phznicians made their fuccefsful voyages. 
(Ariftot. Baiil. Edit. p. 5 $3. esiM^our.) 

(q^ Hence Milet the Conftellation of Hercules, before which 
is that of the Harp or Lvra. Miles Septentrionale c(^ notitior 
fubHercul is nomine. The Greeks will have this harp to have 
been made by Mercury, and the Conftellation Miles, they have 
called Thefeus, Thamyris» Orpheus, and I know not what. 
Thefe Conftellations received their names from the Southern 
Scythians, ages before the time of Tliaies, who brought them 
out of Egypt into Greece. " 


Ancient Hiftory tf Ireland, 65 


The learned Gebelin faw plainly that the ancient 
and original Hercules was a navigator and a phi« 
lofopher, and that all his names tended to prore 
this ; yet alleeory got fo much the better of his 
ideas, that this voyarihg hero was the Sun ; we 
ihall redify this miftaKe hereafter ;— -pourquoi eft 
il appelld Tbebainf fays this allego.rift,^«-7%^^^^ 
par example ^toit un mot Oriental qui fignifi- 
oit une Arche^ un rj^02^-— ~mais les Orien* 
taux faiibient voyager le foleil dans un vaiffeau, 
il en etoit Ic pilote. — Le Soleil, Hercule, etoit 
done ^pelld avec raifon dans ce fens le Tbebainj 
c'eft a dire le Navigateur.^'^vx Jrifh hiftory in- 
forms us, that the hero Siim 'Btcac, fon of 'Staim, 
(i. c. Efs'Tiama^ Dux navis, ]113-VX Si-torn) fon 
of Nemed, made an expedition to Greece, and 
from thence carried off a number of veffels and 
barks, probably the veffels of Minos. — Our hero's 
ihip was probably named the Suni or one of the 
Phocean ibips might have that appellation, and 
others were made of wicker covered with bolg or 
cow-hides ;— -the name of tbe Sun in Irifh is Gri^ 
any hence he is called Ogham Grianach ; and 
from this drcumftance arofe the Greek fable of 
carrying off Geryon^s cows. Hence Erythea is 
faid to be the daughter of Geryon ; — ^Erythia in- 
fula Geryonis in Oceano, fie di£ta ab Erythea 
Geryonis filia, ex qua & Mercurio Morax natus 
eft. (Stephanus.) (r) 

E Ni- 

(r) Hercules hxmfelf was mmed Etythruty that u, Artkrach^ 
in Irini, the Navigator^-oo, faj the Greeks, the name was given 
him from a temple which he htid at ErTthrsein Achaia; — the 
God, fays Paufanus^ is upon a Ipind ^iR^ft^ and they fav it was 


66 A Vin^Mim cf tie 

Nimirum Poetac omnium fcriptoraqi ai^^idffi- 
ini, HcrcuUs expedttkuieiii in infolas fortunsitas 
eaitenderunt^ quo ilium Scjpkoj quern a. Spk acce** 
pit, drajedbfe fabulantuc apud ApoUodo^um in Bi- 
bUoihcca, L, A. — And when the Gre<:k3 fet up 
their Hercoleft (for every nation had their Hercu- 
les) their poets could not do left, than %nre out 
. an expedition for him to Tarteflus, to carry off 
our Grian (hip, (or Geryon) and his bo%, or cow- 
hide boats»«^Hence the coxifufion of the two Qer- 
yona, one in Spain and 'One in Grecce.~-In the 
next chapter, we find Slim Breac fcizes on the 
Grecian Aips and carries them offl Geryonis 
rcgnum in continenti fuifle circa Ambrociam & 

Vraught from Tjre into Pbonick bj foi— it wu drawn on ihore 
by a cable ms^de of the hair of the heads of the Erythrvan wo- 
jnen. But from an ancient Greek infcription preiervcd in the 
proceedings of the Etrufcan academy, we find, that the wife of 
Hercules was aUb named Btyiha, The verfe oootaiai fis liaes^ 
and coDcIuftes thus . 

Br^iha de genete Nympharum hoc laciari Iblam, 
Amoris moQumeBQun fub Ago comata. 

Contiene due verfi efametri, con quattro pentametri, cd d m 
fbmma una p^etra del genere di cui parliano, pofhi dalla Nin& 
StytAa^ mtgHe ^Brcjf, ad eflb marito fuo fotto un Faggio. 
VideSagi di DifTert. Acad. Etruf. Tom. a. p. ii6. 

From the Ship being named the Sun, i. e. Grian, he is called 
Ogham-Grianach in Irifh hiflory, and is faid to be Mac Ea- 
lathan or Ealahan, i. e. the fon of the fciences • in Arabic, Ela- 
ht is the Sun; and BU/amtn fignifies the Divines, I^hilofophen, 
and rfiey give this epithet to Socrates, Plato and Ariftotle :— it 
is plain from whence the Greeb borrowed die fable of Hetcules 
tfaeSun. . V . 

' Am- 

jfncknt Hi/ttfry ef Ireland. 6j 

Ainphilochos^ indcqtie Hercalem boves abegiflc 
iUius provinciia Regi Geryoni nomcn fuiife ; prse- 
fertim cum Hifpanorum nemo fit, qui id nomen 
fciat tegibus fuis fuifle, aut tetas in ea provincia 
bores gignj. (Arriasi L. 2.) 

Hence the ftory of Euryftheus obliging the Ore* 
dan Hercules to bring back the cows of Oet^jon 
from the coafts of Iberia. 

^^ It is . fdain, fays the learned authof of 
Efpana Primitiva, that Hercules was neither an 
Egyptian^ Tyrian, or Grecian, The army he led 
to Africa, and thence to Spaiin, was compofed of 
Doriansj Medesj Armenians^ and Per/tans^ i. e. 
Scythians^ as is Well attefted in hiftory. The name 
of his fliip was Apollo, or the San ; the Greeks 
have wrapped this up fo clofe in their mythologi- 
cal fables, it is almoil impoilible to come at the 
truth* Atheneus tells us, that Pherecid^s, de- 
fcribtng the Ocean, fays, that Hercules penetrat- 
ed that quarter, like an arrow ihot from a bow. 
Sol ordered him to ftop : terrified, he obeys. Sol, 
pleafed with this fubmiffion, gave him a patera or 
cup, by which he ftcered his fteeds, in the dark 
nights, through the Ocean, to return again to 
Aurora. In that cup or fcyphus Hercules failed 
to Erythrjca. But Oceanus, to vex him and try 
his ftrength, dafhed with all his might againd the 
patera. Hercules bent his bow, and direded a 
dart at Oceanus, which obliged him to defift ;— 
what does this mean, but that Hercules navigated 
to Spain in a Ihip named the Sun ; and being 
forced into the Ocean by a ftorm, he, by the help 
of the magnet, fteered fafe into port : hence the 
North or Cardinal-point is ftill marked with a 
dart. Maiiy authors have proved the ancients had 

E 2 the 

68 A Vindicatim rf the 

the ufe of the compafs : the properties of the mag- 
net were known to them ; and in honour of the 
difcoverer, it was called the Heraclean ftone, and 
the place abounding with it was named Heraclea. 
Refcrt Stejichorusj Solem in eodem poculo per 
Oceanum navigafle, quo & Hercules trajecerit« 
(Atheneus.)— See 2M0 Macrobius, Belonius, Sal« 
muthus, Bononius, Calieus, &c. 

^^ Hence from patera and poculum, i e. Scy- 
phus, we derive the word veffelj iignifying a ihip^ 
and from Scyphus we form the word fhip. 

*^ From the general conftrudion of thefc vef- 
fels with the hides of animals, come the various 
names of Bulls, Rams, Cows, given to fhips* 
Sunt Lybicae naves, quas Arietes, & Hircas ; ta- 
lem navem verifimile eft, & taurum fuiffe navem, 
qui Europam tranfportavit. (Jul. Pollux.) 

^^ Hence the Cows of the Sun, the^Horfesof 
Achilles ; what were they but fliips ? — ^The Horfes 
of Hedor, loaded with corn and wine, were no 
other than vidualling Ihips (s)» l lie leguas 

(mares) of Diomedes, which paiTed from Thrace 
to Peleponefus and ate human flefii, were armed 
pyrates, as Euftatius has proved. The fame were 
the horfes of Rhefus of Thrace, and the 3000 
nlares of Eri&honius, defcribed by Homer. The 
celebrated horfe of Belerophontes called Pegafus 
was a (hip, as we learn from Palephatus. Belero- 
phontes Phrygius vir erat genere quidem Corin- 

(s) Hence his Phrygian name Ekator^ Domtnut naTis. Eka 
natis; (Ihrc).— £fli in Erfe fignifies a horfc, he has therefore 
been taken for a horfc-breaker by a modem tranflator of Homer, 
Eka is a corruption of the Irifli Uige, the Egyptian Ogoi, Chald 
Dugia i whence the Latin Huc/ia and the prcfcnt HooAa or Hu 
kir oli the Iriih, 


Ancient Hi/hry of Ireland. 69 

thius, bonu.89 pulcherque {atis : hie cam navigium 
fibi preparaflct, maritima circumquaque loca de- 
praedabatur. Nomen autem navss^ Pega/us erat. 
The lame, fays Palephatus, were the horfes of Pe« 
lopes, which the Romans often underftood in 
a literal fenfe, and their poets worked into 

*^ From this mixture of Mythology, Allegory, and 
Theology, arife thofe abfurd fables of the Greeks ; 
and wimout reading a number of authors, not ad- 
mitted at this day m our fchools, it is impoilible 
to underftand the writings of Heiiod and of Ho« 
men Who but an Orientalift can tell, that the 
fliip of Hercules^ called by fome the Apollo^ is th« 
fame name^ Leibte by Atbeneus." 

Leibte is derived from ^n^ lahab, inflammare^ 
whence HDrf? lehabat, inflammatio, an epithet of 
the Sun ; hence pbf^ Albon, Aurora. 

We may now readily account why all mariners 
give the names of animals, not only to their fhips, 
but to rocks and headlands or promontories; 
as, the Stags, the Bull, Cow, Calf Rocks ; the 
promontories of Ram-head, Dog-nofe, Sheep- 
head, Sheep-haven, &c. &c. &c« 

A figurative expreffion of a fimilar nature has 
been ufed by the ancient hiflorians of Ireland* 
When a colony of our Magogian navigators fet- 
tled in Egypt, lands were affigned them on the 
fliore of the Red Sea. Pharaoh embraced this op- 
portunity of manning his fleet with them, and 
afligned. to their care inge Scutba^ i. e. many 
NHISD Sacutha, natatioacs, or Ihips. Our hifto* 
rians converted this paffage to ingean Scatdy that is, 
|iis daughter Scota, and infift that our Niul^ or 

70 ' AViadi{ifHit(if ibt 

CadauUt married the d&ugiiter of the EgTpdaii 
King, (t) 

Thofe very Greeks, who hsnre imppfed on man- 
kind fo mudi by fable, were feniible that the ori* 
ginal Hercules was a Scythian ; and holding tfaefc 
people in the light of barbarians, have forged ^he 
fable of Hercules being the father of that great 
nation, begotten of a mbi^fter, balfowotnan, half- 
ferpent. Monf. Gebelin ftiii fees an allegorical 
meaning of the Sun in this expedition of Hercules 
to Scytfaia* Nous les fefBons vepaioitre fbus leurs^ 
veritable point de vue, nous en allons expliquer 
une^ donjt Hercule tk egalement I'objet, qui le 
prefente coinme ^ant le ' pere des Scydxes, & fur 
laquelle quclques auteur^ fe font ap^iiyis pouc 
faire defcendre r^elletn^nt ce people, de notre He^ 
ros.-**It is fufikient for an allegorift ttrit half a 
dragon or ferpent is enveloped in the ftbry^^-^it is 
immediately a fign of the Zodiaa->r^Hercules hav- 
ing made himfelf mafter of Geryon^s cowSy waa 
the fign of' April ;— 4ie arrives in the ncbth geliU 
morfoniuj this- is the Sun in the fign of Ganc^ in 
the month of June ;— he repofes on the Lion'^ 
fkin ; he is then in the fign of the LioD^ tlu&t is^ 
July ;^^4Hm* hi& wakening be feesi only this uonfter, 
half-woman, faalf-^dragon; half a beautiful <girl^ 
half a ierpent ; — »this i^ Virgo^ in AugQft:;<^-"and 
every one know3 the ferpent was anciently the fign 
of September ;-*-<^by this monfter he bad thre^ 
fons, and thefe are the three lafl montl^ of thg 
year; and the eldeft was called Scytbusj and this 

(t) Niul wfti made Ard-miftiicii Uig-inge, or Semha-Ifm, 
tbat \$^ Oomawad^r of the Fkiet ; \xf Ae JSgfpduA named Ni^ 
orNilui, i. e. Hercules, fays Sir J. Newton. See Chronolog. 


Ancient ISfimry tf Ireland. 71 

is Sagittarius or November r-^-CVft ie moitre de 
la Scythie, foit parceque dans ce terns la on y 
ach€ye fes recoltes ! (u) ^ 

In vain has the learned Eufebius eatclaimedy 
Hercules^ Sol egi non pote/i /^^Ex his, fi ad reliqua 
defcendere lubeat, quicquid ex preecbra phyliolo- 
gia fupereft fimilem in modum facild coargues, 
aideoque homines iftos impudentias jure poftulabis^ 
qui unum euiidemque folem, ut hoc prsecipue fe- 
ligam, non ApolUnem modd» fed etiara Hercu- 
lem & Bacchum & ^fculapium efie ftaiuenint. 
Nam quo modo pater idem fueric fimulque filius 
Apollo, inquam & i£fGuIapius ? Quomddo ipfe a<l 
Ho'cidem traducatur, cum Alcmena matre mor«- 
tali utique muliere natum ipfimet Herculem efle 
fiiteantur i — Quomodo Sol in furorem a&us Ubero$ 
fdos iugularit r— Nam utrumque fan^ Hetculi at- 
tribmtun (w) 

Qui in vaftiffimis illis antiquitatis regionibus 
peragunt, fsepe in Herculem offendunt. £jus la- 
bores qui vulgd 1 2 numerantur, ufque adeo ttinU 
dplicantur apud fcriptoi^es veteres, ut opin^r plus 
50 pofle receirferi. (x) 

An Allegorift finds a ready clue to extricate 
himfelf out of this labyrinth.} the twelve feleded 
labours of Hercules are the twelve figns of the Zo- 

(u) Moof. Gobelin has beeo mifled by the Greek interpreters. 
TheogonuB Hefiodicae interpretes, Herculis nomine folareai in- 
telligunt poteftatem : Geryonem vero, cujos boves ab illo orbi 
te r iurum ilhtas fabwlaiiror, hjememdOe'voliia^ . (L. CaeL.Rho- 
<ligiii«is Left. Antiguar. p. 1 92^ The repofe of Hercules on the 
lion^ flun, was hit refting at the ifiand of Lonn or Loiig, that ai 
Cadb I Long u a fliip, it was the old name of Gadtz. See here- 
•lieT^— Ilk de Leon. 

(w) Eufebius Prsepar Evang.. p. 1 20. 

(x) Montfaucon. 


j% A Vindication rf the 

iliac, one for each month ; and the fifty, taken in 
lump, are figns for the weeks, with pe<>ple who 
did not reckon time by weeks,! 
, The miftake is readily fet to dghts ;-Tra fimila- 
rity in found has caufed all this qonfufictn : In Irifli 
EarC'iuly the Index firmamenti, is an epithet of 
the fun, and fo is Earc-Jbul <m: ^tt/, that is, Oculus . 
ccdi. Earc^ the firmament, tranflated Heaven in 
x>ur Di^onaries, is. the Chaldee y^ rekia, ez«- 
panfio, expanfum, Coelunu Cqelum qupd fiq)er 
juniveifam terram expanfum, ii laminae inftar di- 
duf^um eft. (Schindjerr) Rabb. y^p*) rakia, orbis 
^coeleftis. I^l*» Iriqha, Cortina, yelum-extendens 
jccelum Ny^*)^3 ficut Cortinanu Plahn 1 04. But 
unfortunately for our mythologifts, £r£, or Erk^ 
filj w^s alfo one of the names of the fun in Ara* 
bick, 4nd the Phaenicians honoured that planet 
with the epithet of ^^"^IM or-coll, illuminator om- 
niutn (y) ; tbefe names afforded a fine opening for 
a Grecian mythologift, and Hercules muft be the 
Sun^ whilft in their own dialed, they wrote his 
n^me Hj^AXAiH^, which they derive from Hera^ Ju- 
no, and klesj glory, a ftrong teftiiEiony that they 
knew nothing of his origin. This name they cer- 
tainly borrowed from the Arabs, viz. airek-lij, i. e* 
ns^uta mari$ i in Iriih, Arg-Li^ or Aireap-Li. (9) 
The Greeks having miftaken the Tyrian Her** 
cuies, or Orcbol the Sun, for the voyaging Her* 

• (7) Hn^Iem Solem efle. vel a Sqle oonien ejusy idque Plus- 
oicittm ac quafi bo^^UI orchol, i|l«ftpLtor omoium. Videt^t 
ii N&ccab. Iv. 19^ ao. occurrft. Selden. dc Diis $yr. Syntagm. 
addkaiQ. p. 262, Beteri. 

(z) U, the Sea, the Ocean, Neptune. See Ch. X. Mytho- 


Andeni Uiftpry rf Inland. 73 

culcs, and feeing the .Egyptians paint the Suft 
fometimes in a ihip, at others on a crocodile, ccm- 
eluded that all thefe emblems belonged to our Her- 
cules. Clemens Alexandrinus underftood thele 
emblems in the proper fenfe; L. 5. p. 566. £x 
iEgyptiis alii quidem in navigio ; alii vero fuper 
jcrocodilum, folem pingunt. Significant autem, 
quod Sol per aerem dulcem & humidum ingredi- 
ens, gignit tempus? See alfo lambliduis Panthe* 
on. -ffigypt. Lr 2f Cp I. p. 152, 

Our Scythian or Periian Hercules, the Siim 
Breac of theprefent hiftory, was a voyager, mer- 
chant and philofopher, but moft fkmoiis for the 
latter : Ce beras avoit eie plus ciUbre parfon fga^ 
n)oir que pourfaforce^ hf pour an f aire an grand 

pbthfopbe* (Gebelin.) As a navigator he was 

known to the ancient Irifh by the names of Siim 
Breqcy Du^ Navium, Conductor Navium. Ma^ 
pantty Nauta, Chaldee ^3^3190 Monini, Salfilago, as 
the Hebrew rfTSD Melach, Nauta, Arab. Mahb, 
Iriih Mallach, from TfTQ falivit. (a) 

He was called Carafoir^ from the Iriih Caras^ a 
firft-rate fliip, becaufe made of planks, from snp 
karas, tabula navis, AiTer. hence the.firft naviga* 
tor, Cbryfor of Sanchoniatho, and hence the river 
Chryfus in Spain. 

Hie Chryfus amnis intrat altum gurgitem. (Avi- 
pnus) In mentem mihi venit, an ei nomen dede* 

(a) The Malaytiis probably derive then* name from this root. 
Malaicam linguam, Ihdis plerifque mcelledbim, & vulgo ufurpa- 
tam origincm fuam debere ferunt promifcu^ pifcat9rum colluvlo- 
ni, qui ' ex regiombus fuis. midequaque ed, commtinis arcis fuz 
exerceodse gratia coniluzenint, & N^laecae urbis fundamenta po- 
iiicninr. (piff. Phiiolog. G. Cariiolenfis Amftel. p. 6.) 


74 '^ Vindication of the 

rint Fhasnicei, in honorem Diamkhii fui, qui 
diftos fuh ChryfoTj & navigationis parens habitus 
eft, nt ex Sanchoniathone Philo rcwrt. (Majan- 
fitia Topogr. Hifpanias. ) 

He was called Efs & Mil-ei/s^ if e. Dux Navi- 
um; hence the Romans wrote his name A^s^ 
which caufed Voifius to (ay they had confounded 
Hercules with Aziz or the Tyrian Mars, a name 
•deriycd from tty aziz^ robuftus ; but our voyag- 
ing Scythian was napfied >O^Q^M Ais^es^ homo na- 
TiSy die ihipman. The Sun being denominated 
'jS^TW Or^col by the Tyrians, an ef^thet betoken^ 
ing that fdanet to be Ulujirator omnium^ the Greeks 
fluftook the epithet) for another name of our Scy- 
thian Toyager, viz. tellH Harokely or Erkoly !• c. 
Negotiator; and hence '^diat great confufion in 
indent faiftory of the iirft Hercules, (b) 

Hie ancient Spaniards, like the ancient Irifli, 
fccord the primitive Hercules to have been a na- 
¥%at)or and a philofopher* On the medals of Car- 
tda and of Gadiz^ publiOied by Wlorez^ we find 
him with a trident in his hand, betokehing his na- 
irigadoa in three feas, the Atlantic, Mediterra- 
nean, and Euxine ; wc fee him aftride a dolphin : 
^-*-«n others, he holds the caduceus, and on fome 
the olive or mulberry branch, the emblem of lite- 
rature, converted by the modems into the Apblof^ 
tut or Aero/ioliosy with which the prow of his flup 
was ornamented. 

As a pbilpfopher, he was known to die ancient 
Irifliy by the name pf Ogbam or Oghma^ from ogh 

(b) See Seldea S/nt. Add. p. 26s.. Elcncbus Voc. Hebr. & 
Etrnfc. of Amadutius* p. 6j. The Orienttl Erhl^ tppears co 
be demtd from tbe Irifii or Scythita EaraigA, waros, commo- 
dicici^ mercbandtze. 

a circle. 

Anciani Hf/icry of Ifiland. 75 

a circle, hccaufe he was the inventor dF an alphai* 
bet named Oghaniy formed on five circles, from 
the Iriih Qgh.and tb^ oriental Jim hog, circulus* 
See Plat. i. fig. r. This is called A-B*Gitar Og- 
ham, or Qgham-Craobh (c)^ the branch Ogham ; 
thcfe are Chaldsean names, viz. JTi Gith, Jirues 
ligna forma torcularis. aip Krihh, VotuttUj hence 
Craobh, a twig, becaufe it will bend. 

The cabaliilical Sephir^iA oi the Jews, begmi 
with a circle j under tiiis circle was, Sapicntia, 
Prudentia, Benignitas, &c. lliis circle is named 
•^TO Kether or Cetbcr.~Kethcr, vel prima Sephi* 
rah, eft circulus (d), hence in Irifh Ceiihar or Ke^ 
ibaty a rod, a bundle of rods, and in Cbaldee the 
ifame word fignifies Virgula una V>imftti} caufa no- 
tata^— Apex, virgula, fupcr literas notata ; ■ ■ 
hence ru Gcth, Litira^ ]rt^i Gitban, Ckar^er^ 
JGigura literarum, from ix4ience the Iri0i Abgitar» 

From this Ogham or Bafis, was formed the 
linear Ogham, called Ogbam-Craobh^ conOlUng 
of a perpendicular line, reprefenting the ftem or 
trunk of the tree y on each fide of which the cha- 
mbers are drawn horizontally, as in Pl« L fig. %• 
according to the ancient verfe foUowing : 

(c) Copied from an ancient Irifh MSS. called the Book of 

(d) See Dr. Burnet's learned Archol. Phiiof. C. 8. See alfo 


7$ A flndicaticn of fbf 

Beitb ha haonar dom laimh dcis. 
Luis dis gan eillcis. 

Fearan triur. Sail ceathrar gan chcar. 
Is Nuin con a coigear. 
Huatb na haonar dom laimh clu 
Duirj dis go nddghni. 
&c. &<u &c. 

• * 
That is, 

B one ftrokc on the Right-hand fide ; L two ; 
F three ; Sfour; and N five. 

H one on the Lefuhandy D two, &ۥ &c. (See 
Irifh Grammar. Edit. 2d, o£tav.) 

This perpendicular pofitlon of the Stem or 
Trunk, was altered by the modems to an hori'>» 
srontal pofition, and the ftrokes or chara£bers be-* 
came perpendicular; but they referred to the 
original pofition by calling the under part of the 
Horizontal Line, the Right-hand fide, and the 
upper part, the Left-hand fide. This could be 
done only by drawing the fcheme as in Fig. IL 
-by whicn means the Alphabet, was read from 
Right to Left, according to the Oriental manner^ 
which I apprehend is the true reading of every 
Ogham Infcription of ancient date. 

The Uirceacht na Ngaoii (d) or Primitive in- 
flrudion of Wifdom, commonly called the Primi- 

(d) The name of the moft ancient Grammar of the IriiTi^ 
which appears to contain nothing of the original but the Name. 
It by fap a celebrated Irifh Gnunmarian^ replete with ufelels 
terms, which feem to have been invented rather to puzzle tha^ 
to inftrudt : there is no illuilration of the fenfe, and the explana- 
tion is conceived in terms more difficult than the text. 


Ancient Hi/lcry of Ireland. 77 


mer of the Bards, direfts the reading from left to 
right, according to the examples copied from that 
book at Fig. 3. but this is evidently the work of 
modem bards. 

Hitherto there has been but one Monument dif- 
covered in Ireland with the Ogham infcription at 
Callan Mountain in the County of Clare : (See PL 
I. Fig. 6*) although many are mentioned in 
Irifh MSS. no pains had been taken to difcover 
them ; this one is a fufficient proof of the former 
exiftence of the Character ; until more are difco* 
vered and comparifons made, we muft fufpend 
our judgment of the value of each Charader, be- 
caufe the Book of Ballymote, the only one that 
we have feen, (except the Uiraceacbt) gives many 
ridiculous explanations of the Ogbam^ which all 
vary in the powers of the Chara&er. (See Note 
GG for the accounts of the difcovery of this 

The Strokes or Charaders being drawn hori- 
zontally, refemble the Ukim Alphabet of the Chi- 
nefe, introduced by Fo-bij who according to Monf. 
Bailly was a Scythian, (e) 



(e) Couplet txft^ the firft Chinefe Letters confifted of ftraigfat 
lines, liorizontalJy drawn parallel to one another, and were of 
different lengths and varioufly combined and divided. Martinius 
fays the fame, and they both give feveral (pecimens of the mod 
ancient manner of writing them, Thefe Line-Letters v^re con- 
tained in the fiookcaHed Yekim or Ukim which was thought to 
be older than Hu-kim, and was afcribed to Fo hi ; but no body 
nndertook to eipkin thefe lines before Ven Vang a tributary 
Prince 1 100 Yean B C. Couplet adds, before the time of 
Fo^hi they had knott of Lines, initead of ftraight lines for letters. 
They had aUba fort of letters like the prints of birds feer^ afcri- 


78 A Tindkad»n rf the. . 

One of the Alphabets m the BcxA of Balljmote^ 
is ia the form of Fig. 4, which very mocfa refem* 
l^s the unknown Chara&eri at Perfepoiis* GeUi-* 
us thought thefe Chara£lers related to the Runic, 
but the ingenious Gebelin juftly obrerves, th^re 
is a greater refemblance between the IriAi Ogham 
and the Pcrfepolitan unknown CharB6bers : in 
both, the value or power of the Letters, depends 
on the number of Strokes, or darts, and ia each 
tlic number never exceeds five : the Ogham Cha« 
rader called AmbancM^ compofed of four ftrokes 
croflfed by three others, is alfo to be found on the 
PerfepoUtan Infcription. (f) See Fig. 5. 

Gdielin is followed by the learned Monf. Bail- 
ly, who produces this fimilarity of Charafber, as 
a ftrong proof, of the ancient Periians, having 
defcended from our Southern Scythians, (g) Baitly 
is of opinion they weive numeral Characters. ^^ Les 
uns iff les autres femblent appartenir d une lan^ia 
numerique^ fondiefur Cinq., k n&nbre des doigts de 
la main**' 

The . Ogham fervcd alfo for Mufical Notes, in • 
which cafe, the jiicme A was only ufed ; this^ 
jiicme or Divifion contains the five Vowels only, 
as I. 11. 111. mi. IlilL. ftand for A. O. U. E. I. 
Hence the Vowels were named Guy or Gutb^ i. c. 
the Voice, (Lat. Vocalis), and the Ogham when 

bed hj Kircher to the Emperor Choam Ham. (See Coaplet 
Sciemia Sinenfk Proem. Dedar. p. 38, anfl54| ^ Ma^^in, Sin. 
Hift. L. I . p. 1 4. 

Foil] taught the Chinefe to write by Liaes or Strokes. Jack-^ 
fon*s Chron. p. 434. 

(f) Gebelin. Origine de L*ecriturc. V. a. 

(g) Lettres fur TAdamide, p. 457. x 


Ancient Hiftary of Ireland* 79 

ufed for Mufick^ was called Magh or Modh. (h) 
Gu is the Hebrew nW Gaha, miigire, boare^ 
whence^yD Qojia, cxpirare— imo & Gaha^ eictoU 
tere fe< — Nam vx Hinnitus, ita & Mugitus ac Bo- 
situs, exultamiM^ animallum argumenta funt-~ 
bine r«(io* dej^oro, gemo, mugio. — Syriac^ GiUia^ 
exclamare, hiaa 9^«>fft«» Clamor, Vox, — ^hinc Myj? 
Kaha, Graoce Kijcxi/^A^, Canto.— -hinc nWa Mega- 
he, Mugieos, SonanSy Gr*M(^xKe#> refono* (i) 

The general name of the Ogham, when written 
on the right Line was Fiodh or F^adb^ that is, 
Treesy becaufe the tree was the emblem of Xiitera^ 
ture amongft the Scythians ; hence Hercules or 
Slim Breac, received the name of Fidius : hence 
Rm a tree, and Rus knowledge ; whence Rusm 
tarn the trunk. Club, tree of knowledge, was ano- 
ther name of Hercules ; Rufiam Nomen propr. Viri 
& Pcrfis, Hercules. (GoUus.) 

Feadb which fignifics a Wood, Trees, &c. was 
the expreffive name of the Alphabet, not becaufe 
the ancients wrote on wooden Tables, before the 
invention of Parchment, but becaufe a Tree was 
the emblem of literature, (k) Feadb fignifies a 
BuUrufh, . alfo, which was the ^Egyptian Hiero- 
glyphick of Letters, if we believe Horus Apolio ; 
Plate 2. Fig. 6. To this they added a Sieve ^ be- 
caufe, fays he, a Sieve was made of that Vegeta- 
ble. But, Creathy or Criatb in Irifli, fignifies 

(h) Uiraceacht, 

(i) Thommaflin, GlaiT. Un. Hebr. 

(k) Ipfas literae, Feadha^ i. e. Sylvse, antiquiras diftse fuot f 
& amd pergamcDse ufum Tabulae erant h betulla arbore compla- 
natae quas Oraiun & Taibhie Fileadh, i. e. Tabulas Philofophi- 
cas dicebant. Ogygia. p> 233. - Diflert. on the hidoiy of Ire- 
land, by Mr. O'Conor. 


So A VindkatUn of ibe 

ArtSy Science^ Knowledge, and a Sieve ; Creatacb^ 
a hurdle i. t. Sieve-like, made by weaving the 
branches of trees, as Feadb^ does a Bullrufli and 
Eterature ; now as we find mod of the Hieroglv-* 
phicks^ given by Horus Apollo, to corre(pond in 
the fame manner, in the Iriih Language, and not 
in the Egyptian, or any Oriental dialect, the Sou- 
thern-Scythian^ Iriih, or Perfian, excepted, we 
have given fome examples at Note K, and ex- 
prefled our ideas, that all the Hieroglyphicks gi- 
ven by Horus Apollo, are Scythian and not 
^Egyptian ; and that the Work under that Title, 
is the impofition of fome Greek Philofopherl 
The words of Horus Apollo (p. 47.) are 

Bcdf Ahv>a/\ut >f8^UftA)&'-^Af>iJv1iA Jf yfifJLfJUkltn, 1*11X8 rrec, ir 

<^omodo jEgyptias literas.-— Caeteriim ^gyptias 
Hterasy aut facrum fcribam, aut finem inventes, 
Atramentumy Cribruniy & jfuncum pingunt. To 
which the Commentator adds, -^gyptii ex Junco, 
& Papyro Cribra primi invenerunt» It is more 
probable that the iEgyptian Juncus and Papyrus, 
were the fame, and that neither were originally 
the fymbol qf literature^ as Great in Irifh iignifies 
a Tree, and Crcat-rach a Wildcmefs, whence 
Feadh and Great are fynonimous. 

From Feadh or Fiodhj a Tree, proceeds Foedhy 
Fodhy Knowledge^ Art^ Science, which in the 
Sanfkreet or Brahman languages is written Ved. 
(f and V being commutable,) and from Hercules 
being the inventor of this Feadh or Fiodh he was 
called Fiditis. 

In the Bbaguat'Geeta of the Brahmins, tranflat- 
cd by Mr. Wilkins, and publifhcd by Governor 

Haftings . 

t|«ftillCTJn ;«;fS5» .wic£n4,the ^^gjin of li^'Ve4 

. . ! t , Lcftare ij;^ . .1 

Of Pooroofli-Qttonpa^ . - . -} 

•* Thje-ixicorruptilile b^ing is likened unto th*. 
>rep ^wfUtUy yihoic root -53 above, and .whofc 
^ran^ljf^s are (>clow, ai^d Whptelj^ayes are the F^^^* 
Re who knoweth that, is acqi^auited' W^V .the 
«fj(?rfr. ; j};s Ijraiiches growing from. the thfce Gpop^ 
4or Qji^lities, whofe leffer fhoots are the objeflts of 
t}^ organs qf fenfe, fpread forth fome high, fo0H^ 
low. ^^e. roots which are fpread abroad below, 
in tji^ i^egiojas of mankind, are reftrained by ac- 
tion, itsf form is not to be found here, neither its 
<|K;ginQi^g, npr.i^s enfl, nqr itshkenefs. When a 
•man hadt cut do.wn this Afwatta, whofe root is To 
.fir/nly^fixcd, .with the ftrai> of difmtereft, from 
,tbat time that place is to be (ought frppi ^yhcnce 
^there .i$ ^p retijrn for thpfc who ftnd it': and I 
.39wkc nianifefl: that firft JPoorooJb from "whom is 
, produced the ancient progre^fion of all things.^' 

^' 7herp ^re two kipds of J^ooroojh in the wprld, 
.^he pRe corruptible,, the other incorruptible. 
There is. another Pooroojh moft high, the Paraniat" 
.tna or fupreme foul, y/ho.inhablteth the three regi- 
ons of the world, even the incorruptible EefwarJ^ 

This is evidently a refined Sophiflry of the 
Bi'^hn^ans, on the original emblem of the Scythian 
Tree of knowledge.-^Eefvvar is the Irifli Ao^hear^ 
(pronounced Eefvcar)^ an attribute of the great 
Creator ; it is the Etrufcan £/ir, f h in Irifh pro* 
nounces V j thus fhead, is the Sanlkreet Ved,— 

F * the 

82 A VindieatioH vfibe 

• • • 

theBrahmanick Kteejhna^ an incarnation of thel)e« 
ity, according to their interpretation, is the Irifli 
Crifean^ holy, pure, whence Crifean a Prieft. In 
the fame manner the Irifh Ogh or Oigh a Circle, 
is the Sanikreet To^ ; and there is no wordj fays 
Mr. Wilkins, will bear fo many interpretations as 
this. Its firfl fignification is junftion or union : it 
is alfo . ufed for mental and bodily application : 
but in the Baghavat Gecta, it is generally ufed as 
a theological temi to exprefs the application of the 
mind in fpiritual things, and the performance of 
religious Ceremonies, hence Togee a devout man/' 

In the fame manner the Irifli Ogb a Circle ; 
Ogbj pure, clean, undcfiled, holy : Olghj a Hero: 
Eag^ wifdotti, mental application. Not only in 
this \7ork, but in all other tfanilations and expla- 
nations of the Sanikreet or Brahmanic PhSlofophy 
and Mythology, we find the words correfpond 
with the Irifli, both in letter, in fenfe, and in fome 
places the Irifli gives the explanation, as for ex- 
ample \ Gnea in the Saiiflcreet, is the obje£fc of 
wifdom, but Gnia in Irifli, is Wifdom, Science, 
Learning, becaufe Gnia is a tree, and fynony* 
mous to Feadh, or Ved. 

The Irifli have another Ogham, called Ogham 
Coilly that i^, the Ogham of Mercury, or the Cir- 
cles of Taiti Colly i. c. Taity i. e. Mercurius, fay 
the Old GloiTarirts. In Chaldee the name of Mer- 
cury is D*^VlD Kolis, (1) he was fo called from *?^5 
Col. menfuravit, ^ta Colil, Circulus, Arab. Kil. 
Mekil, menfura, metrum : hence Err-Cuill in 
Irifli, illuft:ris Mercurius, which being confounded 
by the Greeks, with Earrrol the Merchant, gave 
rife to the Greek fable of Hercules difputing the 
tripod with Apollo. 

^ (1} Plasitavit. Lcx.Hebr. 


JfKient Hi/lory of Ireland. 83 

, Irite Ogbdm Coll is not an Alf^abct, as our mo- 
dern Bards have made it, but Circular Scales, for 
the due ordering of the terminating Vowels in 
Verfe, and was originally the fame with the 
^abic Derwyet (m) or Circles given b/ the learned 
Dr. Clark, ih his P,rofodia Arahicay publiflied at 

the end pf Pocock's 'C^rwitfn fV?'"^^ Oxford 1661. 

The Circle thus became the Emblem of Poetry. 

Circulus Poematiis Genus: Ad Anni autem fimili* 

tudinem Poematis etiam genus Circular Sippellatur, 

cujus Ariftoteles Analydicis meminU. (Hieroglyp : 

Hori. ApoUon: p. 412.) 

We refer a mote particular defcription of the 
Og^am, to a future publication, and (ball only 
obferve, (hat our Scythiau Hero, being the fup- 
pofed author of this metifuration Table of Verfe, 
he was called Meajitr^ frokn Meas exa£l meafure- 
ment. Cadence^ whence probably pLSak Mufa.; if 
not from i/cnQ Mofar, Eruditio ; hence the Greeks 
made Hercules, the MufngeUs^ or condudor of 
the Mufes. Abbe Le Fontenu, quotes Diodorus, 
lipcrrites, Paufanias, Ariftotle, Dionyiiius) Hal. 
to prove Hercules was a man of univerfal know- 
ledge, (killed in Theology, Philofophy, Aftrono- 
toy, Poetry, and the Art of Divination, and 
therefore a fit perfon to be honoured with the title 
of Mufagetes (n). 

The Scythian or Iri(h Hercules having voyaged 
into Africa, and ftudied under Egyptian Artifts, 
as our hiftory confefles, might there have learned 
the Rudiments of Literary writing. 1 confefs, 
I am inclined to think that Nemed and his Colony, 

(m) Hence the Irifli Dra^ad a bridge, an Arch, or Circle 
(n) Acad. Bell. Lcttr. T; 7. p. 51. 6a. 

JF 2 were 

S4 AYmdkmian^f the 

were the Pfateiikkm Kiti^ (Shepherds) m tSRcz^ 
nus cdllts theoiy for cbe d^h and tad is called Ajis 
by Maaetho,* and by Afticaiius and ^Eofdbius^ 'he 
is called Archies i but by Syncellus'h): is earned 
Kertusj ^hich I thinkisraeorraptioa^Ci'^^k e. 
Science, another name of oik- Irlfli Hercules. 

The EmKfem or Symbol df Literature, ii^di^iSite 
Irifii is a Tfee, (o) or aSerptot, or both: the 
Tree hds bisen converted to a Club : Ctif// the Itifii 
•name of H^fc^Ues^M^turius^ O^ifies a Club, ^ad 
alfo a tree ; hence vtt £nd on «i the moil aneicm 
medals of Hercules, a Club, a Treo, a Serpent, 
or a Lyre, for he was Ogi^fn^ that is, the Harmo- 
nic Gn-cle, the Hercules Ogmku of the <xank } he 
was the ikt^^im of the iPerfians, hec^\xiit ftus m 
trifli fignrfies a tree and kMwtedge or ^ence. 

The Oliv^lrcc in M(h catted 5re?/-^^, or, S^ 
Of , that is, the Soirus Herctdisy or Berry-beartn^ 
tree of Ogvj, was particulariy dedicated to him : 
hence ihe Greeks made that Tree facred to Mifter- 
va, who Sn lihe Tyrian language was called Oga^ 
not Onga^ with two gamma; as we have prored 
in cbe introdudion ; hence Scol S^e?/ metafpfaori^ 
eally Signified learning, wifttem, pi^udente. *?UD 
iSgoI or Segol in Cbaldee implies, propHeta^, fub- 
ftalitia, propiium, andiitisthe Vowel of three points, 
•■ , becaufelike a Botrus or clufter of Berries, fay 
the Hebrew liexiconirts. ^l Scol is any tree 
bearing Clufters : Heb •^'i32»w Efhcol, botrus \ (p) 
and from i^be fame Root we have ^\t} Scol & 'JilOM 
Efcol intelligentia, ifltclligere & U^XD Scola the 

(o) Particularly the Mulbeny and the Olive— Hercules's 
Club was of the Olive tree. 

(p) The place was caHcd the Erook EJkcd becaufe di the 
Cluften of Grapes. Numben Ch. 13. V. 23. 


Ancient Hjfiory^ of Ireland. 8 j; 

f8une« . VDlUn Eibcol Carmen eruditum^ iOn-^KStJ 
Scal-tana a Mader of Arts. PifQWOi JM^ihcalotb, 
Scientiae. The Rabbins faw plainly this metaphor 
of tLe word Scol ; in tbe Talmud Sot4^ an4 Te^ 
muray we have this explanation, Qui4 ^ft 'ASM 
Elbcpi ? (i, e* quara fie dicitui?) Vir in am omnia 
fiMiy and. Akb was our Scol-Og of Iriih tj^])cule$. 
la Uke. manner r\^\ Sith, the OUve tree». in Iriih 
/SmVA) figjnifies a man of letters ;. it is fynonimQUS 
to. •iTH ^« ZW, fay& SchindUr, wbi^kir w;or4 we 
bave fliewa from Hutchiafon and the Rftbbia^, 
always fignified the tree of Knovile.4g^ in th.Q; Ga^ 
den of Eden ; the word figmfie« Splendop, Qtoii^ 
ia lis proper fenfe« and thus rM Sifik^ is derived 
from \%l bixxy SfJendor, fidgor \ thus CafteUus, 
maka^ )l&tt^ >9 Ef-Shaman, the OUve trqe^ th^ 
Fynw . or Cypreia> (for it is doubtful which)» to 
be yjn ha Dar ; mult^m falloir, nifi ]taitt Samai^ 
hie idem fit quod VIH ha Dar Lev* 23. 4q« Ci- 
iruS) viz. JIV) Targ^ arboi olc^nola 9^ wj^si vqI 
cortice elicitur Oleum Av. 1 • &[ 2)i1&3 (b« Catulv 
fecundum Catub) apud Nehem ; aperte hoc indi* 
cat. Afff HoL a. 5^ See Caftellus at \V3ii Saman* 
Here we have the Olive tree* explained by ^drg 
whence Targum, Explanation^ Interpretation and 
by Caiuby which fignifie^ Writing, but wh»ti$ 
ftiil more» 3M^ Cattab or Kettub, i^ isi name of 
Mercury, the fuppofed Author or invcmtor of 
Letters* . attfO Mercurius qui Scripture pr^seft* 

Gftoth is another name of Hercules in Irifli, 
becauie the word fignifies Wifdom, prudence. 
Letters : it flraifies alfo the Sea } but I doubt 
much if this is the true meaning of the Word« 



86 Jf Vindication dftbe 

for r^i^iT Goit in Egyptian is tht Olive : unlefs 
they borrowed the word from our Mcmedians 
when in Africa, hence Aireach-Gaoth an Epitnet 
of Hercules in Irifc, of which the Greeks fdrmed 
Archegites. ^ 

Hefcuiem primum Oleaftri ramo coronafle. 
Ad Graecos autem ex Hyperboreis ulque ab Her*, 
cule Oleaftri arbbrem tralata memorint/ qui di- 
eantur ultra Boream habitare. (CaeK Rhodiginus* 
LeA* Antiqu. p. 483 : hence I prefume O^bn took 
on him the Harhe Gaut; from the Sui-Goth. 
Goeta, iBnigma : commemorate, invenire, acque- 
rere). See Ihre at Goeta (f ). 

In Montfaucon VoU 2. p. 225, we find a Sym* 
bol of Herades-^Mercurius or as we ihould exprefs 
it in Irifti'of Ogham-Thotb ; it is a Tree converted 
by ttie Greeks into a Club, with the Caduceus 
at top : at bottoni lye fome Sgol or Secol ; ^WH 
(PI. 2. Fig.' I.) Montfaucon thinks them Ears' of 
Corn', and that this Medal was defigned to fignify 
Hercules, Mercury and Ceres ; there is no In« 
fcriptio;i» Scribunt Grseci HercuUs clavam fuifle 
ex Oleallro^ '<\uzm apud Sardonidem is reperiflct 
quinetiam depofitam in Troezehe apud Mercurii 
Statuam quem ^oxiyttft vocant. (Lud. Oocl. Rho- 
diginus. Le£tionum Antiquarum. p. 458.) Oleam 
in Olympic ptahtaffe Hercules oiemoratur. (id. 
ib.) a. a. in the figure'at top are two TTJin Che- 
rut or palm bi'anches, to fignify that I:Krcules was 

t Hnu Vis, Virtus, NW Cogitere MpV Cbnfiliom |nu 
Gichan' Charadler, 6gura rtmruin ruGath-Struas ligtiea quatf 
Tcfert formam torculari* : Angl; to get by heart, ,to forget. So 
Carmen Tronj CTlb Cerem Vinea j the weavi^ig of the branches 
©nc thr6ug!nin6rficr; ... 


Ancient Hifi&ry of Ireland. 87 

themventor of writings for rmn iignilies Sculptaznd 
Ramus Palmse* Hence Ckreat in Iri(h, Art, Science^ 
writing ; and hence one of the names of Hercules 
in Irim is Cbreat, hence the Greek x«f»«o'<^« ^^ 
X«p*i^«r, x^?*>f*^9 x^pAX'^'^p* Latin : • Charader, pro 
Scriptura,' et literis« See Prof. Bayer de Num. 
Heb. Samar. p. 23. Nota; and Buxtorf, Lex. Cald. 
p. 38. 

in the fame Author Vol. i. is a Hercules of 
Tarfus, with a Serpent twifted round a pole fixed 
in the ground; this cannot be the Hydra, fays 
Montfitucon, for Hercules is not in the attitude of 
ftriking it (Pi. 2. fig. 2.) It is not the Hydra, but 
the Symbol of Wiidom, and therefore properly 
aimlied to our Ogha. It is very remarkable that 
this Serpent is the Arms^ of the andesiLt Milefian 
Irifl),* who draw their Origin from this Siim Breac. 
*^ llie AGlefians from the time they firft conquer* 
*^ ed Ireland, down to the Reign of 0Uamh-F6d- 
^ hla made uie of no other Arms of diftinftion in 
^ their Banners than a Serpent twifted round a 
^ Rod, after the example of their Gadelian An- 
^^ ceftors : But in this great Triennial Aflembly 
^ at Tara, it was ordained by Law, that every 
** Nobleman 'and great Officer fhould by the 
** Heralds, have a particular Coat of Arn^s affign- 
*^ ed to him". (Keating's Hifl. of Irelan4> larg^ 
fol. p. 143)- 

In the feoond vol. p. 224* is another Hercules, 
{landing by the Scol-Og, the Olive Tree, or Tree 
of Hercules, the fymbol of Literature ; he holds 
in his left hand a fprig 01: branch of the fame 
tree, and with his right he refts on his club. (PI. 
a. fijg* 3O At the foot of the tree is the lyre, the 
fymbol of Hercules Mufagetes, and . from the 


88 AVtndk^Mrfii^ . 

t^ranchts are fufpei^ ded tw6 Ogfafam^) tha Oghai% 
Oraobfa and the Ogham Cuill» iotmt^ by tfajg 
Greeks into a crown of laurel and Another qF ivyf 
Near bim is an alti)* dedicated to Oghai^ Moal^ 
£njcon docs not tell us Where the monument was 
found, but by the infcription it wdfs Roman. la 
the fame, chapter is another Hercules. MiD&gete(^ 
quejoue afluellemeni de lyre^ who adually is playiiw 
on thjc! lyre, fays Mont&ucon, isi a furprize, for 
lie had juft before told u»^ diat Hercul^ Mufd^ei 
was imported from Greece !to RontQ by Fulvius^ 
who bad placed him with ^e nifie Mufes, as th^ 
proper guardian of &em, bccaufe.of his fgttsilk 
ftf ength. The otiginal bad no fuch i.dea(^ he wa$ 
the aa^bipr of poetry and harmoliy. The imv^ntf. 
or of an Ogham Craobh cfaarafter, which was ufed 
in facf ed writings, and which' at thd fabxe *tifiM 
ferved for miificat notes ^ &iid of am O^^m Coitt 
o!^ ditctdar fcales pf Profodia ; by cafting the eye 
on thfc Oghatn figure, will be teadily difcovere^ 
the origin of the Greek mufical notes^ confiftin^ 
of letters (landing in all dire&ion^^ wcording as* 
th6t aid claiied in our Aicme^^Hbm / 

H • 

C • 

Sec BurAet's exceUent diflcrtation dn the rtiufick 
of tb6 ancients. Iii like manner, our Qghani 
not(ts marked the accfeiits in verfificitiQn^.wbettct 
I thi^k the At abic -word Agbem^ whkb figiiifieii 
the true prohilnctatipn of the vowels in reading 
that Language. Hence Hercules wa^ called Ida, 
not from. Mount Ida, at Oebelin t}ropdi'Iy ob/brres^ 


Aneienf Hijiory of Inland. 89 

but from yY^ iida, fcienrce^ knowledge, i. c« EitL 
iCoiinoitre# (Grebelin^ p. 235. AHcgor. Orient. j 
Hence Emi in Irifli fi^ifies knowledge^ fcience, 
poetry y* muficky aRdEadarmas, the art of invention^ 
In l£ke manner our Philofopher is fometimesf re* 
prefented with three sfj^plcs or oranges, as having 
gathered the fruit of the phHofophic tree. In this 
Ugbt CeAreAus underftands this fable. At Herca* 
les, inQccidaifi tefrss partrbu^,, primus Philofophiam 
tnftitoit. (^m mortuom ab ipfo prognati in 
Deorum mtmero retulerunt. Herculem iftum 
pmgrnit indiitum loco veftis pelle Leonis, elavam 
ferenteixr, ac tria tenentem niaUii quas fabulantur 
cum Draeone tlava occiiTo abftulifTe. Hoc no* 
tant eum mala, ac varia cupiditatis confilia elavam 
hoc eft Pbilofophiae ope vicifle. (Cedren. Aanak) 

In like adtegorical fenfe are the two trees of 
person or Hercules, Which dropped blood and 
milk. A^bores ilUc etiam eSe tradunt, quas nuf* 
jquam aUbi terratum inveniuntur, appellataa autcm 
Geryoiiios, 8b duas taritum efle- Ortae funt autem 
juxta Septslchrum^ quod illi Geryon ftatuerunt, 
ipedem tt. pinu, piceaque cottimixtam habentes, 
fanguinem Vc^5 ftiUare. (Phiioftrat. de Vit. Ap« 
pollon. L 7. c. 19.) 

Strabo, 1. 3. defcribes ihtit trees in a di£ferent 
manner, Gadit^nae vero arbori, & illud innatum 
efle traditor,. quod uno frado ramo lac effluit ; 
quDd fi radlcem aUcind^ris, tninii humor exun* 
dat-^aU alljegcyrical of the tTee> the Iri(h emblem 
of learning, fcience and phUofopby, originally the 
lymbol of our learned Hercules, or Siim Breac. 

To prune the tree, of thd vine, fignified to com- 
pofe a hymn : to Is^eath the pruned branches into 
Ogham or Circles, had the fame ftgnification. 
Hence in Irifh Damh^ a poet, a learned man. 


^o ' A Vtnduaihn rf the 

J)ambaj a poem from the Chaldaic m*T dama^ 
fuccidere, excidere. The Jews altered the firft 
letter of this word into T and wrote it ^fCH Zamar, 
which fignifies to prune the vine, and to fing 
pfalmsy or compofe hymns. Zamar putare, prae- 
cidere vineam. Zemora Palmes. Surculus, Pro* 
pago. Mazmerot Fakes vinitorias. Forfan ex 
Dama^ Succidere, Excidere, D. rel Dalet, verfo 
in Z, vel Zain — hinc Zamar^ Zimmarj piailere. 
Zemir^ Zemira^ ZimrCy Cantus, Cantio* Zammer 
Chald. Cantor, Muficus. Zemara^ Cantio, Mufi* 
ca. MizmcTj Plalmus. Attenditur in his fbr&Oy 
quod in vocibus etiam & cantibus fmt inciiionesy 
ficut in avibus minuritiories. Apud Gallos la 
Taille in utrumque fenfum fle£Utur, five in Vinea, 
five in Mufica ; Hue refer Chaldaicum A^^som^oia 
Pfalterium. Jercm. i. it. i8. ubi Zain pro 
more verfo in D, fit Me^-Dameraia & inde OalK 
nunc Mandore. Nee aliud forfan eft narUif^t 
Pandura, Inftrument;um Muficum: unde apud 
Lampridium Pandurizare^ hoc inftrumento ludere. 
Ab hoc Zamar fit Hifp. Zanibra Saltatio Mauro* 
rum, item Hifp. Zambra Fefte des Mores, Bal, 
Danfe, Ital. Zimaray Aximarre ; GalK Simarre vef* 
lis maenifica cantorum in publico. (Thomaffin. 
Gloff, Univ. Heb.) To which we may add, hence 
the Iri(h Damb/ay and the Engtifli Dance. 

The origin of this fymbol is to be found in Iriih 
documents only. The olive tree and the vine, fa- 
cred to Siim Breac, (the father of letters and of 
poetry and of mufic, the inventor of the Ogham 
tables, for all thefe purpofes) was the emblem of 
literature in general. To {ttune the tree, to weave 
the fmall branches into Ogham j Crowns or Circles, 
fignificd to compofe in verfe, and hence each letter 


Ancient Hiftory of Ireland^ 9 1 

ql[ the Iriih alphabet was denominatad fFom trecs^ 
and fo were thofe of the Samaritan, or Hebrew^ 
and the Chaldaj^c, as we (hall prove hereafter. 

In like manner^ the Irifh or Scythian Curm the 
:vine ; Hebrew Cerem forms the Latin Carmen. A 
Cerem eft etiam Grac. Kp$yu(i», fufpendo, ut fufpen^ 
duntur vites: Hint etiam Carmen^ quod primi 
verfus comici decantati fuerint, in curru vehentQ 
fcenam, vitibus obumbratam. (Thomaflin.)'-* 
The origin of the fymboi was concealed to this 
learned Gloflarift. 

To this let us add the emblematical ufes of 
trees in the ^ripture, Gen. a. v. 9. ^* the JJeim 
made every tree defir able for the infirument ofvi/ionJ* 
What it was they coveted to fee or know, needs no 
explaining, fays Mr. Hutchinfon, for after the 
writing of the law, we find this was an emblematical 
inftitution, mentioned Nehemiah 7. v. 15. They 
Y^ere to live under booths covered with boughs o£ 
the emblematical tree as of Sitb^ the olive and 
))oughs of the tree ]JSio^ (Seman) 0/7, &c. This 
furely could not be the olive tree, and we know of 
no other bearing oil : it muft have been the Dar^ 
Catbub or Mortis^ the emblem of literature, all 
derived from the ti^ee alphabet of the ancient Scy-* 

The next figure is a Hercules playing on the 
lyre, frofn Count Caylus. See his antiquities, 
y. I • p. 47.rrThc figure before mentioned from 
Montfaucon, did not verify it to be Hercules, but 
here the club is to be fecn Iving by his fidc^ 
(PL 2. fig. 4.) 

And in this admirable Antiquary's collcftion, 
v. i.pL 88. is the true Hercules Ogmiits of Gaul, 
fccing a terminus in Bas relief on an urn found at 


92 A Vindication of the 

Sffieronj a ftnall town in Provence. (PI. 2. fig. 5^) 
On one fide he iswreftling with a man, to (hew 
his conquefts and his ftrength^ an^ two Ogham's 
fiipported on a Tripod, feparated the figures. 
Deux couronnes font plac6e8 aSpris du vainqiueur^ 
conune pour raninter fon courage. T|^s may hfive 
been the defign of Ae Roman artift vAo made 
this groupe in Gaul ; but the original idea was 
an Oghasn Oaobb and an Ogham CuiU, as 
Hercules is here reprefented widi the Cadu- 
ceus, an inftrument fnatched from our hero^ 
^d given to Herme» by^ the Greeks; If we 
eonfider the conftrudion of the Caduceas^ we 
ihall find in it every fymbol appertaining to our 
hero. It is deferibed as producixig three leaves 
incited, whence Cooke thixilks it intimates a triple 
perfonality in the Deity. Homer exprefsly catts it 



Xpt/vfiHy Tfi«rMM;^r. The golden three^leafed wand. 

At the extremity of it wai annexed a circle, thft 
Ogham, an emblem of the Hermetic wand, fays 
Cooke — two ferpents entwined the rod, one of 
which, fays Cooke, might reprefent the arts for 
which they were particularly famous, as their mu» 
fie, eloquence, and aftronomical learning. He is 
fpeaking of the Canaanites i but one of theiii at 
lead was diflinguiflied as a feraph, by the expanded 
wings — it is the compleat hieroglyphic of the 
mighty ones (a). The Vings were added from a 
whim of the Greeks, making Hermes a fwift mef- 
fenger of the gods. The Dodor then concludes, 

(a) Dr, Cooke'5 Enquiry into the Patriarchal Relrgion. 

c by 

Ancient Ht/hry of Ireland. ^3 

'by deriving the name Mercury from the Celtic 
mere merchandize, and Z/r, a man, \(^hich is, 
lays he, the true meaning of 73^3!} Canaan, a 
trader. This may be true of Mercury as the Gofli 
of Merchandize, but has nothing to fay to our 
•original Caduceus. Now the very" derivation of 
the' word Caduceus or Ceryciusj ^as originally writ- 
ten, ftlly expliains whence the word is derived^ 
Cerycium eft legatorum ornatum. Alexander ab 
Alexandra. Sane nee dubium, quin btina vox^ 
Graeca originem cepcrit. Neque obftat, quod 

)cwpi/X«7oF VulgO fcribatur per u. A nupvatov i^irur, vol 

potius xu^tfxtoi five xapuxsor dixere latini Caduceum— « 
Voffius— Sec him alfo at Caduca Oliva — ^but the 
Greek word is formed of the Irifh Crocy the fignum 
honoris, the horns of glory, the fame as the He- 
brew ]Tp whence the frifti Ccarn-duais or Kearn- 
duais. Athletic Laurel — fo like wife Kearn-Croc^ 
the honorary reward for an athletic prize. 

Hence Count Caylus, the beft antiquary of this 
age, was much aftonithed to find a Caduceus in 
the hand of Hercuks. Hercule paroit avec le Ca- 
ducee, ce que je n'ai remarque fur aucun autret 
monument & dont je vais me fervir pour expliquer 
un paiTage du Ciceron ; ou TOrateur Romain dc- 
niande a fon amis Atticus,des Hercules — Mercurcsv 
J*avois toujours penft que par cette expreffion, il 
falloit entendre des ftatues d'Hcrcule, fimplement 
terminees en gaiiies : mais on voit par cc monu- 
ment, que ces ftatues renuniflbient de plus let 
fymbples de ces deux divinites. (b) 

Without the affiftance of Irifli documents, this 
muft for ever have been inexplicable toall antiqua- 

Jb) Caylus Antiq. v. 2. p. :ji8. 


^4- ^ Vmdicatim of t^e 

ries. Our Hercules fnatches the honours due t6 
Thoth ; he pretends to the invention of letters and 
6f vcrfc— the fcales for both thcfe arts are honour* 
ed with bis name OgbdnH^yct the Irifli antiquaries 
diftinguifc the cheat, calling the letter Oghani 
iimpiy Ogham-Craobb J siic Ogham of the branch, 
but the other Ogbam-Cui//^ or the Ogham of Tait, 
i, c. Mercury. Cicero mentions a Hercules, the 
fuppofed author of the Phrygian letters. (T. 4. 
p. 434.) Hercules traditur ^gyptius j quern ai- 
unt Phrygias litteras confcripfifle. 

And Ccdfenus confirms our Hercules to have 
been the firft eminent philofopher. At Hercules, 
in Occiduis terra pdrtibusj primus philofophiam in- 
ftituit, quern mortuum ab ipfo prognati in deo- 
rum numero retulcrunt. (Cedr. AnilaL t 16,) 
The learned Monf. Bailly has proved the primitive 
Hercules originated with the Scythians. Ne voila- 
t-il pas encore Hercule dans Scythie, oil ncjus rc- 
trouvons, toutes les originesy executant fes exploits, 
& portant dcs bienfaits furle Caucafe, d'oiiles At- 
lantis font partis, ainfi que le Cults du Soleily & 
ou les Perfcs prennent Icur origine, & commence- 
ment de Icur hiftoire ? (Lettn fur TAtlantide, p. 

Having now anticipated what we had to fay of 
Hercules in the chapter Mythology, we return to 
the old names of Spain, to (hew that no other lan- 
guatje but the Irlfli can explain them ; which we 
think a ftrong prefumptive proof that, the ancient 
Irifh were the firft colonifts of that country. 

.We have (hewn the fignific^tion of the word 
Tar^ 1. e. Trans, extra, whence Tar-tefs and Tar- 
feis. The Turdetani of Spain are in foixie author^ 
called Turduli j thefc are allowed to have been an 


AncitHt Hi/lay 9f ifehmd. 9$ 

ancient cbbny of Pbsnicians., Strabo places them 
about the river Bcetia and Tarteffus. Dutm in 
Irifli fignifies a nation, a people ; l>utai land, re- 
gion, coiuntry* Duile Hgntfies a pleafant country^ 
from duilam to: take pleafare, and is fynonimous 
to JiUai^ hcnct Tar*diftan, the diftant nation ; 
Itar-dmk^ the diftant pleafant country, the Elyfian 
foUU^ Hete. xihy alas^ ketari. . Turditania regio 
Iberiss^ quas etiam Bsetiea vpcatur circa Bsetin 
fluviuniK Incolas TurditaQi & Xurduli. (Ster 

The river Bafis^ was fo called, becaufe ' it divi^ 
ded Turditanta into two equal parts nearly. Bs« 
tican nominarunt Phsnices abamne Baeti qui me- 
diam fecat. (Bochart.) In I/ifli Beith-is, Beith<^ 
as, Beith-ifcc, the middle water j the river that 
-divides into beiib^ twain* 
. Lufi$iam^ was fo called fr<}m its plenty of ber- 
bag£, whereby fo many cattle were fed and multi-> 
plied, that the Romans invented the fable of th^ 
Lufitanian mares br^ding by the wind. In Lufi* 
:tanis juxta £amen Tagum vento eqiias factus con- 
cipere multi audores prodidere,' quae fabulae ex: 
equarum faccunditate & gregum multitudine natae 
funt qui tanti in Callaecia & Lufitania ac tarn per- 
nices vifuntur,: ut non immerito vento ipfo con- 
cepti vidcantur.. (Juftin. 1. 44. c. 3.) Luis or Lus 
in Irifli is herbage, and Tm ^s region or country ; 
Luis'ian therefore fignifies the country abounding 
with herbage. Los in Irifli alfo fignifies the quicK 
growth of herbage. Los^ i. e. Fas^ names extre* 
mely applicable to the foil of Ltifitania. (c) 

(c) nt2;^. Lafad, from Las and Sad, humor^ a SaJ^ toamma 
uber, hence Lat. Luxuria. ItaL Lnflb, LuiTuria lyiD Phous, 
jibundare, ifiulciplicari, augefcere — Lar. fufus, ftivio. EfiWfio 
Gall, profufion. 


^ I 

9^ A ^indicatUn 4f ^ 

The next dtTifion of Spain :wm T^drratan'^ m 
^kh was the city of (^^€iArMr,':iV(here:our.'Irilb 
faiftory profeflredly4€|btle4 a colony, calling than* 
klvti at this day Gl^nna J^aafrannj or . the Biicay- 
Han tribe. Gantabria might be £o oailed.from the 
^Qrfhip particulai^ty -paid *therc to C^init (Jbiih) the 
full moon. Cann^fo-bria the city of Bona Luna. 
Aftures & yafcones in ftnibus Cantabriss jdcebo re- 
beilantes, Wamba edomuit, & fuo ii»pfrio-£zfa^ 
gavit. (d) Civitatem, quee Cariua vocabotur Jk 
PamfUon^m ampliavit, quam Ltmam todtaidt. 
Hence I think this province was called Tir^^ann, 
whcQce Tarracon, unl^fs from the remotenefs of 
the harbour, from Gadir, it was ctiAtii ^ar^Cuan^ 
th^ diftant harbour. 

^adir, fuppofedtO'beib called ''fnym the Punic 
word fignifying an inclofure, Sepes. in lAih iza- 
tair, Gaidir, Gadair, Catair, the •€ being com- 
mutable with <3, aAd D with ^T; it -is ^ now written 
Cathair^ and fignifks an inclofure^ fuch 9s we 
daily me^t with in Ireland, calkd Ratit^ whence 
Mr. Shawe in hi^ MS^ «ind Erfe di&ionary trsp^ates 
Cathair, a barrow^ an -intYenchmetit.i 

Arizs RiYer-— -inter Tagum & ^Baetlm medius 
Lufitaniam a Bsetica dividit. ^Bochart. derives it 
from NDy Ana Symce-Ovis, iniriAi^/Uah j but J 
thmk all the livers thus nan^ed iankeland ^uid 
Spain, were dedicated to Ann or Nanu^ mater de- 
orum, hence Ana— Liflfey, the- mer .that runs 
throtigh Dublin. ' ' ^ • ^ 

Ut, many places in Spain and Irdahd have this 
name it the beginning and ending of words. See 
Grcgor. Majanfius de Hifpania Progenic vocis Ur. 

(4) AYamba only rcftored u to its ancient name. 


Ancient Hiftory of Ireland^ 97 

It fignifies a low ground, whence in Ifaiah, c. 24. 
V. 1 5. it is ufcd for a valley — hodie apud Vafcones 
Irura vallcin fignificat. Hence in Spain Graccb* 
urris, Bit-uris, Calog-urris, £s-uris, Ilac-uris, 
Lacc-urris, Ur-gallium, Ur^efa, Ur-gavo, &c« 
and in Ireland Ur-gair, Ur-na-galla, Baile-Ura» 
Ur-gial, &c. &c. from Uir, a valley^ a fituation 
by the low banks of a river. 

II, begins the ancient name of many towns in 
Spain, which makes Majanfms think, the word 
fignifies a town ; it is the Irifh and Arabic Eile^ 
which fignifies a fettlement, or colony, as £ile- 
0*Carroll, Eile-Uagarty, &c. So in Spain Ucr- 
gavonia, lierdam, Ilipa, &c. 

Of thefe we (halt fpeak more particularly in a 
work on the ancient Topography of Ireland. 

To conclude — It is, I think, pretty clear from 
Strabo, that fome colony of people, remarkable 
for their ikill in navigation and their knowledge of 
letters, difcovered Spain and fettled in it, before 
the Tyrians ; and that thefe mercantile people, be- 
ing fuppUed by the fir ft difcoverers with the preci- 
ous commodities of that country, had fent out 
three expeditions before they found out this great* 
feat of wealth ; the words of Strabo will juftify^ 
what I here af!'ert, and who this firft colony could 
be, but our Neniedians from the Euxine fea, and 
laftly from Africa^ I cannot devife. No hiftory 
lays claim to the difcovery but th^ Iriih, and to 
them, in my opinion, it is juftly due. Strabo, 
I. 3* p. 169. fays, ^^ according to the Gaditanian 
•'' records (preferved it feems in the temple of 
Hercules) being ordered by an oracle to fend a 
colony to the pillars of Hercules, thofe that were 
fent out, being come to the entrance of the 

G " Straights 








98' jI Vindicatian af the 

^^ Straights near Csdpe^ thought this te be the en^ 
^ oi the habitable world j and the fpot where Her- 
cules (our Siiaa Breac) had finiihed his expe* 
dition ; here they hah^d and offered a facri5ce 
(or. obtaining better information : but, the prefa* 
ges being unfavourable^ they returned home : 
being Tent out ^fecond time, they advanced be-» 
yond the Streights to an illand consecrated t6» 
Hercules^ fituate near Onobia^ a city of Iberia, 
^* where they ofiered facri&ces, judging the pillars 
of Hercules had been fixed at this place ; but, 
no go€4 omen appearing, they again returned 
home: being fent out a third time with a fleet, 
they landed in the rfland of Gades, and there 
built a temple at the eaft end of the iflAod) svnd 
a city at the weft." 
Nothing can be more evident, either that the 
Tynans did not find tbcmfelves fufficiently ftrong 
in the two firft expeditions to force a fettlemeait 
amongft our Feinoice^ or that it was fo long after 
the pillars had been ereSed, that the memory of 
them had efcaped tradition. But what had tbet 
difcovery of the very fpot where the pillars ftood, 
io do with tlie gold and filver of Spain, which they 
^undoubtedly were feeking ? It muft therefore hctve 
been for want of fufficient force that made them 
return a fecond time* And when they had madci 
good theif fettloment at Gades, we find a king of 
the Turdiitani, bold enough, to contend with th^ox 
iox the command of the Straights by fca. A kii^g 
of Spain equips a fleet to engage the Tyrians, thfl 
fuppofed firft navigators of the world : the fad ^^ 
yeiated by Macrobsus in his SatumaHa^ lib* i. c« 20* 
^* Theiron, king of the JVIediterranean fide of 
^ Spain, intending to plunder and deftroy. the 

" temple 



Jncient Uijicry, of Ireland. 99 ^ 

^^ tem^ o£ Gades, failed thither with a power.&l't 
^' fleet, which the Pbaenicians (i* e. Tvrians.) ^^^ 
" po£s.d with their IfMxg (hips, and having difpuudx 
ths viflory far a lang^ tin» with. ^<iual' fiipihfi'^^ 
(aeqi^o marte; Theroa's. fleet, ftruck with a pa-^ 
^^ nis tecror turned off on a fudden, and* wa&*con-« 
fumed- by a fire from heaven* Some few q£ 
thd mariiiera who. efcaped' the fire, being takeoi 
up by* the Fhamiciaiu ^Tyrians) declared, than 
*^ their panic proceeded from their ha.Tihg feent 
tcrrihle lions (landing on the prow of the (hip,^ 
and that fuddenly the (Spaniih or ) Iberian (hip$» 
wcne confumed by fier); rays like thofis of the 
fun." Thefe fa£t$ related, no doubt,. Q^igt*- 
nally by the Tyrians, is a eonvincing proof that* 
they were not the firfl? navigators- to Spain y, and it 
needsr no comment to prove, that if the Iberians^ 
w^re able to, equip a fleet to. engage the naciy o£ 
Tyre, they wwe able to {end an, iBvading .fleet toi 
Great Britain and Ireland, prior to the Tyriani 
fettlcment at Gadas. Befides, it waaof the utmoib 
importance to Theron to clear the feas to the 
weftward of thefe troublefome neighbours, for, by) 
having a port at Gades, thdy- intercepted his com^ 
municartion to the Cafliterides. Now, a& w^e hear 
of no more difturbances of this kind after Theron'a 
defeat, it is certain, the two powers entered intq 
aur alliance, and on this account, probably, the; 
IherianSr (hewed the Tyrians the way to the Cafli- 

There is a ftrong fimilarity in Iri(h hiftory tOr 
thi3 account of Theroa's defeat; it is. in the reign 
of D,0tkyij whom the Irifli hifl:orian$ pkce as tow 
down as^ A^no Domini 438. They make him the 
1«^ of the Pagan kingp : — ^it runs, thus^ Datbi,, 

G a i. e. Fea- 

I oo A Vindication of 4he 

u c. Fearadac a ccd ainm. Ocus in tan ro gabh 
righ n*£irinn, do coidh is in domhan fair na heor- 
ba go Hclpa. Ro bhoi tra fear fircn anucht 
.tfleibhe Helpa in tan fm. i . Menia a ainm : boi tor 
daingin dithoghal ag fear Menia, &c. &c. Ar 
tainig Saignen-teineadh do nimh chuige ann fin 
gur rus marbh in righ ann, i. e. Dathi, whofe 
real name was Fearadac ; when he was king of 
Ireland (i. e. Eirin XriHti or *»N'"*13y Iberia,) pof- 
feffed to the weji of the weft to Helpa or Calpe. A 
certain king, cali)ed Menia^ was then building a 
ftrong tower in the bofom of Helpa — the ftory 
goes on to inform us that Dathi befieged the 
place, and was ftruck dead by lightning. Helpa 
has been miftaken by fomc Irifli writers for the 
Alps ; the place here fignified was certainly Alpl 
or Chalpe, i. c. the Ship-hill ; its original name 
was Briarius^ corrupted from Bari-ros^ in IriQi, 
the frtimontory of the jhip. Thus Ros-barcon^ the 
little promontory of the ftiip, in the river Barrow, 
navigable from thence for (hips to the fea. Thus 
alfo what the Scythians firft named Cadas^ Carasj 
Long or Arthrachj that is the Ship Ifland, Gadis ; 
the Tyrians named '^Ef?^^ Alpi, i. e. a (hip. La 
Erythia antigua la que oy fe llama ifla del leon : 
En 'ueneracion de efta Heroina, y de Hercules^ les 
Phenice llamaron Alpha^ fays the learned D. Xa- 
vier, in his hiftory of Spain, fpeaking of Europa 
carried off by a bull, for Alpha fignifies a bull and 
a (hip ; he afterwards proves that the fhip was 
named the bull. 

On the oppofite (bore was Abila^ corrupted 
from Bolo (^AAx»f) or Bologh, a (hip, and thefc 
formed the two pillars of our Hercules. The 
Spaniards now call Abi/a by the name of Ximia^ 


Ancient Hifiary of Ireland. i o i 

which jGgnifies an Ape, and we call it Apes-hill ; 
Ximia is a corruption of Q^^!{ Siimf the plural of 
Si, a (hip. 

It is very remarkable that the ancient Irifh fpeak-^ 
ing of Spain, always ezprefs it by lar-Eorpaj that 
is,, the Weft of the Weft, or Weft of J^uiope. 
The Arabs and the Prophets do the fame, as we 
ihall ihew in a fubfequent chapter. This expreflion 
of the Irifli, fliews plainly, when thpfe names 
were given to Spain, their anceftors were feated 
to the eaftward of it, and gives great room to 
think the affertion we have made ef their blending 
the ancient hiftory of their anceftors, when feated 
in the £aft, with the hiftory of Ireland, is well 
founded. One, out of many examples, I ihall 
quote of their great navigator Ugan-mor^ from the 
annals of the four maftcrs : Anno mundi 4606. 
lar mbeith 40 bliadhann comblan d^Ugoine mot na 
r^b Eireann agur iartba Eorba go biomlan go muir 
Toirrianj do rocbar la Badbbbcadb^ i. e. after Ugm 
the great had been king of Eireann (tranflated 
Ireland) 40 years, and all the we/i of the weft com- 
pleatly to the Tyrrhene fea, be was killed by 
• Badhbhcadh. Thefe paiTages evidently mark the 
tranfa&ion to have happened when they were feated 
in Sicily or fome of the iilands of the Mediterra- 
nean eaftward of Spain, and not when finally fet- 
tled in Ireland. 



■ 1 o i • MVitaimku *f fht 

^ t t \ 



rh dgjctnhmti of the muim WRSIAl* er BCTf THIANS, 
nufdi^M^h SALLUS^r,' FROQ0PI1IS, tO^c 

THE African 'Pyratcs cillcd Tomora'^h are feifl 
toliave harafFed ihiscolowy 6f Ncmcdiansin their 
Wcftern ftttlwncnts, and to have foBpwcd thctn 
to Freffand. 

R £ ICI A k K ^. 

fomoraigh Afrik, Is a gcnerrfl iikme in *FrMh 
IhSftory for -the Carthaginians ; fhe name fignifics 
Murine Heroes or iVincts ; but here 1 take .Fonw* 
rai^ to "imply fliat body of Perjiam, h4k>, ac- 
tr^rdmg to iihe runic annals given tis by SdHtrft, 
-as before recited, did not quit Africa 'witfh tbc 
great.bodycf Ncmedians, l)ut fettled towards the 
ocean. Thcfc people itouki naturally endeavour 
to fcarc thebtmefit of the lucrative trade carried 
on by the colony fettled at Cadiz : and -being as ex- 
pert mariners as their brethren, would endeavour 
alfo to purfue them to the BritiQi ifles, from whence 
a more lucrative trade was eftablifhed by the Spa- 
nifh colonifts. This conjedurc correfponds with 
the following account of thefe people, delivered 
to me by Maj, Tifdal, who received it from Capt. 
Logic, the Englifh conful at Morocco. 

A manu- 

Andent i^hrj iflrHand. 103 

^ A manufcript of a moil ancient date is now 
in the poifeffion of the Emperor of Morocco, de- 
ictihing the peopltr of the province of ^udcm in 
South Barbary. Their features,) complexion, and 
laaguc^c, differ totally from thofe of any other 
people on that continent/* 

'^ Although this mamifcrtpt is fo old, it corref- 
ponds exadly with the charader of the prefent in- 
habitants of mat country/' 

^^ It relates, that a part of thefe people beine 
once opprefled by their Prince, crofled the Medi- 
t^tajHiean into Spain ; from thence they trbvdled 
Nordi^ and found means to provide YdSels from 
thbfe {bores, in which they embarked, and landed 
in a moumainods part of fome of the Britifh ifles. 
At this pre&nt moment the people of ^udan al- 
ways fpeak their own language, (nnlcfs in their 
intercourfe with the Moors) and this language haft 
a great affinity with the Irifh and Welih dia- 

^^ They are red haired, freckled, and in all M- 
fpeds a (Irongcr bodied, and more entaerpriianj^ 
people than the Moor^. Their language is . called 
Shiloagh 4 they wear a checked woollen coverings 
put on in the fame manner as the Uigfalasrdeirs ufu- 
ally wear the Kelt.*' 

^^ They are the greateft travellers, and moft 
Glaring people of the Morocco dominions, and 
condud all the Caravancs. (e) 

(c) Mrs. Logie, the Conful*^ -wife, was a native -of Wale^ 
and informed Maj. Tifdal the underftood many words fpoken 
bj thefe people, «nd fometimi^s whole fentefiCds. 


I04 A Vindication of the 

From the Travels rf G. BOST, Danijb Conful at 
Morocco^ from 1760 to 1768, tranflated from 
bis fVorks publijhed in the Danijb Language j in 

Of the BREBER. 

' '* They who are fatisfied with conjedures^ may 
perhaps derive the primitive inhabitants of Moroc- 
co from Cbam^ fon ot Noah ; becaufe one of the 
provinces is to this day called Chits^ the name of 
Cham's ion : there is alfo a Sebta or Sabta in this 
country, which was the name of Cbuj*s fon, 
but the Moors call the defcendents of thefe old 
inhabitants Breber and Sblab. We fhall pafs 
over thcfc and other fabulous ftories told of Nep^ 
tuniy Atlas ^ Anteusj &c and (ball only obferve, 
that the inhabitants confift of various people, 
who have arrived here from the Eaft, at different 
periods, and who, .by force or intermarriages, 
have thrufl the original, inhabitants to the moun- 
tains ; but at what period and in what order this 
came to pafs, is not eafy to determine. Some- 
thing may be gathered from Salluji and Procopius^ 
which are the mofl circumftantial accounts I have 
met with. The words of Salluft arc thefe, &c. 

** I'he Breber are well grown, tall and lean ; 
they fufFer the hair to grow long behind, and 

(f) See this palTage quoted before. 


Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 105 

ihave the forepart to the top of their heads. A 
kind of Kefeh or Sbirbil conftitutes their drefs ; 
they feldom wear fliirt or breeches. They arc 
light, briik and airy, and handle their fire arms 
with uncommon dexterity, twirling them round in 
the air and catching them as they defcend : their 
muikets are fometimes highly ornamented with 
filver and ivory to the price of fixty or eighty du- 

'^ They live in the mountains in great fquare 
buildings, which commonly contains a family in 
each fide ; the building is generally provided with 
a lofty tower or fpirc, fometimes with two, from 
which they defend themfelves ; and if they fii^ 
the enemy too fi:rong, the alarm is given from the 
tops of the towers, and inftantly they gather from 
all quarters to oppcfe the enemy. They call fuch 
a houfe or barrack Tagmin or Tigmin : (g) thev 
are built of ftone, clay, and lime. Befides thele 
buildings they have many towns, and in thefe re« 
fide the principal Amr-gar.^^ (h) 

" The name of Breber may have been given to 
this mountainous part oTthe country by the Arabs j 
in whofe language Ber fignifies country, and Burr 
or Bureut, a defert ; or it may come from the La- 
tin, Barbaria, or the Greek ^ip^Apor." 

*' The Breber are certainly the old inhabitants 
of the country called Morocco; probably they 
were the ancient Gatulij who were diftinguUhed 
from the Melone Gatuli or Blacks that lived to- 
wards Guinea. The Gatuli fecm to have been 

(g) In Iriih Tcagh ( r Tigh, a houfc j Muin a mountain, 
(h) Amr, or Emir in Irifli, a chict Sec ch. z. Amr-gar 
•r GarCy the head Emir or Chief. 


idS J VSndkMhn tfitbe 

PhilHlinet, Sab^bams Und JE^ypmM^ "At fi»fc 
K>f Gcliab (i) is "wtii knbi^n among them, for lite 
duldren cry out to one Aronger than theinfelvts Sh 
%hting, you are a Gtlmb. Dapper dies Marmol, 
that the Jews of Barbary wwe the ^(t iiibsA)katiTs 
of the Eafterly defatts of Africa, the defcendaiifs 
of the Sabacans, who were coixduded to this 
-fpot from Arabia felix, by ^eir leader Melek^J^' 
rike* (k) The Arabs pronounce it Afrikia, birt 
tiiofe Gaetuli who live in Thigitania^ itfttimdia'and 
Lybia, zvc cz}ied Rr^ber-Xthher/* 

" l^bey dall thettvfclves Amazing K}) w Awa- 
-zirg, perha|>s from M^zTj by whith they %iy 
yidan iEgyptians ; the Moors ^all them promifc4i- 
oufly Br^r or Shitha. In Ihort it ft alttidlim- 
poffibie to get a period knowledge fatf Ihife fteo- 
ptei; the remote and retired fituatiom aS the4r 
^>laCes of abode; their iscal for thdr irdigidft and 
their enmity to -chTiflians, cuts off all cotiti^iiiKi^a- 
tion with us/' 

" The Brcber have a language pectafiw to tbitti- 
fclres. J. Leo calls it Itatnefet iwftead ^ Tama- 
■icir^ti it^'has little or no affinity with ttieMoorfth 
or Arabic ; they now ufe the At^ic charades, 
which they learned of their Mahontedan paftdT^. 
But, whether this language is the old Oatulian, 
Numidian, Pheenician, Turkifli or i£gyptian, or 

(i) Golamh or Gohiv, a'comraon epirfiet in Ireknd for a ftrong 
nmn : this is no proof of their knowledge of rhe fcripnirfcs. 

(k) -KQlOKTr^O Melach-lpharkia, Nautae Dux, pro Melt- 
chim, Nautac, a Salfa fic difti. (ThomafTin.) Iriih Mellacfa, 
a failor, Mil-a-Bhreac, or Siim Breac, as before. Hence 
Africa was known by <he nninc of Barca. (Hyde.) 

{V) Arab, Al-M^szun, Naurae. See before. They write the 
name Amasiing, 

a mix- 

Andent Hi/l^y ^f Jrgland. itsj 

a mixture of all, mud be determined by the 
lesirx>€d« UlhefoUbwing Hft of words I got from 
a learned Talb^ who for many years was Iman in 
'iamenatt, emong the Breber." 

^^ By this lift it will appear, this language has 
not the leaft affinity with the Moorilh. Dr. Shaw 
Jbas givten .^. few words of what he calls the ShaW' 
4ab fpoken b^y the Breber in the Alfgherjke nioun- 
taina ; in this lift i;(re find hand, bread, milk, 
wlute, iron, barley, are ncarfy tlie iame ; but a 
'houfe be calls akham^ the nofe anfern^ &ۥ I^er- 
Jbaps the Shawiab is a dialed of the Lybians and 
Pbaentciam, and the TanuKiing of the old Gae- 

** As to the <ierivation of the name Mauri^ it 
has been obferved, Pliny and Varro call the Pcr- 
iians Farnji^ and the Arabs name them Fars .; but 
-how Faruft could be changed into Marufi^ and 
this again to. Maurij is not eafy to determine. 
• Again» tf we follow Salluft, and fuppofe Mauri 
comes from Medi, it is full as prepoilerous ; nor 
is Bocfaart's oi^inion more probable, in deriving 
;it from the Hebrew Abur^ fignifying Wefl, tho' 
it is true, the Moons call all thofe dw^ling between 
Telem/an and As/^ Morgrebi, that is Weflem, 
and from A^fi to Nun, they are named Stffii and 
the Spaniards call them Algarbes, from Elrgarb 

For this Author's lift of wdrds, fee the end of 
this chapter. 


io8 A Vindication of th€ 

From SHAWS Travels into AFRICA. 

" THE Kabyks of Africa, fays Dr. Shaw, (ia 
his travels through Africa^ from their fituation 
and language, feem to be the only people of thefc 
kingdoms who can bear any relation to the anci- 
ent Africans ; for it is fcarce conceivable but that 
the Carthaginians^ who poffeffed all Africa, muft, 
in confequence of their many conquefts and colo- 
nies, have in fomc meafure introduced their own 
language, of which we have a fpecimen in Plau- 
tus ; and a flill greater change muft it probably 
have fuffered from the' fuccemve admiiEon of the 
Romans, Vandals, &c. into their countries. 
Thus much is certain, that there is no affinity at 
all betwixt what may be fuppofed to be the primi- 
tive words in the Showiah^ (as they call this lan- 
guage at prefent fpoken by the Montagnards) and 
words which convey the fame meaning in the He- 
brew and Arabic tongues.*' (m) 

*• There is alfo a language of the mountaineers 
in S. W. Barbary called Shillah\ differing in fome 
words frond the Showiah ; but the meaning of 
thefe names I could never learn.*' 

For the lift of Showiah words from Shaw^ Sec 
the end. 

(m} Then the Sluwiah cannot be Punic, for that had a great 
feffinirv to the Hebrew. 


Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 1 09 

From the Travels of Mr. JEZREEL JONES into 
Jfrica.publijhedattheendof CKAMBERLAYN's 
Oratio Dominica. 

DissERTATio de Lingua Shilhensk 

jtd ampiyjimum Virum D. Joh, Chamberlaynium, 


NULLUS mereo honorem quern mihi in com- 
municatione laboriofiilims aeque ac uciliflimse 
tuae Orationem Dominicarum colledionis exhibu- 
ifti ; virefque mihi deeffe fentio, infigne hoc Poly- 
glottutn fpecimen epiftola quadam illuftrandi, 
praeprimis cum norim multos viros clariffimos fe* 
licidimo hoc jam peregiffe fucceflu. Tentabo ta- 
men (cum in magnis ct voluiffe fat fit) tuis ut ob- 
fequar impera'.is, aliqua de Shilha vel Tarmazegbt 
lingua hie apponendi, quae ut a me mfeeba in ob- 
fcuris delitefcente pro folita tua humanitate be- 
nigne accipias, obnixe rogo. 

I)iverfaj linguae hujus dantur dialefti in Barba- 
ria, quae ante Arabicam, primariam Mauritai\iae, 
Tingitaniae, et Caefarienfis provinciarum linguam 
ibi obtinuerc, ct hodiernum inter Atlanticorum 
Sih Dara et Rhphean montiiim incolas foliim ex- 
crcentur. Differentia dialedtorum et fermonis, 
inter hos et alios vicinarum provinciarum incoIa$, 
ca primo ftatim auditu judicatur quae eft inter 

. WaU 

I to .A VincUcaiion of ihf 

WalHcam et Hibemicam ; aft, fi fenfus vocum accu- 
rate examinetur, plane alium de iis ferendum eft 
judicium* , Meis auribus lingua ShiWenfis^ cum 
primiiin. iJla^ rcgiones adiremy fonum Wa/IUar-um 
isf Hibernicarum in gutturali pronuntiatiane vocum 
referebant : Sic, cum mihi daftylos offcrrent, di- 
centes " Umz teenf^ (n) [fume daftylos] illos mc 
igne da^^ylos torrere veUe credebam^ cum tamen 
ignis in lingua hac aphougho^ (o) vicino Hifpana- 
TMmfuego^ fignificct. Muiti montium horum in- 
col^y dentibjua reclufis, fibilanteiii Ipqiiiendo^ ede* 
bant fonum : £t cum, per aliquot tempus, in 
Sanfta Cruce (prouti a Luiitanis, qui ante cen- 
tum ct quod excedit anno8, earn impcrio fubjcce- 
rant, appellatur) degiffcm, integram provinciam 
et'diftriSuiu particulariura focietatum hunc fibi- 
landi moduni afFe6tare in veni ; an. ut vixum ati^ 
quem clarifliiBum virtutumque fama pcrcelebrem. 
imitarentur-, an ut fcfe ab aUis tribubu^ et prp- 
vinciis diitinguerent^ ngn conftat. 

Lingua. Sbilhenjis vcl Tama^eght^ pneeter- p^sMii- 
tics Mcflfe,. Hahbs?, et provinciam I>araB vel Dri, 
in plus viginti viget .provinciis regni Sus in Bar<biV«' 
ria Mcridionali^ quae omnes If€ (p) prsdixuqi ha- 

(n) Temjf, i. e daciyLuy the d:at tree.. 

(o) Foigh^ f^^ghy ^'ghy all b^tokeo ^re ;. zs- i^of/iditigauinfp^ 
1. da foivga. teint^ he blazed up the fire. Ic holds \tk all com- 
pounds and fynonima, as fiogha^ burning with anger ; fi^ca^ 
boiled; Jhtc-eac^ burning with \u^ i figh-mhar^ Lfigh-mir^ 
harv«ft i. e. thedividon of they^ar in the hoc feafon ; a^uigk i. 
af^hugh^ ripened with heat; applied ra corn, fruit, &c. hence tbf ' 
\%x\\x focus. But /Wii^ in Iriib implies cold, chillinefs. 

(p) lot., iath^ a diftridt or region, ofcen written in Irifli with 
a (ingle i: — {o alfo, ihhy a tribe or clan» is frequently written. 
in the fame manner, and is always prefixed; as in th* fofegomg- 
examples of tbe^Shilhax 


Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. ^ix 

bent, uti inter Hebraeos fub lege : Ite Benjamin^ 
pro Benjarainitae ; Ite Hivi, pro Hivitse; he; 
Hitti, pro Hittitae ; Ite Jeboz, fxro Jebuzita^ ;. 
fie etiam Ite Ben Omeran ; Ite Mefegeena ; be Otta ; 
be Acbcu ; he Stuckey^ quas ampliilima proirincift 
ex multis famiBis rel Ites^ urbes, villas, muron 
que cinda loca, Federti^ Agadeersy vel Kerria yo-< 
cata, inhabitantibus compofita eft. Noouna^ ban 
bitaculis hujus proviBciae impofita magnam affini-* 
tatem cum aliis Unguis habent : v. g. Kerria Hcs 
braica vox eft pro loco Jearim, Kirriatb Jearini. 
Prope Saffy^ fub 32 kititudinis gradu, datur hu- 
ktfmodi locus Kirriatb Mohamed el Gregy (q). vocar 
tus, u e. Munimen Mobametis Graeci. Turrim 
appellant burjej (r) quod idem eft ac baurgh vel 
horr<iugb\ caftellum Keifarrea^ i. e. Caefaris man^ 
ifonem, (s) vocant« Saepillime diverfitas Knguas 
hujus in fono tantum conttitit, diver ii mode in di-* 
verfis provinciis ufitatd ; et in nonnulUs locis plu- 
limas habent voces rem eandem exprimentes, 
prouti apud Arabes, Royl Infan, Ben Adam vi- 
pum^ Hafian, Lavud, Zamel equum figniiicat^ Za-* 
inel tamen et Lofwot (t) frequenter et in quibufdam 
locis pro Sodomita fumuntur. Multa dantur He* 
braca^ Latina, Graeca, Punica, ac Carthaginen(i<i 
Yocabula in lingua Sbilhenft \ e. g. Ayyel (u) in- 

(q) Cathair MtJwmed ell Gri:gt\ i. e. the city of Mohamed of 
the Grecian fbck, i. e. tribe Kaer, a city. 

(r) Bnrg, a houfe ; hurgaras^ a great houfe ; hruige-Jae^ 
the i^me. 

(s) Caife arns^ caife lajt^ a caftle. 

ft) Zo/. fmful, guilty of heinous crioieSy fproication. Sam-al^ 
4 ple^fant horfe. 

(u) Ail^ beautiful, innocent j ml-bitn^ a fmall ftock of young ; 
AH^lfan, a pe;t, a, darling ; r/Zr/, a deer, hence the Greek elhs, 
a fawn ; sH ft'om the Hebrew aielef, 


1 1 a- A Vindication of ilte 

fantem ct Tayyelt (w) fcrvam in Shilhcnfi ac He- 
braei fignificat, voces tamehhac etiam pro cervo ct 
cerva lumuntur ; et Ayleth Shabar ccrva matuti- 
na in Hebraeo erat^ uti in noftra bibliorum verflonc 
redditur ; Zehbar^ autem, et Shahar, admodum 
fimiles fibi Voces, horam matutinam vel tempus 
auroras apparends, quum mofcharum clerici po- 
pulum ad praeces convocant, (ignificat. Shilhenfis 
populus eundem quern Arabes, Judaei, et Hiber- 
ni habent ritum mortem amicorum deplorandi, 
vociferando (x) wiley ! wiley ! wiley ! wogb ! 
wogh / wogb ! wogh ! mogbt mootogh ! wiley f 
wogh ! terram in ordtne pulfantes, fcalpentes vul- 
turn, et cvellentes crines fuos, dicendott^o^/ woe! 
woe ! woe ! cur mortuus cs ? woe ! woe / Strepi- 
tus fc. hie, fimul ac anima corpus reliquit, affiften- 
tibus vicinis per dimidium horas vel integram ho- 
ram durat; poftmodum dolorofas exclamantes 
cantilenas interogant mortuum, cur, moriendo 
cos reliquerit, optantes ut mors eos potius ex 
hac vita eripuerit, et quod ipfis cum bonis refiduis 
faciendum fit. Et, fi cognatus aliquot menfe» 
poft eos vifitaverit, renovant lamcntationcs, et 
fepulchra mortuorum cum amicis adeunt, quae 
(mendina) civitatem mortuorum eodem quo Judaei 
fub lege nomine appellant. Sed Hebraei illis in re-* 
gionibus degentes Icpulchrum j5«VA^ Hyeem domum 
vel manfionem vivorum j Shilhenfes, diMtcmy fallum 

(w) TailUy wages, one who receives wages, henec the.Greck 
tehs^ veftigal, and the French taille^ a tax, 

(x) BhuiU ! bhuile ! UmiU ! ocli I Qch ! och ! mucht mu» 
chta I bhuile I och f this is the IrilTi cry at this day at a ftne- 
raJ or wake, which in Englifh i^— madnefs ! rage ! defpair I ohf 
oh f my fwollen breaftf defpair ! oh I teiJ/e - tnuchta^ he pe- 
riilied. This is 'he 'wVy nSs of the modern Wel/h, the built 
noidhche [or vttile nte) of the aiicienr lrilT>^ and the buile-iu of 
the modems. 


Anikiii Hyklf .rf JrHmd. 113 

iSbermsB^ . isroltunt cnim Me lo4ic3>ii( > yid Uck^ 
Je&u ^z) dtiabua ti&iifi.lsptgis ^ 3 vd 4 \09gla ; jnu- 
liertis Hiberimanm mdre lUbdrQ^ huB^^i% jcittrmo- 
-ferufflt^ dum Iaboxib\i8 ^fft^etspV P^oti^o^ inftkui 
iermonea \dr cbhfiifioQc UngtiarUfA fif(b)rlpaica 
mei exciditf Ipcfe jcma xnujtis aliis Rabijlskifiis ere- 
debat, Hebrseam linguam lAivviei^^leia t^m lem- 
poris fuiflcy Deumque infinitos nofie modu^ Om- 
iiipotentiam fuam coinmbnfthuidi, ct.Knguam iUam 
in diverfiffimas pro betie-pla6td fuodittl^bsfeper^- 
andi ; ipfe in op^uone verfabatui* artifices* et in- 
Ipcdores opcris bujus*, qxdtate, iippitudine ocu^ 
lorum, €t .morbo guttucali aiii£kO€ ftuflby quon- 
dam furdo8, alios mutos fafbos efle, in fumma 
fpiflTam Catieinem Hot^uh vaporcmquc intelleduiu 
eorum coniudiiTe : alu affinnabant, Dcum totali- 
tcr intelledum ac judicium ipforum privaiTe, ftu-^ 
pidofque fabricatores reddiiTe, pro fumma iildrum 
iupcrbia coelum afccndere tentahte** Sed base 
<J; h ^i^^t^y Nigri ex regno Tombotoo, in Barba-^ ' 

(y) Fallum'iieeni'*waa'iHeit'tin^ i . fattann deanta for meata 
tiin, an inclofure made for the dead, lirerally for rhofe who die 
of iicknefs, i. e. a natural death ; fai, faii, (ignifics an inclofure 
of every kind, as a ting, a bracelet, a rampart i /ar/ *iiiia, a 
pig-ftye ; fail caora^ i , caor-tann^ a fliecp-fold, and hence the 
cnti(h word fold. 

(2) The author refers to that part of the ancient drefs of the 
Irifli called the Philead or Plaid, a large cloak of one piece of 
cloth, wove with variegated ftripes, the ground of which was 
generalty red. It was the Pledoth or Paledoth of the Chaldae- 
tins,, fee note G. at the end of id vol. It was alfb named in 
Jrifti Suanacky in Arabic Semma or SuHa^ the Plaids of the High- 
landers of Scotland. (Richardfon^s Arab. Di£lion.) See Lick- 
fees in the following lift of words. The ftuff of which chefe 
Pillead^s are made, is called Tdr tarty on oriental name 

H riam 


iT4 ^ Vindicatim tf the 

riam vementes, intelKgunt aliarum Nigiitaniac par^ 
tium incolas ; ut m m$QtHgooma eft, quomodd vakg 
fratef ; et fay^wrokiy eft, in bona lalute,. gradas^ 
ago dbi ; / gdctna (a) eft frater, in Shillienfi, ct 
nviitoomoy (b)foroF; yoas^ (c) fiiiui y . yooiltj vd 
wihj filia ; ben (d) et bintj ^lius et filia ;. dadoj 
baba^ pater; ttymnutj mamma^ mater, inShilheik* 
fi et Hebrsei U^gua.*^ 

(a) Cm^ gm^ is kindred^ as in aim-pnadk, i. e. gtm hrwdth 
vel benitA^ generation ; cvm-dhe velgmJe^ the chief of a tribes 
cAwaer^ a fifter in WeJAi, /mgom^ a After in Hunnrian^ i. e» 

Jkiur-gom m Irifli'; hence. the common Iri(h wotq com-an^ i. 
gomafiy feciety, from whence the Latin communio and the Eng- 
liih iommufdan; Irifh eom^aCy a companion, from C9m and aice, 
both fignlfyihgallied in blood. 

(b) Seems to be compounded of jfu//^ and c9m, i. e. allied fagr 

(c) Ua^ any mafe defcendanr, corruptly written a in the kft 
century ; uas, uafal (Arabice aifit) implies iirft bom, nobly de- 

,(d) Ben^ dtufsi^ mama^ are all common m the Irifliai well «s 
in the Hebrew. 



Jnckm. M^kiy tfJtetand, 1 1 5 

■. •;!.' 



• . . . . • 't 



Faom the Authohs bbpohb mentioned. 

• • 9 


THE words do not always agree in offhogra* 
phy; for example, Jones writes^ Cfot^ iox 
ithxtty 8ummo/i^icax[.\ Sutheaji^ fix; 5^7, feven* 
Jones writies the fame words Karad^ Semtis^ Sadis^ 
Sa : Dr« Shaw writes Ahrdm bread, Jones and 
Hoft fpell it Agbroom \ the word begins with the 
letter aittj in both, and bding pointed is^ pro- 
nounced guttural, as gh ; therefore thefe are the 
fame words, pronounced according to the provin- 
cial diale^ls* The Oriehtalift will alfo find many % 
•words are mere corruptions of the Arabick, which ^ 
muft unavoidably happen, from their long inter- 
courfe with the Moors. - 


Showiah. Irish. 

Ahr&m X u ^d ^^^ breads guirm fo§d^ 

Aghroume 3 entertainment ; whence 

Guirme aninn. Quaere ? 

H % 




Afufe, avals, band^ ehpr 
fing af bands 

Agais cbeefe 

Akham a bcu/e 


Akfoume fiejh-nnat 
Aman watir 

Amoukrto mkfUr 

Abel-otrte afod 
Akyth bete 
Allen ibe eye 

Anferne ibe nofe 
Aoude 1 ^, »,^ 

Arica to-morrow 
Afcegas a year 


Bhos, bhus, ahhaife) ibe 
falMif the band 


Acaidh an babitatim 

Soth vffipriffg^ 'fdfii M^s 
lihenefsyfnatcb or equals 
og-flieiih, Arab. Ju- 
hoofb a boy 

Aghfamh, bos teneOus 

Amhan a river^ am an 
t be water 

Mugmibxijlamery, miiir- 
:eacan,'bsiurcbu, mair- 
adsLCh domifmsf Amb. 
moiruttib, mukawim 

Ag ait in ibis place 

ASi-fdc^ bail/iofies ''. 

- J 

£in tbe eye^ AL an Arab* 

An fron 

Greud aftead^ eacha borfe 


Aras a dwelling 

Saigheas an age 


indent Hjflmy. ^ Ireland. 





Sai a Jpace of fimey Ik- 
naunfir fe, fthUdy 


Safcfat rocfy ridge 


B^^tM'dui tmu butter 

j(Uclhbhci| wickedy the de* 

lar the wejt^ fetAmgfim 


Daoine^ iudan, ihiudan, 

Faf;yr ^^ hak oftke bead^ 
the beard 


Awf-kce mUi 
Azfpccm a^JiuHe 

Pahan buttn 

Ijlrkaa tbe offtb 
Snr w^i^f 

Tcufe tbe bead 


Hyke a wooBen blanket^ This is tbe ancient Oighe 
^x yards long and two or Oice of tbe Irijb and 
broad J tbe drefs by day Erfe^ now tolled tbe 
and tbe covering by . Plaid. 
nigbt'i it is a looje but 

Note* Dr. Shaw derive^ this word from the 
Arabic bauk or beiauk to yreaye, (texiit). Hofl: 
calls it Haiien ; they are both of the fame origin 
with the Irifli Oigbe or Oice^ fignifying a web of 
dodi) or any thing woven. Another nam:e for it 


1 18 A Tindicatim ef the 

in Iriih -is Suanach (a), in Arabic Suna^ a gar- 
.ment^ cloth, turban, ia(h, dara, turned by the 
modern ^^Arabs into firrma^ which fignifies a fpe- 
cies of loofe upper garment of the Arabians, fpm^- 
what refembling the Plaid of the Highlanders of 
Scotland (b)^ but the common Irifli name is Fhil' 
leadh or Filleadhj pgnifying a Cllotb ; Ftlkqdh beg 
the littte cloth, i. e. the kelt^ of petticoat, part of 
the bigKland dreJTs : heiice its diminitive FlUag^ z 

. fhawl, ^wr^PR!^^9 ^^^^^^ P^^^ C^) » xhth are aU made 
of a variegated wolleja iluflF called tartan^ in which 
the red colour is predominant : hence the fhale^ 
doth of the Chaldsean foldiers. See note G. The 
wpfd is'd^ved from the Scythian or \x\(h^kadk 
or JilUmy to fold, to plait, to weave : in like man- 
ner the Irifli feol^ pronounced Jhole^ a weaver's 
loom!, a web of clotb^ forms the Perfi^n Jhawly an 
ornament worn by the women on the neck, like 
our handkerchief or kercher ; hence the Perfic cbu^ 
ta, a weaver, in Iriih Jeoladoir ; heiice /eol^ a fail 
(of a fliip), and feoladoirj fignifies a failor alfo ; 
for diftinftion, this word is now not ufed in the 
former fenfe ; and a weaver is named Fighidoi^« 
in Arabic j/Z>tf«/, cloth» 

Showiah. Irish* 

• . • ■ * 

Haken there Ag fm 

Jitta the body Seit a bone^ feiti thejkin 

(a) A'Highlaind plaid, a fleece. 5hawe'i Irifli DiS. 

(b) RichftTdfon's Arab. Di^. 
(e) SbawtfsDia. • : 

Qighe a web, was mjftakeii by the Greeks for Ogh^i . fcienceiy 
iienoe Ogga 'Minerva, or the Graces, was made to prefide ov^r 
weaving. See Ogham^ WoVe defcribed. 


Ancient E^ory rf ireUnd. 


Ilia aiee, bonus^ prudem 

Kabyleah clansy tribes 

Ouly ajheef 

Su9agy bmer-mlk 
Takflicefh a girl 

Kylah the Sun 

Taphoute the fun 

Talla a tree 
Tcg-mcrt a mare 

Alowdah a mare 
Tigenoute Heaven 
Toule the moon 


Eala, prudentia^ fapientia 

^^c a tribe y clan^ colony *y 
kebaile the iUu/hious 
tribe or tkm ; the latter 
word is Iri/hy J£tnifcany 
^nd Chaldaan ; baile is 
Phanician. See Ch. IX* 

Oluidh ajbeep (A^'whence 
olan: or oUan, a Jleece^ 

Suag a mixture of new mUk 
and butter-milk 

The feminine of Akfheelh 
a boy* Sec it. The T 
pr^xed tofemininesy is 
the Irifh Tcjhe 

Keal the Heavens^ unlefs 
from Got! fttpremusypo* 

An epithet y Tc-bot or Tc- 
• bhot, intenfe beat 

Abafta arborarius 

Eac a horfey marc thefame^ 
T feminine prefixed 

Al-oidea a female horfe 


Cilcy giealacli 

(d) Shawe in iiis Iriih Diift. by mklate calb it t €ow« 



A VhdUatidff €ffb9 

Thamatooth if tfw^Maxi 

Tharect the feci 
Thaulah a fever 
Tfaegaacc dates 
Themzee barkf 

Uudmis the face 

A|Bh a ferfinh ^ man} 
tot a womoMj ttnth toe 
feminine T thamhatot 

Truit the foot 

TcUeadh, tohhxii^Jick 


Tuin-yia$ c(nm ioitb fmfiy 

Bad, aodan, Perfic^ adiu^ 

Tethra^ i^Jiarj a planet lathra moving in fireks 

§ - . ■ * • 

Yibownc beans Bonar 


Itch eat Itfa 

Ifua drink Sugb^ 

Ikcr rife JEirig 

SIUM yOCIJM. J. Tones. 

Azgar a cow 

Awin tbe eye 

Aphoofe tbe hand 

Aram a camel 

Afcra a dry am 

Ein, ainn 


Eirim to ride 



Ayeefe a Imrfe 

Boo^^Iorje n lame man 
Bezeph mulium 
Ben afon 
fierr land 

^bunfur the nofi 

Aftnifa Hifi^ry rf Ir^hmd. i%% 

Eifgy as cuill-eifg, e^uu 
lentusj gne-cifg icL 



Arab, bur, Ir. barr. mouu^ 

?r Cuithc a trench made bf 
the plow 

Chomar. an fron. See the 

Daddahy Azddz^ father Daid, gaid 

puny ifan 3 ^ ^ 
Eemough the mouth 
£l-chottum a ring 

Caghfkn 1 Heads 
£aghp9i ) a Head 

EUummur tf n^ //, a peg Seama 

EUpdiaa aferpent Buafa 

Erby, god 

Dana^dandba, don, donad 
Honz-cilhL^j feeking vice 

lomogh the mouthy the teeth 

Cuit a periphery^ CuidhaU 
a wheels EL prq>. Arab. 

Eifeachd a head 

Ei-goomena a cord 

Earba fupreme power ^ 
command^ Oirbidin ve- 
neration^ honour ; Orb- 
huid an old name if the 
Sun^ Qu^re ? 



A Tindifiam cf the 


Teeny the diEM-tne^ 
Timfgeeda a cbufcb^ a Tiomfug^h 


Tamazeght a frtxiamce 
Urkub the neck 

Urgas a num^ berw 
Teafer^ much 
Yg]cdy poor 9 innocent 

Yrooa^tfot/, hme/i 



Arcub the pmp orJUmmk 
of the b.9d% 

See Erge? ul the Showiali 


Glc-glc, glc Uomijit f$^ 
is my lot 

AVra, ion-ruicb,! di-feach^ 

From the Travels of G. Host, Danish CteKsuL 

at Marocco. (e) 

SfliLHA or Breber. 
Aiur the moon 

Azal day 



Solus Ugbt'j fol, afol, a 
round ball tbrown into 
the air in honour of the 

(e) Efterretningcr om Marokos og Fes, famledc dcr i Lan- 
denc fht 1 760 tii 1 766, of G. Hoft, Koiigl. Majeft, uirkelig 


Ancient mftarj (f Ireland. 


Shilha ^Brbber. 
a foiverful king 

Amragar a prince 


Tamergart a queen 

Aram a camel 
Taramt ajhe camel 

Albs a b^rfe 

Azgsii abuU 

Argiul an afs 

Aid a dig 
7aidit n Ufcb 

Aghaio a bead 

Ami tbemofUtb 

Adad a finger 

Admar the breq/l 


Adarar, a roci, a moun* 

Argrum, tread 

Aman a ribband 

Adhil grafe^ 

Aichiladh powerful 

Amra, emir. See Cb. F 
Jab. Feniu9. Gart, 
bead, . cbief 

T feminine prefixed 

See tbe preceding ti^ 

b is tbe Arab, aib 

Ois-gart a ram, afcra # 
dry cm) 

Arab* Air, Kulj 


Agha, aighe, bigb^fupreme 



Aidme a gorget 


Ard. Arab, adar 

Qmrmfood^entertaimnent ; 
whence Guirme an inn. 
See before 

Mami a band^ meann a 
baop, a rib 

Arab, iiid ; whence tbe 
Irijb Udhball an apple 


126 A VindUatkn of the 

Shilha or Breber. Irish. 

. Andbijiale butter Aodhoid 

Abaunbeam Bonar 

Afitu a batcbet Feacba 

A(h kad come bitber Tar ais come back 

Amdaknim tbou art my Madaighni * 

Afnargt / know Atnuighim 

Agfa! milk Aghfiadhyo^^ (f the cow 

Enchar the nofe See Anfern, before 

Emgart the tbroat Arab, gurden 

Gen, ken, to repofe Connaoi repofe 

GzMxJit down Eagaram to fit down in or-^ 


Igna Heaven Eagnas atmnfpbere 

Itrcnjiars Ran 

Materit what do you cboofe Ca tu airead 

» ■ 

Matfergelt welcome Maitheas oirchiolt, boun^ 

teous donation 

Med tckit from whence Cread as tcighit* 
came you 

Rgilem iafkom . he comes Gioladh go fkeln be comes 
Jiraight bouncing along 

Sadamar to /peak So domairadh tofpeak ci- 


Tolas a markf Jign Tallam to cut, to notch . 



Srilha or Bkbbsr. Irish. 

Tafoght the Sun Te foight darting beat 

Tuifchi Jetting /un 

Tefnaft a cow 
Targt a goat 

Tit tbe eye 
Tamart a beard 

Tamzit land 
Tanaut ajhip 
Tagimi a houfe 
Takiet an ounce 
Tadhut wool 

Telur wax 
TsLZCtpride^ envy 
Teilintit lentils 

Tcrkcm roots 
Urerg gold 
Urt a garden 

Taifb concealed^ feafcar 

Arab. Akhnos 

Tairg tbat will not berd or 
Jlock\ fo ois ajbeepy be-' 
caufe it flocks 

Tditligbtjplendor; wbence 
Tithin tbe Sun 

Tom-art tbe bufby rwtb or 

See Tamazeght a province 

Tain-ait water-babitation. 


Taic a given quantity 

TzoA^bin wool-yam^ Ar. 
Jua^ut wool 




Taiile tbe Linden tree^ 
tailly a bunch 

Arab. Yrkim 

Oirghcy Ur 

Ghorty Sclavonic^ Vert. 

There is certainly a great affinity between many 
of the words of the Sbowiab and Sbilba and of 


the Irijhj yet ihe languages aue very difibneii: ;, t 
mean the l«ilg^g^ spoken by tbe mountameeni 
of Africa at this day, and that of the Irifli : the 
pronouns, infie±ion$ of nouns, and conjugations 
of verbs, have iio affinity with the Irifli, yet there 
is great reaibn to wtbiBk, the languages were oQCi^ 
the fame ; at leaO;, that the ancient Scythians, ot 
Periians, were the inhabitants of that country: 
We have fliewn that Togra^ the ancient name of 
Tangier J is Irifli ; this is iituated at one extremity 
of the mountains inhabited by thefe Shittia or Btoe^ 
ber : at the other extremity is Mount Atlas for- 
merly called Byrim* Extra Columnarum fretum 
procedenti, ita ut ad fmiftram fit Africa, Mons 
eft, quern Graeci Atlantem (Atlas) nominant, bar- 
bari Dyrrm. (Strabo, L. 17.) Direme in Irifli 
Signifies htpf^^ky a^ Ath-Ios^ the fiiarp, or co- 
nical point, and this mountain was remarkable for 
both. Bochart derives Dyteme from the I%denician 
Addir^ %^^?it or ipigky ; Dr. Shawe from the He- 
bccw Derom fouth j neither of thefe correfpond 
with the defcription of the ancient Geographers : 
it was fteep and inacceilible* Mons nomine Atlas, 
qui anguftus & ufidique teres efl:. (Herodotus.) 
And then he adds, & adeo celfus (ut fertur) ut eju^ 
cacumen nequeat cerni, quod a nubibus nunquaih 
rclinquatur, nequc seftatc neque hycme : quern 
efTe colunmam .cceli indigense aiunt. Ab hoc 
monte cognominantur (Atlantes fcil.) hi homines* 
This defcription of Herodotus perfeftly corre- 
fponds with our Irifli Direme and Athlos. 

C H A P. 



The Ftr Bolg^ Fir D^Omnam, or Er Galeon. 

THE Records from which Keating formed 
this Chapter^ inform us, that thcfc Scythi** 
ans were named Fir D^Omnami^ or the Men of 
Oman / that tb^y were called Fir4folg and J/r* 
bolo^ becaufe^ do gnitis baris do bokaib^ thej( made 
boats of the bides of beafts, and thefe boats being 
round, they were named Fir^Galean : but Keating 
in the Sequel has followed an idle childiih Story , 
unworthy of the hiftorian. 

Simon Breacj Son of Sdam^ ^n of Numed, 
landed in Greece : The Grecians jealous of their 
nutiibersy a6 they rauldplied, oppre&d them; 
forcing them to fink deep pits {d^mbnan^ fignifies 
deep) and to dig clay, and to carry it in leathern 
bags . {bolg is a bag or a belly or paunch, or any 
thing fwofaa out). The Numidlans groaning under 
the Grsescian yoke, refolved to quit the Country^ 
and feizing u|)on fome Graecian Shipping, 5000 
of them, under Simon Breac, put to Sea, and 
failed till they reached Ireland. 

The kdl Prince of this race, married Tailte^ 
daughter of Maghmcr^ a Prince of Spain ; fhe is 
buried in a place, called from her Taiitean at this 

The Rem Riogbre or Book of Kings, places 
theit arrival ih Ireland A. M. 3266, but the Liber 
Lecanus fays, feme of them came in the Reign 
of Ballafter^ that King who faw the hand writing 
on the Wall, and from whom Cyrus Son of Darius 
took Babylon ; and that they landed in the North 

I Weft 

130 . A Vindication of the 

Weft of Conacht^ at a place called Inbher Domb^ 
nan^ from thefe Ftr: D^Omhnann (or Men of 


Wc are told that this people were called Bolg 
or Boloj from being the conftruders pf wicker 
boats covered with bo -g or hidesf . It appears to 
have been a Veffcl common to the Celts or Gome- 
rites, %s well as to the Magogians or Scythians, 
feated on the Euxine and Cafpian Seas. We have 
already tri ated of their conftruftion and fhewn 
from Herodotus, that the Armenians came down 
the Euphrates to Babylon in this kind of Boat in 

(t) In a fimilar manner the Aliatrcs palled the' Rivers in the 
days of Mofes : viz. by Rafts buoyed up with inflated Skins. 
Quoinodo autem maximos & rapidiflinios fluvios trajecerint, 
& bodid trajiciant, in Priente artem habent facillimam per 
Rates qiue in S. Bibliis vocantur TIDDI *fA^fO0Sf quae conftant ex 
plurimis colligatis Lighis, ' margin i applicatis /^A/ij^iZii»x ad 
inflar Veficarum. Hac arte fit ut nullus fiuviut eis ebftet, & mag* 
na mercium onera per Tigrim & Euphratem facili negotio 
deportent, <Hyde.) }i*^xaf<L^^iC vel potius Ki^xtLftt^irai^* 
Hcbraicd dicitur mDDnn h^n Chibbcl Ha Raphfoda Et mDDI 
pro o'xci^faf;' 2d. ParaL' 2. 15. J. e. tumultuanae navis genere^ 
quarum prima inventio debetur Pfaaenicibus, (Bochart Geog. 
Sacn L. t. C. 27.) l^tHirSrvi tof X^'*'> oi A'co rayv Aioo-* 
y.d^ctv ^x^^^^ *< 'vAo7« (ri/v3r€rri^ SorAetxreiy (Sanchoniathan — 
the principal materials of thefe «7ao(« VefTels were the B9h or 
Bolg the hides that covered the timben, for a Raft of timbers 
required no other machine to float them. Thefe Rates or Rafts 
were made of the trunks of Trdes, which in the Scythian Dia- 
led are named ^«/. — Bol^ truncus^ unde BUa eft diffiodere & 
BohoerA, opus ex truncis arborum confe£tum (Ihre. Lex Suivo- 
Goth.) So that the name was applicable to diefe Scythians^ if 
they conftru£led their VefTels, either of Trees, or Wicker co- 
vered with hides. Baol Corium bovinum (Verelius Scytho Scan- 
dice Lex). Baelg, Saccus (id) Buike Onus Navis (id). 


Ancient Hijiary (f Ireland. 131 

his time. The Gomerites who traced the Danube 
and the Borufthenes out of the Euzine) and the 
Bolga or Vi^ga out of the Cafpian, might have 
taken the name of Bolgi or Belgi, for the fame 
reafifn;. and carried that name with them into 
Germany and Gaul, as they did that of Brigantes^ 
from Brigantin, a Celtic name. for a Ship* This 
appear^ probable \ becaufe we find from Caefar, 
that the . Beip^ Venefi and Aquitanij on the Coafb 
of Gaul oppofite to Britain, differed in their man-* 
ners, cuftoms and language, from the Gauls, or 
Ccltes, which would not haYe been the cafe, if 
the Belgi of the Coaft had defcended from the 
BclgQ& of Germany : therefore the Belgi of the 
Coaft muft have been the Fir-bolg of the Irifh. 
Laziu^ .derives the name Belgas, Celtae, Galatae^ 
all from the Hebrew XS^bi galim, i. e. inundatus. 
GaHmy - hoc eft Guallu Walii^ unde joimirum ob 
varias. locorum pronuadatiooes, Celte^^ Galata^ 
Guelg^y rBelgay vocabula prodiere : (a) thefe names 
he confines to tl^e defcendants-cf Japhet only, be* 
caufe be was faved from iihefioody why then were 
nbt thefe names common tof Sem and Ham alfo ? 

From the words of CadGu and from ancient 
hiftory, there appears to have bi:entwdaitIons ofthe 
name of Beiges^ migrated from Afia into Europe, 
and both feated at length in Gaul. The firft, I 
take to be the Belgae* ot Germany who firocecded 
along the Danube^ and the Volga i who after- 
wards . took the name of Brigantes from Briff, a 
kind of hhip ufed by the Celts : (See Introdu£bon) 
formed the Celtic Nation, and were the Sons of 
Gomer^ who took on them the fynonimous name 

(a) Laiius de Gentium migrat. p. 1 2. 

I 2 Bri. 

1 32 A Yindicqtim^ tkt 

Brigatttes, L c Ship men, fSee htrmiuQim)^ 
The iecondU the Rr^Bcigw ViriJSeigos we are now 
treatiiq^ of, who took a contrary route down llie 
Ettphrales and feated themfehct in OfBMy a'fldrt 
of Country extending Coaftways fmn thefVsriic 
Gulph Co the Arabian Golpb, and who .were the 
HvBsniciaiis of the Red Sea, the PbemOice of Iriii 
Uftory : ^ les pcupies andens, Chinois, indiene, 
^* Ctnide^s & Perians etaient freret : on volt 
^ ddrement quib oat une origine comnuuit, 
^ (Baitty for l'At!antid6'\ {k 44^). 

Mofes Choronenfis, an Armenian, has cleared 
up this part of tmr V^Sbotj. The Bolg or Bolo^ or 
Sulkrii, &ys he, vnder the name of Acrad de- 
scended the Eiq^ates and Tigris ; this he takes 
fmok Armenian tradhions: Acrad is the phnral of 
Ctandy a particular nadon fo ca&ed, originally 
from the GordiaH Mountains, wfakh lieparate Ar*« 
ffienia from Media : The ancients named thefe 
mountains and its inhabitants, Cordueni^ Cardu^ 
tbi ; they i^read into AlTyria along the Eujdirates 
and Tigris, and gave name to the Gountxy called 
Kurdi^M ; it was hte before they recdvcd Mahb* 
homedifm, and were aiways enemies to the Muff- 
nhnans. This nation eflabKflied a Principaiity in 
the GouACnf of L^; tbey aifo pei^ied many fet* 
dements of*^ the Chdkiean k-ak^ about the Naba^ 
tbMm >Fent. Some Authors have thought they 
were Chaldaeans# Lar^ gives name to a Coimtry 
called Larijtan^ between Kbt^ftan and Kerman^ 
Pkorinces whidi extend to die Perfian Gulph. 
This I take was formerly governed by their own 
Princes, who faid they were defcended from Sitoes 
Son of Cofroeif who were of the profeifion of the 


AnaetU ISfiorf rf Ireland. 133 

Msgit or iire iroTlhi{ipen. Thiw tkti kamed 

The Turk& call tlmt part of Afia Hiinory oaihe 
Foiitus^ BoU Vilq/Siif and Mirkond, ia his origiiibaf 
the Mogtttf and Tartars, bkjz^ that Gaz (Gog) 
Son of Japhet was overcome by 7arrA» and fled tD 
the banks of the River Bu^ar% ivhere Gomer 
another Son of Japhet, drove hkn theftee.r That 
Turk had a Son called Bulgar (c)* 

Our Fhr4x)lg or Fir D^Omhnann were alfi^ caUtd 
Fir Galcon bccaufe their Vefels were round* 
Herodotus defcribes them of ^ that form (d) ^ 
Gol| i. e. round. Gaul§s Phflenicibus rotundaaa 
fianat (e)« Gaulus^ gpcnus navigii pen^ rocundum 

(b) See Cnrd, Lar, ZokaL la another phoet uadcv Fsn^ 
diis leasncd Author infimns us, that the Fkrdiians and Pcrfiuu 
descended from Pars^duit the DHemireiy Oirdes^ andOrientat 
Tvffe (or TkttBx%^ were deftended of thcPernsni chat lomcf 
Arribkn Aadms will have the Curdalt (wl»eitsndtoifa«ii 
Schehcranir in Affyri^, aow^calledOiM^Vfiahtef iba^ 
deCcent^ and bebg iieated in the Moiaft of die Nabttdnans». as 
the months of the Enphrates and Tims, were called Araii^ 
4g^m^ that IS to hj^ nu-barian Arabs; a name which bftill 
applied to the P^rfians; 

Tnm Mg m SUp is demcd Belgpoo* tiienimoof owof 
Ncpconc's ScMs^ nhoBi Henciilcs flew and Jupiter cewc ie d witb 
a Cxm of Stones* 

Bark. Scapha. Gr. V. 0«Zxair (Ihre.GlafiSuiv.Godi.) An« 
tiqoa hiAoria eft, n ere ul c m Scyfik taifqnam navigb ttnto int- 
meifii maria tndiia. Rndkeekiut AtL X j. pi at. ad &i* 
nn. Macrobii. L. <. C ai. Skcp, Cymbi» ab&Mm^ pdU 
lere, trodeit, (Wachter.) 

(ff> DHeFMor. 

(d) Introdii6tioo. 

(^ HsfychfttSi 

(f )refai Afieans. 


134 ^ Vindication of the 

And heace, fays Bochart, the name of the 
Illand Gaukn in the iEgean Sea^ which Diodorus 
Siculus fays, was inhabited by Fhsnicians. From 
the fame root is the Armenian Galerim and the 
Irifli Ghala-ramhj a Row boat, a Ferry boat. 
The northern Scythi foftened this word to Iiillc, 
(Scapha,) whence Jolly boat, a term how in ufe in 
die EngUfh fleet. Yawl hai the fame derivation. 

The defendants of the Fir-Galeon, are proba- 
bly, yet feated in that Province of Pcrfia called 
Ghilan, which extends along the banks of theCa& 
pian Sea from 74 deg. long, to 76 indufive, 
and from 35 deg. lat. to 36. The Arabs and Per- 
fians call tbie Cafpian Sea, the Ghilan 'Sea. Sbme 
Oriental Geographers comprife the Province 6£ 
Mazanderan^ m the Province pf Ghilan, making 
it include the ancient Hyrcani. The A^bs write 
it Ghilan or Gils^ii ; (g) and the Provii^ce of Gali- 
cia in &>aizi, they call Gialiant. The old Spaniih 
name ol Herules was Goles ; De Laftonosa thinks if 
was corrupted from Hercules : It may be derived 
from Gol, havis. Sec the preceding Chapter. 

The name lyOmhhan 01 jyOnih(m is derived 
from the place they fettled in, viz. the Province of 
Oman in Arabia ; a narrow border of land on the 
Sea Coaft, extending from the Perfic Gulph, 
along the Eaftern Ocean, up t)ie Red Sea : the 
Arabs of this diftrift are called Omanann at this 
day ; \o thofe of Tetfijen are called Temenenn^ in the 
plural (t); '^ . . - . The 

(g) D^Herbelot. Gilan if alfo the iiame ff a town in Art-' 
bia fclix, 

t Oman or the Set Cotft of Idumaea, originally belonged to 
tfimilf of Sem, and was peopled bj U|z | wlMsncf I<)vjn?a 
IS called the land of Utz, Lamentat. C. 4. V. 21. and their 
Chief was the King of Edom, who refiifed Mofes a paflage, 
wherefore he pafled along the Sea Coaft : confequently the Se* 
mites were not in pofleflion o( Omau at that time. The Scjthians 


Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. 135 

The Irifli hiftory fays they were in poflcffion of 
this Country when Mofes pafled the Red Sea, as 
we fhall find in the Chapter of Phenius Parfa. 
The Sea Coaft of Oman abounds in iifh, and lies 
convenient for trade to the £aft. Arrian tells us, 
its ancient inhabitants were remarkable for con- 
ftruding Veffcls, that "wextfewed (h). This cor- 
refponds with the make of our Bolg^ or Corrac^ 
the Wicker-boats covered with hides : the hides 
are fewed together with coarfe woollen rope yam ; 
a rope of a harfher f ubftance would tear the hide : 
this is not only foft, but fwells in the water and 
fills the hole made to receive it. 

Tlie learned traveller Mr. Niebuhr, was in 
Oman a few years fince, and found that the people 
ftill fewed the planks of their boats : ^^ the Country 
^ of Oman, fays he, is bounded on the E. by 
^^ the Bahr-al-Oman, the Sea of Oman, that is 
** the Ocean ; on the N. by the Perfian Gulph 
** and on the W. and S. by vaft deferts — ^it is 
^^ mountainous and divided between many inde- 
'^ pendant princes ; the Imam of .Oman is the 
^^ mod confiderable. This prince has four Ships 
'^ of War, which in times of peace annually fail 
^^ to Kiloa and Sinsjibar for Slaves and Elephants 
*^ teeth and other commodities of Africa : he has 
** alfo % Veffels as Guarde de cojies. ITie Omanites 
" are the beft failors in Arabia. 1 he fails of 
^^ fome of his Ships are not made of matting as 
^* thofe in Yemen, but of hempen cloth as in Eu- 
•* rope (i). The Ships or Veffels called Trankis 


had driven them into the more interior parts, or thej had retired 
firom it, being a barren fpot. 

(h) Peripl. mar. Erythr. p. %: 

(i) The art of making hempen faib^ might have been taught 
them by our Magogian Scythians, who were remarkable for this 


13Q A VituiUctiin ^ the 

^\ or T'^ot/y Sffc very broad in prp|)prtiw to tlieir 
lengthy and are of a v$ry partkuUr conftru^ 
on; the planks are not n^ikdy but /(pmd tt^h^Tf 
The Be/r^ietUf adds our author, ufe large romi4 
balkets^ which they call Kh^^p infbiad of hoaj^t^ 
^' (k) they are fmeared on the outfide with pitch { 
** they are ufcful on (hallow water, but very ixv 
^^ convenient for a man not accuftomed to toom, 
^^ as by their round form, they are very ^ ta 
" turp in the mid-current," 

Wherever our Bolg have fettled, they . left hc» 
hind them this very extraordinary kind of Boat*. 
Strabo, from Artemidprus, mentions this boat 
being ufed on the Red Sea by the Sabo^i, and tha|; 
they p-offed to ^Ethiopia in navigUs ex corio con* 
fedis ; (1) the fame be tells i^s were ufod in Srai&r 
Our Scythians being feated in Oman by Phe«t 
nius the Son of JSitbj Son of Magog, took o^ 
them the name of Pheni-flice the tribe or children 
of Pfaenius. This province was alfo named Panr 
jchaia, in which was the River Balg or Palg* 
Omanitis quorum fed^s circa Oman axnnem, qui 
Lar eft Ptolcmsri & Phal^ Arabum (poi). " Tnc 
^< Omanites, fays Niebuhr,^ it^ is true, are Maho<» 
^^ medan^ but are cfteemed Heretidc:s, and drink 
" wine :" there kems to be fame of the old Scy^ 
thian blood ftill in their veins : to whkh let us add, 
that the Akrad or Curies fettled in Lar,, drains 

their Qrigin from Siraes Son faf Chfro^ (fi) a»i anr» 


msQiftfa^re^ vJkr iieani iA'Bft&dLOB SeTthopQlii. Se^Pil* 
ledt^nea. No. 13. 

(k) Kuffa^ ^ panier, bafket, &c. Such are ufed ftt tht| day 
Oft tht River Shannon, BaFfovr, &c. 

(1) Lib. 16. 

(m) Bochart. 

(n) Siroei and G]u>frpoi» are the Sm aad Afiru of Ae Phe- 


/ Ancient Htfiory of It^land* 137 

cicnt King of Perfia^ who waff a worlhipper of fire ; 
thoGs and other paraUd circumftancesy that ap« 
Mar in the Iriih niftory» will prove that the £abu- 
lot)s hUlory of the aivrient Peruans, Parthians and 
AnneniaDSy (who were all Scythians) is grafted on 
the fame ftock with that of the Magogian Scythi- 
ans or Irifli ; waa unported with them from the 
£afi, and is not the fabrication of the ignorant 
mo^ks of the 8th, oth or loth Centuries* 

The learned G4>elin in his Hiflory of Affyria, 
obferves, thsA the Scythians probabljr poflefled 
part <^ Arabia, in the moft early period t ^^ on 
^^ voit qu'ane Cdonie du Caucafe arriver a' 1' 
^ Antilebaa, a pu en fuivant la direfUon de cette 
^* qhaine, arriver jufqu'aiix monta^nes deTArabic, 
^^ & les peupler a une epoque qui echappe a tous 
^* les calculs de philofophes" (n% 

There is great probability of this learned Au« 
^or's being in the right ; £or the names of many 
pbces in ^abia feem to be of Scythian or^in^ 
for example^ a rough and barren country, abound- 
ing with rocks and (tones, in Irifli is called Jidm 
or jtidme^ and hence Edom or Iduma^i, might 
have been properly fo named by them } for it does 
not appear to have received its name from Edom 
or Eiau, becaufe Moles teUs us, that ^^ Efau went 
^^ to dweU in Mount Seir which is in £dom" — 
this paiTage feems to point out, that the Country 
was £0 called before he went there ; and it is not 
prcAnble that E/au^^ having driven ou|t the Horitcs, 

nian Triih. Sru SoaofAfni, Son of Gadul, SoaofNinU Son 
of Phenius, fee p. 30. The Amienrans often change an initial 
vowel into Ch. K (A) Chaldaicum ad ^ jGrsecum ; t & H 
Chaid. (z & t) ad 4 • }^ (&>n) fid t (Mofes Choronenfe p. 5.} 
hence of Afru, or Ofru, they formed CAf/he, 
(o; Hift. d' V A(k. p. 1 97. 


138 A Vindication tf the 

would name the Country Edom, a name that had 
been applied to him by his brother, as a reproach. 
^dom is a rocky barren Country, whence the 
name Arabia Petrea, and fuch a Country is ex* 
preflcd in Irifh by Aidme or Adme \ and in the 
Arabic wahd is ^ defcrt, widm a barren fpot ; nor 
was this Country named Seir from ^•'JW Seir 
hairy, as fome authors have aflerted, becaufe 
Efau was hairy, for Mofes exprefsly fays, thefe 
are the Sons of Seir the Horite — tnefe are the 
children of Seir in the land of Edom : whence 
Retand— dida funt montana Seir, de nomine Seir 
Choritac, qui ante Edomum illic habitavit (p). 
Again, Ifaac had promifed that Efau fhould dwell 
in the fatnefs of the Earth and of the dew of hea- 
Ten ; a defcription in ho manner corrcfponding 
with Arabia P?trea« 

According to the Irifti hiftory this Colony arriv- 
ed here Anno Mundi 3266 ; that is, about 738 
years before Chrift : the Liber Lecanus fays, this 
happened in the reign of Belejis^ who is Nabo- 
naflar, and his ^ra began 747 years before Chrift, 
and he died 7 1 4 before Chrift ; therefore thefe 
two Chronicles fo for agree. 

This Belcfis is called by fpme Nabulaflar, and 
by others Nanybrus. This prince befides what 
he muft have fuffered and apprehended from the 
Scythians, who during his time prevailed in Alia, 
was in imminent danger of being blafted in his 
hopes by an invafion from Egypt : he was fuc- 
ceeded by his Son NabocolaiTar, that is, by the 
great Nebuchadnezzar of fcppture (q). Belefia 

(p^ Gen. 36. Ch. ao. V. ReU PaJaftina V i . p. 68. 
(q) Hiftory of the Babrlonians, p. 947. 


Ancient Hijlory of Ireland* 13$ 

was alfo a great aftrologer, and predi£tcd to Sar- 
danapalus, that be (hould over-throw the Medes, 
Perfians and Babylonians ; who, afiiftcd by fome 
Arabians, intended to fubvert the EmfHre. Sar* 
danapalus coming to a battle with them, routed 
them with great ilauehter and purfued them to the 
Mountains : they fight a fecond and a third battle, 
and Sardanapalus remains vidor (r). Sir J. New- 
ton places the Pha&nician fettlement at Carthage, 
883 years before Chrifl ; and, fays he, prefently 
after they failed as far as to the ftraights mouth 
and beyond. The ^ra of Nabonaflar he places 
at 747 ; the invafion of the AiTyrians by the Scy- 
Aians ia 635. 

llierefore the Irifli Annalifts may be right ; and 
^thers fay that another Colony of Fir D'Oman 
came in that year Cyrus took Babylon, which 
happened according to Sir J. Newton 538 years 
before Chrift ; and he places the routing of the 
Scythians and the feizing of the Aflyrian Provinces 
of Armenia, Bontus and Cappadocia, by Cyax« 
ieres, in the year 607 before Chrift (s). 

As our Scythians mixed with the Tyrians or 
Canaanites, and became one people and ihared 
their fate ; there is great reafon to think, that this 
is the firft Colony that fettled in Ireland, and that 
the great Milelian expedition was in the reign of 
Nebuchadnezzar, of which we fliall treat in a fub- 
fequent Chapter. 

It is impoffible to fix the date, when the Phseni- 
cians firft difcovered the Brittannic Ifles. Pliny 

(r) U«. Hift. V. 4. p. 303. 8vo. 

(f) Mr. Richardfon, makes this period to be the commence- 
ment of the Kaianian or fecond Dynaftj of the Perfians. See 
fiext Chapter. 


I40 A Vindieaion ef tJk 

(and Bcchart after him,) attributes thii JMeanxj 
to the Phsnician Hercules, and we find tbc fim 
of that name in Eulebius, placed in the yyi yeuc 
of Mofes : there were many of thai: name, Varr^ 
counts no lefs than 40 : Hercules was an honour* 
able titk, given particularly to Gommandera of 
Sea Expeditions, the name Aireac^ul in bifli, it 
fynoinmous to lAUhefs^ or the Commander of a 
^p. (a) However, Strabo s^ures us, thai the 
Phoenicians traded to the Britamuc Ifiands by the 
route of Cadiz, in the time of Joihua^ and we cas 
prove that City was built to facilitate the Commerce 
of the Weftern Ocean : hence I conceive its namc^ 
viz. Cades ^ which in Irifh fignifies a Ship ;. fione- 
tiracs written Caret : in Arabic Kades> a Shipb — 
Eatbar'Ooi in Irifh is the Ship Kland^ whence the 
Greek name of it, Ethyrea^ 

All mytbologifts ^gree that Cadiz was founded 
by Arcbilam^ Son of Phsenix, and according t0 
Ettfebius, Phasnix and Joihua were cotemporaacies. 
llow according to Irifh Hiftory, Niul or Cadmnt 
was the Son of Phouus^ (b) but Sir I. Newton 
thinks the Pbasnidans did not reach the Britamuc 
liles till the reign of Jdioram : and although £u^ 
febius places the foundation of Cadis in the time 
of Jofixua \ Strabo, on the contrary, tdls us,^ that 
Cadiz OH the Spanib Coaft, and. all the Phaenician 
Colonies on the African CcKaft,. were fuhfequcst to 
the Siege of Troy, and Velleius fupporting thb 
aigument,. places the founding of Cadiz in the 
reign of Codrus ; in ihort all Authors diiagree on 
this Subjeft. 

(a) The Amathufians. called him MmUc^ which is plaiolj 

the Hebrew r^D Malachy Nauta^ navigator. 

(b) Sec Chapter 7. 


Hifhrj tf Iretand. 141 

The Carthaginians, though a Cdony of the Phs- 
nidans, knew thefe iflands very late, and were 
thenifel^es the difcovtrers, for Strabo afluresus 
that the old Fhsnicians were *fo jealous of this 
commerce, that they kept it a profound fecret 
from Strangers. Can we then flatter ourfdves to 
iittd the exad time of fnch an cftabliihment in any 
Crreek or Latin Author* 

If Himiko the Carthaginian was the firfl chat 
discovered die Britannic Ifles for his Countrymen, 
it mnft have been fubfequent to the Siege of Tyre,, 
and the Expedition of Alexander, that is, about 
300 Years before Chrift, ;and about that time E^* 
mens the Aftronomer of Marfeilles is faid to have 
Tifited them : yet we find no traces in Antiquity 
of a dired trade by Sea, between the Greeks and 
the Britons. The Hn trade between Marfeilles 
and Britain mentioned by Diodorus, muft have 
been carried on by Land from the Coaft of Gaul, 
imported there from Britain, and fo in 30 days 
to Marfeilles, as Strabo explains it, yet Diodorus, 
in another place, fays, that die Merchants tranf- 
ported from Britain to Narbonne when that City 
was built by the Romans. 

In fine, about Eight Centuries before Chrifl:, 
feems to be the period when both the Bolga or 
Be/jgaj quitted Afia in their different Routs, the 
Gomeriansby land to Germany, Gaul, &c* and the 
Magogians to Perfia. Nam tametfi hi populi 
(Bulgarii, Armeniacae linguas pronunciatione Bul^ 
larif) non ante feptimum a Chriflo feculum inJEu- 
ropam commigrabant, quin tamen fedes antiqui- 
ttis in Sarmatia circa Volgam flumen habue- 
rint, nulla nobis in prasfentia fubeft dubitandi 
caufa. (c) 

(c) Mofes Chorenenfis p. 90. We have ihewn from this Au- 
thor that the Southern Bols^ took the name of Akrad. 


14^ A Vindication of fhe 

The fettlemcnt of the Firbolg in Oman, at a Ia« 
tcr period than the Irifh hiftory pretends to, is 
mentioned by the Author of the Cbronicon Paf- 
chale, who fays, that there were Northern Scutb^ 
or Scythians in the \icinity of £lam, Chuz, and 
Shinaar, in his time. The Pcrfians acknowledge 
that in old times, their Empire was for fome years 
under the Scythian yoke. Bodies of thofe peo- 
ple,, fays a learned author, mieht, in confe- 
quence, ha\'e naturally enough cltablifhed them- 
felves in various parts of their new conquefls. 
And when the Perfian Kings recovered their in- 
dependency, they might neither judge it neceifary 
nor political, to depopulate their provinces, by 
driving out colonies which, by their proper ma- 
nagement, would foon become naturalized and 
valuable fubje&s. (d) Arrian alfo mentions a re- 
gion called Scuthia, near the Perfian Gulph. D' 
Herbelot at the words Agrireth and Kijhtajbj has 
given ;a detail of a conqueft of Perfia by tne Scy- 
thians from the Oxus and Gihon* Kijbtajb Ben 
Zou or Zab^ was King of Perfia and of the Family 
of the Pijhdadiensj of whom we ihall fpeak in the 
next Chapter : the Perfians had another Kijhtajb 
Spn of Lohorafb, in whofe time, they fay, lived 
Zerdulht or Zoroaftre, Legiflator of the Ghebrcs 
or Worfhippers of fire : and that it was ZOroaflre 
that obliged them to build Mejbged or fire towers, 
and to bury in Urns ; before his time the Kings of 
Perfia were either buried in Caves natural or artifi- 
cial, or in the earth, and over their graves mounds 
of Stones were made, like little hills, (e) 


(d) Richardfon's Diff". on Eaftem Languages, p. 464. 
(ci DHerbcIot, p. 517. The Pifdadien of the Perfians are 
the Tuach Dadanii of the Irifh, - the tall cowers of Ireland were 


Affcl^t Hi/iory of Ireland. 143 

Mr. Bryant differs firom thefe Authors, and 
does not allow the Scythians to have had any pof* 
feffions in or about Oman. He obferves. that Jo- 
fephus calls the Country Ctaba. (f ) 

I have (hewn that the Irifli record themfelves by 
the name of D*»ni3"Np*»JTy Atica Cuthim, or Ai- 
teach Cothi, corrupt^ Atacotti^ by which they mean, 
ancient mariners, or Shipmen, from HTTOO me 
Cutha, navis. (g) . 

This was the reafon I fufpeded, the infpired 
penman fignified the Cutba by the word Goimj 
in enumerating the Kings that made war oa the 
Pentapolis, and that Tiddal was a Scythian^ as 
Symmachus and Eupolemus affert, and was feated * 
in Omariy where the Irifh hiftory place the Scythi* 
ans at a rery early period, as we ihall find in the 
Chapter of the Tu^tha Dadann* And it is remark- 
able, thaf the words V|J Goiand ^rK2 Cuthi, are 
both ufed by the Hebrews to exprefs a foreigner* 
^\X Goi, homo gentilis. Sic Judsei quemvis vo- 
cant qui Hon eft de populo Ifrael, maxime tamen 
Chriftianis hoc nomen dedere. Etiam unum ho- 
^inem nominant Got contra verum lingus ufum 
& naturam vocabuli. Sic pro .^\> Goi in Deutro^ 
nom. C. \f. V. d. in aliquibus editionibus legitur 
^rtQ Cut hi. (h) Jofephus therefore being a Jew 
underftobd the name Goifn in the literal fenfe that 
all Jews do, and called the Scythians Cuthij as 

the fire towers of the difciplesof Zerduft and the forms of bu- 
rial here mentioned, were pn^ifed by die ancient Irifli : rnul* 
titudes ef thefe Mounts dill femain. 

(f) Analyfis V. 3. p. 177. 

(g^ See Introdiidion p. 18. hence I think the Chaldee MHD 
Cutha, a $wan, a bird remarkable for fwimming, and for fail- 
ing by the ere£tion of its wings. 

(h) Buxtorf. Lex. Chald : ad verbum >U. 

Gentiles 9 

144 ^ VkuiiaHi^n tftie 

Gca6kfh lad fo might tfetermiaatc the Country 
they poflefied Cmiba. (i) 

'Jihe Cuthai were Perfiass, i. e. Scythtans, Anteft 
enim Cuthasi fuenixtt iippelhti Petfae. Apertos Ye« 
teres ChoduBOs feo Perfts. (Hottinger Arch. Or. 
687. Boch. Phal. p. 1154.) 

Before we qak this ( lacfttr^ we muft remark^ 
that tfte Irifli records iflert» there came over with 
the Ftrbolgj three families who ^K^ere not of the 
Gadelian Race, nju the famHies of Gabbral who 
fettled in Snccahi Conacfat } of Talrfi irho fettled in 
Crioch o Faiige, and of G4ikn who fettled in 
Leinftet, to vAkh wte may add that Gailaa or 
Ga^un was the ancient name of the Province c€ 
Ldnfter. (k) 

It was not tmprd>able» diat foftie Arab families 
fhould mix with onr Fir bolg when feated in 
Oman : and thefe three family names are of Ara- 
|>ian origflu 

Gailan, it is the Arabic name of a Satyr. This 
Word is alfo become a proper namc^ particularly 
to fuch aa appeared fierce and croel : Om Gailan^ 
Kterally the mother of Satyrs or Detnons, is the 
name of a tree caHed m Latin Spina Mgyftia^ or 
Acaci4. The Tadrfi were the Celtcs of Spain. See 

(1) Someaudnn beikre^ &ftC by Cufli upon ili« River Gibon 
i) mamt otAy the ancieae Coontry of the Scjthians upon the Araz« 
es. The words Cutfaaei and Cutha^ whence fotane hitte derived 
Scftiae, a^d Scorh r, are the &Biie «Cdk^ thte Chaldeesjgeaerai- 
\y ptit the T (Tau) where the Ikbr e w* iirrite S (Shtn,) and 
therefore fay Cuth and Cut £m* Gitdi. Unw Hiftoty, V, 1 8. pt 
254. 8vo.— but thefe learned Authors fiirely tvill not fay, tluit 
Ihe Chaldees would hanre wntted Cu/h for QuA — therefore dbey 
retained the original aadie Caiha 1 and here it muft be remarked 
that Ceas in the Irifli languagne b a Skiff^ and UaiTceas a finall 
boat, fo that Cufh might be wnctca for Ccas» or Ceafliy or KeaHv 
See p. aa* Introduction. 

(k) Keating'! Englifli Edition, fel. p. 41. 


Jncknt Hifisfy rf k-etand. 1^45 

vhat the moderni Perfiaus caH i)if; i. e. Den^n^, 
but ia the ancidnt Pebbvian dialed Cm i. e^ a €}i- 
ajiix : (0 it alTo figntfiea iUofbious, magaaaimous. 
Heb. rD Cab« poteftas* 

Giabet a proper name amongft the MtifiulmaM. 
Geber bae of the mod celebrated of tfte Arab 
Fhilofopher$ ; there was alfo 9 Giad)er, furilamed 
Sbam£id4ini» vrho was an Arab of Andalufia in 
Spain ; he wrote a poem on poetry and Grammar, 
— fr>*He»bch)t.)^ ITiis name i^ now comihonly 
pronounced Gwj in ireland, but always wrktenr 

Hence we m^ account^ for the great fimilarity 
betweea the Arabic asd irifli languages ; and thi? 
mixture of the Scythian with the Chaldee and 
Arabic foitmed that dialed catted by- Ihe IHfli 
JRearlti'Pheniy ot the Phenkiam dialed^ Asl it alp- 
peatft &OQIV Several* circumfiances' in the eotirfe of 
tjiU hiftopy^ and from the acknowledgment of the 
Wdchi Antiquaries, particularly Lbuyd, that the 
Iriih: wsete fibe inhabi^ts o( Britain, -before the 
GomeriDes oc WaKh : thi^ may account for the 
VMSkj. $4yih'^aiie wordd, which are to be fotmd 
in. the Bnglifti language at this day, the roots of 
y^hkh c^noQt be traced in the WeUbj Cornt^j of 
Armeric dialeds, or in the Sax4>n or Norman^ but 
vrere ipoft ^ohably adopted by the Britons, on 
their mixiag with fome of the Ph^enian-Iri/h^ who 
remained in Britain,, when the great body were 
expelled to Scotland, Ireiand^ and Manx^ where 
their descendants ftill remain. 

Xhe SK:yth« of Oman being the general mari- 
ners for the great powers fcated on or near the 

(1) Cai in the PcWic, is written Cc or Kc, in Irifh, as Ce- 
haec/iM'\' e. Broum, that is« Bacchus. >ee thefe words in D' 
Herbelot. I take the Arabic proper name Giafar to be the fame. 

K Red 

146 A Ttndicattm of the 

Red Sea, particularly the Arabians^ Egj^tiam 
Edwiites^ Canaarutesy &c« muft have crofled the 
Indian Ocean, to Opbir for Gold, Ivory, and 
PeacpfJk€^ &c« Commodities, the Scripture in- 
forms us, were brought from thefe parts. It will 
naturally .refult, that our Scythae mqft have bad 
nanies ^ for thefe commodities. We (hall prove 
they, had both Scythian and Indian names : the 
latter they could not have acquired in their own 

The Irifli hiftory abounds with Anecdotes of this 
kind ^ and their Seanachies^ as we have (hewn, 
worked up the traditions of the tranfadions of 
their anceftors in Arwenta^ in Parthia^ Tourariy 
and Omarij as if they happened but yefterday, in 

The Iri(h hiftory tells us, that this Ifland once 
abounded in Gold, (Afofd or Aphos) and that 
there was a great fmelting houfe at a place called 
Aphi^ or Jfoji on the River Li]^i&/, • where Gold 
was bearvain (bearbhain) i. e. refined : that they 
had two kinds of Gold, viz. Orbuiith (Yellow 
gold,} and Orbdn^ (White gold,) and that the 
name of the Artift who firft purified and wrought 
this metal was Inachadan, or the maker of Inach's* 
The paflage is thus expreffed in the Liber Lecanus, 
In the reign of King Tighearmas, (m) this prince 
civilized the people ;. he introduced dyin^ of 
Cloths with purple, bluey and green^ and to him is at- 
tributed the boilings or refining (Jbearvan) of gold 
{Apbofd.')''^^^ Inachadan ainm an Cearda ro bearbb 
** an d*or agus i Foarbhith (no AphofdJ irrthir 
** ^Laiphi ro bearbhan** i. e. the name of his Re- 

(m) The Tahxnuras of the Periians. 



Ancient Hiflory of hrelandm 147 

fuier wa$ Jnaehadan^ and he refined the Gold, 
(of A|Aofd) zt FdarvicT ytphofdj ontfaeEaffSide 
of the Laipbiy or River LiflFcy. 

Here we have the word ih>ho^ for Gold ; (n) 
a word unknown to any of the Celtic nations. 
We know that Ireland never did produce gold, 
confequently this word is exotic ; but, we know, 
that the Scythians inhabited the River Pbafis in 
Colchis^ where Gold did abound ; the River was 
therefore named from this precious metal, and 
Colchis was the Chavita of Mofes, ubi aurum eji^ 
fays the infpired penman. 

Per Cbavilam intelligerc Colchidem^ (IkyB the 
learned Reland) propre di&am quse Pbqfin flumen 
a mcridie habet, & a feptentrione montes Scythi« 
cos, quos varie varii nominant. — Qui cnim fine 
pracjudicio vocem rf^lH Cholcb (unde addita ter* 
minatione//) confert cum r^in Chawhy facile 
videt non adeo roagnam efle inter has ;duas diflFe* 
remkm, quin longe majores admittere deheamus 
in alxis regionum iz urbium nominibus, qils aut 
ab incbli^, aut ab exteris, a prima ptpnunciatione 
detorta funt-*^Atque ita latiffimum Scjtbia fpatium 
Cokhii tribuat, fie ut dicamus in ea Atirwn prsef- 
tantiiiimura, & Smaragdos & Cryfialks itaveniri, 
quandoquidem gencratim de Scythia (cujus partem 
effe Golchida) affirmant veteres, & aurum & reli- 
qua'Af^, lilemor^a ibi reperiri^ & optimae qui* 
dem natse fuifle« 

(n) The wcfrd is Hebrew from ID pHa«- confolidfari ; whence 
|01O Mmif^j^aa, confoHdatliin : quod turi opcimi Epitbeton eft. 
Hinc FhoTi^ Aunim & Oup/iaz^ nomen profyrium loci. Jerem, 
X. V. ^ Alias Ophir dicitur. forfan Ophir & Auphir, ab his 
pulvjfculis aureis fluinioufln noaiea habet. Nam *)fi^M Aphir, 
pulvis eft. (Tomaffiaj.-i^ 

K 2 Ti 

148^ A TtruUeaHan rf the 

Tcithis learned Author^s obTenraiMM, vecQ^ 
add ttic audkoddty of oiany Claflic Wi^itttS to pravc 
the Phas or Phqfis ^(thc rw9 2 Chrw* 30t 15%^ 
"^as 91 Serbia, and that this part of Scyt^a was 
called Armenia major. — ^Scythia iacludituc Pba/i 
jjumine. (Jaftin. Lt Ji9y'^^mfiiv9Tt^fiif\a mStv9i«c. 
(.Piuoar chO-TPrApud illos dicuatur torrcntos i^umnn 
defcrre, quod barbari excipiunt tabulia perfondisv 
& kinoiis pellibu$9 unde fida eft anrci velloris Ue 
bula. Strabo. G^ogr. L. lo. (o) 
, Pbas^ or, Apbas Mras the Scythian name for 
Gold ; this is evident, hence the name of the Ri- 
Ter of Cqlchis. When thefe Scythxtos defceaded 
the Euphrates, and fettled in Omany on the Persi- 
an €lu1[A, and cro&d the Indian Ocean in pur-^ 
fiiit of fiscther difcoTecies, if diey foustd any. River 
affbrdii^ Gold or Gold dqft,. t;^ey would certain^ 
IjTi give • it the fame ii^me« Accordingly we find 
tjioi Pb(u in the ifland of Ta|)robane,^ (tecordedby^ 
Ftoiemy,) and the GoM brought from thence \s 
named in Biea:ptax^\^^Aupbaiz. Dan. C« lOk V. 
5. Cannic. 5^: V. Lr-r-ftloe wocd is tranfl^ted Qbtd^i 
rsfutiby Montanus and othens*. Taob-Qn liaopm, 
kifii ^nd Taph. in. Aiafaic, ftgniftea the banfca of ar 
RivWy (ip> the Sea Shore. . Orbart is a. ^cies of 
60M ifi in(b \ 7a(^orb6n wiU cxprefa the banka or 
Shore producing Qold^ and probably ia the txit^fx-. 
ing oiTaptofmru : Bearvain, we have feen^ tsJnfli> 
for refined Gold, B and P are coaimutable Lc^-- 
tcfs,. Pearvafn. may alfia be tl|p ]ypQ Parvain of the 
Seriptiuria,. a Cliron. > V. 6. where it^ written. 

(o) TemiGog vel Mag(^ erlt Scytbiie pi^r^citagCaijGaiimi' 
qnaui. CftlQln & ArineoL Bochan^ Hecci ^oyeJOfM^ thQ. 
Story of the Golden Fleece. 
. (p) Ar.gac aon taobh na Bannfi. Upon the Banks of Banna. 


Ancient Hi/iory pf If eland. - 1 49 

^romm (()) i. e. Syra & Phsmicia ftexlone Pat- 
tfifcim^ (fiochart.) which Ibmc have idly iaiagiAed 
was Ptru in the n«w world. 

Some of thefe Colchi fettled in Ibdia* between 
Calcutts abd th6 Pr<)tn64tory oiCory ; the Coutitry 
ik now called Cvcinn* CEoldii Canandna f.Caftal). 
M CoMn ufb. & Empor : Indlae cicen in Oraiirbs 
Rdgili fub Lufitanis inter Galecutum ad Skk^. 194 
& Coiy proibont. ad Auftr. j6. L. (Arrkm. Ptb* 
lemyO Sec Fcrrarins.— They were grtet Voya-* 
gtrs, £iy the trifh Records* Mor an imdrriucb 
im troth ttn^u e» they traffidced much hf Sea^ 
(Ltber Lecanus^ p* 18^ 

From Taprobane, they brought Jpbofd Oirid 
tfiVt dm or Sim Silver, Va:!^^^ or Cearb Arab. 
GhiiHh They brought alfo Deudan Bturre^ or Dew-^ 
dim Rkf £lcphant8 Teeth or Ivory, in AraXdc 
Dundana FiL The proper name of an Elephant 
in Iriih i^ FU^ u e. the Sagacious. Boir t>T Bctrr 
m a v^td they mufi have kamed irota the Iikdi^ 
atis. Elephants are not Animals of the oold f3i* 
mates, thetefore they could not hate a Scythiaik' 
name for them. Barroy Ekphas Indh ixA didtivr, 
tdfce Ifodoro. (Reland de veteri lingosL Indica. pt* 
21 1.) Bochart derives this name from "mt Baity 
a fool, homint Jitdio & bruto^ quad etymm mmin»» 
cmvenit Ekphantibm^ quorum ingeniwn eei^bhaMr^ 
fays Reland. Ut cniai alia praetertaiit tbtiffiini 
etymon nominis inde ducifur unde peti ip&e orcac 
funt. > Apud Indos Voct Barro vocotut, «nd& 0t 
vox ejus barritus iiidfur, barritus pro fdno eim 
& ni talk>f, Ebur. (RehDid de Opbin p. xta!) 

We are told by the Greek hiftorian, that Gold 
was firft wrought by Indus a King of Scythia : In- 

(q) £t cexit Doinuin & Aunim Aurum DDS Parvaim. 

' dus 

1 50 * J Vindication of tie 

dus may be a corruption of our Artift's name /n- 
acbadan : the word implies a maker of Inacb'sj by 
which I underfland p3y Anak or Eitak, any thing 
made of Gold. 

Bi(hop Cumberland in his Sancbomaibo p. 367. 
proves P(ftdon or Neptune to have been the grand- 
child of Nereus or Japhet, and from ApoUodorus, 
he proves Pojidon or Oceanus to have been the Father 
of Inachus. And it is no wonder, fays he, that 
the title of Jnacbus (hould have been^iven to fevenil 
men, becaufe I believe it is derived from pjy Anak, 
i. e. Torquatus, a man that wore a Cbain of gold €u 
a badge of honour : The Anakims in Phoenicia long 
after were called fo on the fame Account. The 
learned Biihop has niiftaken the wearer of the Gol- 
den Chain, for the fabricator ,of it ; Anach in 
Irifii fignifies a Merchant or one that trades in Gold 
&c. or manu&£lures it. 

Our Scythians being Merchants, and dealers in 
Qold duft, &c. mufl have had the knowledge of 
Letters and of Figures ; by their trafficking with 
the Indians, they probably learned the Indian Nu- 
merals, fuppofcd to have been brought by the 
Arabs into India, and fo to Spain. A plate of the 
Irifh Numerical Figures, compared with the Indi- 
an, was given in the Collcdanea, No. XII. 

If all thefe proofs are not fufficient to convince 
the readers of the truth of this very extraordinary 
hiftory of the ancient Irifli, and of the great im- 
portance of their ancient Records, in the general 
hiftory of the Weftem World, I confefs, I know 
not what can be fatisfadory to fuch Readers. 


Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 151 

C H A R VI. 

The TuATHA Dadann History. 

XHETuathaDadann, Tay^ Keating, were the 
pofterity of thofe who followed the third Son 
imad out of Ireland, (Eirin) when the Fo- 
mor^gh (Giants) had ufurped the Kingdom, and 
cnflai^d the inhabitants. This people rather than 
bear the heavy oppreffions of thofe Pyrates left the 
Ifland under the command of Jarbaniel Faidh, a 
Son of Numad and fled, fome to Beeotia, and 
others to Athens, and fettled near Thebes : but 
the trueft account is, that they landed in Achaia* 
Here the Tuatha Dadann learned th< Art of Ne- 
cromancy and Enchantment, and became fo ex- 
pert in Magical knowledge, that when the City of 
Athens was invaded by the AiTyrians, thefe Sor- 
cerers, by their diabolical Charms, revived the dead 
bodies of the Athenians, and brought them next 
day into the field, which forely vexed the AiTyri- 
ans. The force of their Encnantment being de- 
ftroyed by the Skill of an Aflyrian Druid, they 
fled, wandering from place to place till they came 
to Norway 2nd Denmark^ where they were much 
admired tor their flcill in Magick. 

TTheir principal commander was Nimdbab Argi- 
edlamb. The Danes being a very barbarous and 
illiterate Nation, entertained fuch a regard for 
thefe Strangers, that they gave them four Cities, 
to ii^bit, where they erected Schools* The 


J jp A, Vindi^oHm of ib^ 

names of thcfe Cities were Falias, Gorias, Finni- 
as, and Murias. Morf hios taught in Faliasy Ari- 
as in Finniasy Erus in Gorias^ and Semias in Mu- 

They removed from Norway and Denmark, and 
fettled, m the North of Scotland, near Dabar and 
Jar-dobhar. From the four Cities of Norway, 
they brought four great Curiofities. 

The #rft was the Leug Fail^ or Ld^ Bail : this 
Stone was pofieffcd of a wonderful Virtue, for it 
wquld n&ake a ftrfuige noife, whonevor a Monardi 
pf Ireland wa» crowned upon at. It wasjcalled the 
Fatal Stone, and gave the name of Inis Fail to 
Irf l^d, that is, tte Ifland cf Dcftimy. In whate- 
ver Country tbis Btonc fhould be ptfiferved^ a 
Prince of the Scythian Race ihould undoubtedly 
govern acqprdiag to this Vcrfc. 

CinefidH $cuit Saar an iine, munab bnsag an 

Mar abhfuigid an Leug fail, dUgbid flaithios do 


or, as He^t BoctLos has tranllatcd 

Uifallat'fatum, Scoti quocunque loeatum 
InYenient iapidem, regnane tcncntur ibidem. 

.Fergus the great having fubdued Scotland, fent 
for this Stone, and received the Crown of Scoti- 
lai^^ upon it : it was preferved with great venera- 
tion. in the Abby of Scone, till Edward the firfi: of 
£&gU|Hi, carried it aMray. by vdolence^ and placed 
|t. under the Coronadon Chair in Weftminfter 


. . The 

Ancknt I^^ory 4f Ireland. 153 

The Second Curiofity ti^as a Sword ; tbe third 
was a Spear, and the fourth, the Coke an Daghda 
or the Caldron of Daghda. 

Tbe TuaduL Dadann concmued Sevaa Years ia 
Scotland, and then removed to Ireland. When 
jdiey came upon the Coaft, they formed a mift 
about them for three days, and in this undifcemed 
manner they march^ thro' the Country, without 
being difcovered by the Fir D'Omanann, till they 
came to a Mountain called SHabh an larain^ when 
tfaey challenged the King of Ireland, (Eirinn) ei- 
der to deliver up the Kingdom or to come to battle. 
This audacious fummons caufcd the Monarch to 
inarch againft them, but the Fir D'Omnann una- 
ble 10 witfaftand the Enchantments of their Ene* 
mies were defeated with the lofs of ten thoufand 
men. This contention laded thirty years, for fo 
many the Poets reckon, between the battle of 
Soudi Muigh Tuireadh, and that of North Muigh 
Tuireadh. (r) 

Some derive the name from the defcendants of 
Danan, Daughter of Deal Caoith, Son of Eala- 
thon. Son of Nod : the names of thefe brothers 
were Brian, Juchor and Juchorba. This Colony 
were called • Tuatha Dadann or Dedann, as they 
were the poftcrity of the three Sons of Dadan, 
who were fo expert in the black art, and the myt 
tery of Charms and £nclu£ntments, that the inha- 
bitants diftinguifhed them by the name of Gods, 
as appears from an old poem, wherein thefe three 
brothers are ftiled Gods. 

Others derive the name from Tuatha a Lord, 
Dee Gods and Danan Poets, £or they chiefly ap- 

(r) The Towers of the Magi. 


1 54 ^ Vindication of the 

plied themfelves to the ftudy of poetry, and the 
Art of compofing vcrfes. Among them were wo- 
men called Ban-tuatba. Their gods were Ctdllj 
Ceacbt and Grian ; their Goddefles were Badbbba^ 
Macba and Moriogan ; the firft was the wife of 
Cuill or Macuillj the fecond of Ceacbt or Maceacbty 
and the third of Grian or Magreine. 

There was alfo a God Mananan or Mann, who 
was called Oirbhfion or Oirmfion, from whom 
Lough OirmhHon. 

The leader of this Colony in all their travels was 
Nuadab^ (Nuadhat or Nuadhar) Airgiod-Jamlh, 
that is, Nuadhar of the Silver-hand, and they pof- 
feflcd the fovcrcignty of Ireland, the fpace of 197 
Years. Daghda was one of their Kings, he def- 
cendcd from ^ar*banieUfaidh^ the Son of NunuuL 

Luigbaidb'lambfada or Luighhaidb the long 
{landed was another of their Kings. This Prince 
firft ordained the affembly of Tailtean in honour of 
Tailte the Daughter of Magb-mor King of Spgin, 
and he appointed Bras-combrac^ L e. Tilts and 
Tournaments (s) as a tribute to her memory. And 
they were obfcrvcd on the firft day of Auguft, a 
day which is ftill diftinguifhed by the name of 
Lugh-nafa from this Lughaidh. (G) 

Breas or Breafal fucceeded Nuadhar Airgiod 

Thus Keating, to which his EngUfh Tranflator 
has added the Genealogy of the principal Nobility 
of the Tuatha Dadann, and an Account of their 
Kings, from other MSS. which he has entirely 
mifreprefented, except one circumftance, and that 
is, that Nuadhat or Nuadhar fought two battles 

(s) Arab. braz. % Duel. 


Ancient Hifiwy of Ireland. 155 

at Muft^he Tuirreadh, and routed the Firbolgs } 
in the nrft he had his hand cut off by Eochad \ 
in the laft he loft his head. 


"This Chapter is replete with Oriental Anec- 
dotes, ftrangely perverted by Keating : It proves 
that the Magogians were feated in or about Oman, 
(as in the preceding Chapter^ and is a demonftra- 
tion that the ancient hiftory of Ireland could not 
have been the work of an Irifh Monk, as it was 
impoffible, he could have been fo well acquidnted 
widi Afiatic hiftory : and every impartial Reader 
muft be of that opinion, by the time he has peru;* 
fed this Chapter. 

The Reim Riograj or Royal Kalendar of Ire- 
land informs us, that this Colony was of the fami- 
ly of Cujh the Son. of Haniy ^s in the following 

• I Noah, 12 Larcogh, - 

a Cham, 13 Galam, 

3 Gu(h, 14 Libum, 

4 Fedel, 15 Blofft, 

5 Pcleft, 16 Ciolcadh, 

6 Ephicc, 17 Ned, 

7 Uccat, 18 Eathlam, . 

8 Sadhal, 1 9 Breas. 

9 Siopuirneacfa, 
TO Sdamfiacla, 
\\ Mercelt, 


156 . A Fhklkathn of Oe 

That the Falber was of the race ftf (tJtt Fi&m* 
haire) and the Mother a Tuatha Dadann^ (d^fili^ 
fomora dofomh de thaoibh a Athor, agus do 'tvtk*' 
thabh Dadann a mhathar,) by name Ere daughter 
oiDealbaoith ; and that this Colony came to Ireland 
705 years before the birth of Chrift, or in the year 
of the World 3303 (t). 

From Bochart vic coHed that Dedan Sdtti of 
Rhegma^ Son of Chut^ fettled in or about Oman : 
Rbegma urbs & fmus Arabics m Mari Perfico«*«^ 
in eodem Utrore prope Rb^matH ad turieniem fiuit 
urbs Dedcen^ hodie Daden^ tnedib fere fpatio inter 
fretum Bafor^^ id eft, odium MadsPerfici, & 
Omanorum fiuvium Ofii, qui Lar eft Ptolentisi & 
(Paig vel) Phatg Oaogra(4ii: Nubienfis*. Abfaac 
urbe, Daden dicitur eciam vicitia rcgio Odotirda 
Barboza in defcriptione Ormuz ; avmtd nelia dMd 
ojfia i un altra terta ndtninata Dadtne (u) 

The Reader muft obfetve that there was imo^ 
ther Dedan, defcended of Abraham, Who fettled 
at Dedan in Idumaea on the Mediterranean, of 
*whom the prophet Jeremiah fpeaks, C. 25. V. 43 
and 49. V. 8. and Ezekiel mentions both Dfcda- 
danim in the 27 Ch. Our Dadannites were thofe 
that carried the Ivory and Ebony to Tyre : com- 
modities that cottld only be had by theii* traffiok 
with India, and with Tartefs in Spain. 

It is furprifmg that aU the modem Iriih Hiftori- 
ans have i^egledked to coUeft the names of the 
Pagan deities : much hiftorical information might 
be obtained from fuch a work. Thdr hiftory in- 
forms us that they mixed and embodwd wid^ the 
Chaldeans or Dadanites, confequently that Colony 

(t) Fomhaire that is of the City of Fomm, a fettlement of the 
Dft4hirtim on the Tigrb. 
(u) Bochart, Phab. Ch. 6. 


Antient Hj/kry tf Ireland. 157 

introduced dieir avn tnpde of isorfhip : The Brah- 
mans of India are fuppofed by Monf* Bailly tahave^ 
been originally of Cllaldaea : (t) The Tibetastt are 
aBevtedy by Father G^orgics \vha lived amongsd 
them many years, to have been originally Scytfaii 
aM, and to have adiopted the Chaldsssm deities.. 

Thcfe aflertions are verified in great meafurc. by 
Irifli mftory : hi an Iriib MS& of the Seabi^ight 
Golleftion, is a lift of the fubaltcrn deitiea €>f the 
Tuatba-Dadaan. The pafiage runs thus. 

As iat fo fios Maitbt Tuatha Dadann^ i« e^ here 
follows a Lift of the Maithe of the Tualhai Dor 
dann, viz. 

Mogh Nuadhat, Airgiod lamh, 
Lugh Lamhfhada, i. e. Luamh, 
Eochad ill dathaC) L e. Dagh-daa^ 
Manaan mac Lir, 
Phreich uainc, 

Eachdan mor, Aongas Og: Budth-Dcarrg. 
Carmad milbheoi, fons of Daghda, 
l^hearaman Son of Budh-dearrg, 
Ealcmhar brogha na Boine, 
Aod, Eaduir, 

Seacchfa craob dcarrg, agus Trom a bhean, 
Polph dead (bolas, 
Abartach Son of Ildatha, 
Fear Fi, Son of Eogabal, , 
Ubreac Easax Ruid, 
Uilimid Sidhe, (w) many Demons, 



(v): The Brahmini (hidy the Chaldsean language, all their 
book* on Phyfick are written 10 that language. (Letter from 
Btmares to Mr. Holies). 

(w) Uiliinid Sidh. Many demons, fhey are enumeratesd in 
the MSS. which we refer to the Chapter on Religion. "TUf 
t9ld'0«mofi. HOT Cafdai Chaldscus, Divinus : nam divinaiidi 


15S A Vtndicatkn of tb€ 

Don Oilighy Don Crot, Don Dulbl^c, Dram 
or Priefts, 

The Children of Cuill, Ccacht and Gnaui, 
Clann Tuireann big reann. i« e. Uar, Jurca, 

N. B* As Uar fin ainm Brian mac Tuirrion, 
agus iolomad eile nach airmhthear funnta, i. e. 
CuU, Ccacht and Grian were the Clann of little 
Tourane and their defccndants Uar^ lurca^ lurca- 
ibay and from Uar defcended Brian who was 
named the Touran ; and many others not here 
enumerated (x). 

Touran or Turqueftan, the^Country of the Ori- 
ental Turks, an ancient and martial people, who, 
under the name of Getes, Moguls, Tartars &c. 
have at different times, poured in great numbers 
into the more. W^em and Southern Kingdoms* 
Xhefe are the Scythians of our ancient hiftories^ 
who invaded Perfia and the Kingdom of the 
Medes, but our bed hiflorians are apt to confound 
them with the Scythians of the North. (Sir Wm. 
Jones, Defer, of Afia). 

anes proiitebantirr Cafdaim, i. e. Chaldaei. Ea erat tdn'ns gen« 
tis ja6tancia» ut Divinos fe profitcrcntur. Forfan a Kf Quau Sr 
Sad Daemon % qtikfi Daemones & Divini. ^omaiTin^. 1 cbink 
from ns Kef or Ce illvftris & Sad. See Ce explained before. 
Scytbo-Scandicd Seid Ars magica : SiidnuHUar^ Magtxs. 

( x) The Mahomedans borrowed the names of their G«nii or 
Angels of the Jews ; and both Jews and Chaldaeans learned die 
names and offices of thofe beings from the Perftans or ancient 
Scjthians, as thej themfelves cenfefs in Talmud Hieros id Rofli* 
hadiana. See alfo Sales All Koran, Pre!, dife. p. 7a. but the 
Catalogue of Genii given us by the Tuatha Dadanns of whicb 
we fhall treat more at farge in the Mythobgy, feem to be par- 
ticular to them and to the Tibetbans. 


Ancient Hifiory af Ireland. 159 

Touran is faid to be fo named from Tur the 
Son of Feridum : D*Herbelot has confuted that 
opinion, but has* not given us any other derirati* 
0n« I am of opinion, that on the divifion of this 
great Empire, the Northern part, beyond the 
Oxus, was called Tua-Ran, or the Northern 
Divifion : and here dwelt the original Perfians or 
Southern Scythians. The Perfian Hiftory flicws 
they always laid claim to Iran or lar-ran the Wef- 
fern Divifion : thefe are Iri(h names. Afraliab, 
King of Touran, twice invaded and poffeflcd Per- 
fia : it is allowed his name implies Pbars-ab, the 
iather of the Perfians. Sir Wm. Jones thinks it 
was a common name for the Kings of Afiatick 
Tartary, as the Grand father of Cyrus, whom wc 
commonly call Aftyages, bore the fame name. 
The family of Othman, who now reign at Con-^ 
(lantinople, are willing to be reputed defcend'^ 
ants of this Kine of Touran and are flattered with 
the EfMihet of Afrafiab Jah or powerful as Afrafiab. 
(Jones's Perfia, p. 44). In fine they are the de- 
fendants of our Iriih Pbenius Pharfa, of whom 
in the proper place. Sir Wm. Jones places the 
laft Afrafiab at 667 before Chrift. 

The Touranians in our Iri(h hiftory, are fre- 
quently called Frange or Farange. The Arabs 
always call thefe people Farangah, the Englifh 
tranflation of Keating in his ufual ftile, will have 
this to be f ranee. It is to be remarked that the 
Tyrrhene Sea, in the Irifh hiftory is called Tou- 
ran : and that Hyginus makes Tyrrhenus the Son 
of Hercules, and Etruria his County : this feems 
to ftrengthen our Irifti hiftory (Hygin. fab. 74.) 




ifio A Yiniitaiiiai if ib0 

Tiie word Maiibe impliea here^ foiMtlMiigycr* 
ferwc€eJUnty, beyond tbe reach of mortak: iti&the 
Arabic Ma/ed^ fupcravit aliam gloria, & tanquam 
aomen honos,, decus gencria a Bnajpribus ad po£* 
teres tranfmiiTiim : Mm, Msxh 'i4pl He£ych« Mai^^ 
magDum Per£ Motba» Bcakmanes Mbataiu aui 
A^/iri^niagpiimxnaterLsm: Copci^^ mont, puritia^ 

r. Mogh Nuadhat Airgid lamh, L e*. Mo|^ 
Nuadhat of the l^lver band or Gold band : In anon 
ther place we have proved this to be Zorduft tlue 
ftrft (or Zoroafter), wbofe Perfiao. name fignifica 
Gold or filver hand. — his do&rine extended oivetr 
all India. Maximam fuperftionum partem, quae- 
Indog, Sinas, &vicinofr populos a feculis mnltis 
occscatos tenent ex do£trina Zoroailr$a& origincm> 
ducere. (Eufeb. Renaudot. in Hi(L Patr* Alex* 

a* ]i«ugh or Lu, Lamhihada,. that i$ Ltt the taUb 
Lama : it is fometimes writften Luamh and in thr 
Lexicons tranilated an Abbot. The ofi)i:e of La- 
n»a. was common, to all the Southern Scythiafi$»r*^ 
IxMibyffi, Tibeta]}orum Papa. j£thiQ|irJtyhikfeu. 
Louk, more Tibetaaorum Lou^ eft Lq,. Pretb^tcr^. 
SacerdoSy Prixxoepa, Summns. Lamani ita.. ha- 
beas inprcmum Chatayat^ qui iedem ^Lbaflar obfei* 
noxt, (T. p* 689;>(y)* Lama Ri^i-boicbe, Ttbch 
tanorum Pontxfex maximus (id)v 

3« Eocad ill dathac Dagh-daa^, u t* Dia Teib-* 
ith, Dagh (bomis) the God of Nature^ the Eocad 

(y) T. this Letter ftands <br the AJphabetum TibetBHxcRy 
publUhed at Rome, A. D. 1 761. bf Father Au{^ Anton. 

(i. e* 

jfncienf f^^/kr^ ^Ireland. t6i 

(u e. Penis iandus) oJFmany colours. Dace Tibc- 
tahorum nefcio queiti patrem Bavani finguiit, quo 
tempore Yocabatur Sati. Quod quanta impietatc 
IncU effutiant, fatis admirari nequeo ; nam^ fi ea 
mater eft Ifuren omniumque Deorum &.a& Ente 
fupremo^ lit illi folemnitur profitenttti^, «:A«i(r«r edi* 
taeft; unde in fcenam venit novus ifte Dacc^ 
a filia itupius ob earn caufam appeflatus^ quod 
feiplam a cultu Ifuren ad Vifnu honorandura ad- 
ducere aliquando ftuduerk ? Dak-pc babent etiam 
Tibetani, eumque principetn & caput loci Docam 
fuper aera pofiti interpretantur • — ^Les Indiens ont 
le ' Lingam qui ajoute encore quelque cfaofe k Tin 
famie du Phallus des Egyptiens & des Greed : ils 
adoreht le fauxdieu I/ur fous cette figure mon* 
ftreufe^ & obfcene^ qu'ils expofent dans les tfcm- 
ples, & qu*ils expofent en proceffion infuitant 
d^une msuiiere horrible i la pudeur & a la credulity 
de, (a populace^ (La Croze, p* 43 1). Pafupati 
vocant Nepallenfas Phallum feu Lingam, quadri-* 
formem flavi, rubri, viridis^ albique coloris : (T. 
152.) hence the epithet illdatbaej i. e. many colour^* 
ed : — he is called Dia Teibith^ Chaldec n*»JDP Ta- 
baitb. Arab. Tubcat^ i. e- Natara« 

4. From Dagh-daa proceeded Fhrech uaine, 
i. e. fettled Limen : J&gypt» Brecfai or Brchi bi- 
tumen : Lutum ex terra & aqua feu argilla^ & per 
apocapen, vix certe dubito quin, & heec ipfa ad 
materiam creationis fignilicandum apud iEgyptios, 
accepta fuerit : huic fi adxias Am^ qua in nominum 
pr^^tertjsn compofitione iEgyptii, ut Graecos prae- 
tercam, Amonem fyritum intellexerunt, erit j8rr- 
cham feu Breham &J>et crafin coalcfcente E in A 
Sram.'^&c N3*^*D Brica, pullities, faecundatib, 
fprmat mundum Briaticum Cabbaliftorum, mun* 

L dus 

1 62 AViwHcatkntfthe 

dus matcrialis (T. 104). Sic cnim Brahma cbul^ 
litionLs, ;efflore£centia^ & creationis materialis fpiri- 
tum principem, five potcnt^o^Jonat & ccrtc vox 
Brechi vel Brehi tria ilia percommoda notat (id). 

And f rpia him proceeded Bud-dearrg. I thiiik 
dearrg is a contraftion of Darrioga, Rex Suprc- 
mus, which correfponds with the Chaldean yy^ 
Darag, Dox, an Epithet given to Budysi ; Spar- 
theboe filius, qui regnavit.Indiirtertiua poft Bac- 
chum, Arrian. Rer. Ind. p. 173. — (T. 104) — (z). 

5. Seacchfa Craob dearrg. In Indiis Xaca re- 
ligio per omnes fere earum regionum populos la- 
tiflime funditur ; tempus quo Xaca vixerit, incer* 
turn eft, plures funt «x Europceis fcriptoribus, qui 
fioriiifle yelint Salomone in Judsea regnante ; noa 
idem eft: et Xaca novus, i. e. ApoUoniiis Tyane- 
us, qui floruit A. D. 6o. (T. 161). Xacam eun- 
dem efle ac Buddum, La Crozius aliique non dcu 
bitant. Xacse nominis origo a Saca Babiloniorum 
& Perfarum nomine repetendo. Tibetaporum 
litera fcribitur Sachiuy quod idem efl; cum Sechia 
Sinenfium (T. 2 1 )• Les Japonois le difent ori- 

(%) Le Xaca des Japonaii, le Sominona*rhutana du Pega» 
le Soounona-kodam de Siam, le Butta des Indiens, ne fontqu'un 
feul & Bieme perfonnage, regardd ici comme un Dieu, la comme 
vn ]egi(kteur«i— fi jii bien prouvd que Butia^ Thoth & Mercure 
ne font dgalemenc que la meme iovenceur des Sciences & det 
arts: i]s*eniuivni que toutes les nations dei'Afie, anciennes & mo- 
demet o6nr eu la philofophie & pour la religion, qu'un feul & 
meme legillateur place i leur origine, Alors je dirai que ce 
legiflateur unique n'a pu aller panout dans TAfie, ni en vacxac 
terns parctque fans doute, il n'avalt pas d'ailes ; ni fttccefliYe^ 
ment parce que la vie d'uo homme ne fufirait pas aux voyages. 
L^exiftence de ce peupU antmeur eft prouvde par le tableau 
qiy n'ofFre que des ddbris, Aftronomie oubliecy philofophie 
mel^e a des abfurditds, phylique deg6n6re6 en fables, religion 
6puree» mais cachte faui une idolatrte grofliere. (M. Baillj. 
p. aoo), 


Ancient Hiftory of Ireland* 163 

ginalre 4lu pais, o& it eft adoi^e fotis le noni de 
Budbuj & de Sommona-^adam '& le font nakre pen- 
dant le regne dsta Empereur de la Glune, qui vi- 
voit environ miile ans avant L C* (Barner. & Maf- 
char. de Rel* Japon. T. V. p* 1 2). Foe, Fo aut 
Xachia Sinenfium Deum, tempore quo Solomon rex 
in Paleftina imperabat (T. 45). Scia-chia illud 
^flc & feritd a Tibetanis (^id).— -die termination fa 
or fo, has the fame meaning in Iriih and Tibetan, 
viz* great, magnificent, to augment, to increafe. 
The epithet of Craob dearrg is alfo Tibetan, viz. 
.Curbe, Curve k Curphi Buddiftarum aut Tibetan- 
orum, eil Corbidus et corrupt^ Cubricus, no- 
men Manes. £a tribuitur primo humani generis 
gubernatori Regi Principi, Regi honoris decorum, 
^lendidam, ac venerandam fignificat (T). 

Tlie wife of Seacchfa was Trom : (he is faid alfo 
•to be the wife of Dagh, Trom in Irifh flgnifies 
pregnant^ hcdyjy and hence Trom-mathar a Ma- 
tron. Trotii is here compounded of Tra and Anu 

Geminam ducit uxorem Xaca, viz. Tra*zimo 
& Sa-zana : addenda eft tertia Ri-tha-khje. Tra* 
:simo mihi equidem aliud noii eft quam pariens, 
aut mittens vita mater, Drak Tibet : Drek Syr. 
gignere & paxere (T. 34. 718.). — whence our Tro- 
mather — Quaere, do not thefe names explain the 
Infcription found in England, that has fo much 
perplexed the learned Selden ? 

R. FV3. L. M. 

Quid fibi vellet Tramai, ne hariolari quidem au^ 
• fus fum : Atqui fi Aftarte Deum fuerit Mater, 

L 2 Aftartse 


i64 A r$nJUMiM rftbt 

Aftartss ut fint Dex Mstnss bpottet (in Diig Syfit 
Synt. ad De Aftaroth)« 

N. B. Ce&itnld is lootfacr lumie for Seacc^ia : 
£9 it may be Tramai Uxor Ccrmidi^^who feem» 
to be peculiarly calied upon in dfia liAe, te pfofi- 
ding ovet the Des Matres* 

6. Phearaihan, Soil of Budh'dcarrg. Tbiswtt 
Paraman die fbuader of the Branki|is : Jai remir^ 
qu^ ()ue les Brames aimaient a etre af^elHs Psr^t- 
tMfies^ pat refped pour La mcmoire de leur Ab<- 
ceftres qui portOxeat ce norn^ (MoaC Bailly, Lett* 
fur Ite Sttieflses^ p4 aidfi). FaUfiusias kous dit^ 
ue Mercure<» le nn^me que Buliti ou Budda una 

e$ fondateurs de la dodiriiic dea Paramenes cm 


JSramas, eft appelle Fkrsunmoii (Gebdin Hi(L du 
Calendridr Ftef. p<i i4)< 

7* Dolph dead ftohu : Dolph «ith the fluting 
teeth (&)• This ia the Salambus df the Babylon 
^(li^B^ ^rrtllt Adir-daga of the AflfyrianSy'^-^adem 
quee & Detoeto Dea Syria & Heliapolitana^ 
•i^iK«j^¥ Delepheaty quafi maris fpumam aiant, 
teffce Hefychio^ Vraerem Mff^ft^ire» vocari. Yeniia 
c Maris Spuma Delephai : JEgypdis Ddphav aut 
Delj^iat^ Oxyriilchus pifcis (T. i24)*-^£amfpfam 
«ife Derceto le Salambo. Etce Fi<lelphay plur. 
num. me quoque tacente, prodit apert^ Grse- 
tvm ^f Ae^V in 6ing : & ex Arabico ihtefprete 
Salaba per Epentn pe Salamba^ Oityrinchum 
apud ^gypt.--Qus vox fi a Graeds ad nativam 
diale&um trahsfa^u^^ habebiti^os cbatfnuo 0/£J- 
rinfoi^ Ofiddis Smuln, ?a MU. Jfin fciHcet vi Ofiri- 
dis fluvida^ taque igtata tUttiidam. Natlrant enim^ 
^gyptii, ut eft itai Oedip. Kirch. T. i. p. 35^ 

(a) The 'fifli allied Dolph.-^Ozyrinefaus i» (raniateda 

Jkukn$ S^my rf Inland. i5j 

Oxfrinebum dsvw^Jt pudendum OJiridh a Tyfidm 
f^/iffum^ ae in Nilum prajeffumf ut minim non (it. 
miod pUcem hunc JEgypdi^ lantopere venrran 
ftuduerint, (T. i24)-^hcnco from the Dolpbdead 
Shelag, is formed tke above moft ridiculous alkf 
gory i a prodF of the Sonthero Scythians having 
been that ancient people of Aiia fpoken of by 
MoixL Bailly : Cet ancien peupic a eu des Sciences 
perfedionees, nne {diilQiophie fublime & lagf s 
and this again is exemplified, by all thcfe namef 
turning lo one and the fame meaning in the Irift 
language. The God of Naturei mc Gcoi^at 
and the Seaien, the fignification of Budd^ Seagbr- 
fii, &C, &c. Nam Tb^Sumani .£gyptii Genitalia 
vocant k Sumonas Mentq/hrtfrn^ i* e« Semen Apol- 
inif, autMe)itham«W h yi^ T«^AM(9a»wSmguinem 
ac genituram AmmomSy (T. 1 50). 

Our account of the Maiihsy condudes intb a 
iQio^ lift of miracukius things imported to Ireland 
hj the Tuatha Dadann, "whSch here require ibme 
explanation, hefo]*e we proeeed-^be worde are, 
Tugfitt feoid iongontaca inghnathacha leo, u e* 
they brought with them their uAmI vonderf ul cu* 
^riofities, viz. 

1. An Leug CaiiL i. an doch jCceisd^dlH 
that is, the Stone of the Che£dim, or of Endiant- 
ihent, which always declared the larue namtroh 
and prevented all controverfy* 


This is the Mj^fcitfa or Orade defiBrtbad in the 
15th No. of the GoUedanea. The Irufii Antiqua- 
ries have Gonfbunded this Stone^ with anpthcr,^ the ^cytbiao? op)yj ^A^JM^dl^ belong*- 


1 66 A Vindication tf the 

ed to the Chaldeans, the other Stone is pecuUar to 
Japhet's race, and is common with the Turks and 
Tartars. It is called Carrig am Atbar or the Stone 
of the Father. This fabulous Stone is i^^ell known 
in the Eaft, an account of it is to be met with in 
D^Herbelot, p. 890. extraded from Oriental Au- 
thors. ^' Before Japhet feparated from Noah, 
fay they, the Patriarch beftowed to his Son his 
bleiBng, and a moft valuable Stone on which was 
engraved the great name of Godj and inftruded 
him at the fame time, that in this myfterious 
name, was comprized all that was eflential in Re* 
ligion and in divine worihip. lliis Stone the 
Arabs call Hag^r al mathar^ that is, the Stone of 
rain, a name corrupted from Carig am Atbar. 
The Moguls name it Gioiidebthajb^ (i« e. Seoda 
Taofac^ in Irifli, the Chieftan's Stone;) the Perfi- 
ans call it Senkideh i« e. the Stone, It had the pow- 
er of producing rain or fair weather, as Japhet 
faw agreeable to his wiflies, and though by length 
of time, it has been confumed or loft, the Tartars 
or Oriental Turks have ftones in which they hj^ 
there is the fame virtue $ts the Original had. And 
the moft fuperftitious amon^ft them tell you, 
that they have been reproduced and multiplied by 
a kind of generation from this firft Stone, that Nof** 
ah gave to his Son.?' (b) 


(b) The old Komam conveited th^ word am Athar into Mar- 
tial Is and Manalis ; 'fience the Lapis' Manalis^ vel Lapii hfarti-' 
alis^ kept in the temple of Man at )lpine, without the Porta Ca- 
pena. In Droughts the old Romans ufed to cany in proceflion 
this La^is Mariialis to pr«cuTie rain. The Romifli. Church coa- 
▼erted this corrupted Marttalit into a good Saint, and the Baton 
of St. Martial in the Cevennei^ has now the fame rain producing 
power. The Catholic Roman Calendar is fo good a Comment 


Ancimt Hijtcry of Ireland. 167 

It is evident from the above extrafb, that the 
Arabs have made the fame confufiou as the mo- 
dern Iriih ; miftakii^ the Leach Fail of the Iriih 
and the Lak Fail of the Perfians, for the. Carig am 
Atbar ; The Cloch na Soineana is confounded with 
the Clach na Cineambna\ the firft (ignifies the 
Maiiheac or Meifcith, the n^Sttfo pi^ of the Jews, 
forbidden Levit. 26. i. the fecond, Japhets 
fair weather Stone, and the third, the Stone of 

2. The fword of Nuadhat of the filver hand : 
agus ni gabhtha Cath fris, which was never ufjpd 
in battle, i. e« the Sword of Zerdufl: the iirft. 

3. Coire an Daghda, nach .teigheadh damh di- 
omdhar uadha : the Coirr, Knot or twifted Girdle 
of Daghda, which he conftantly wore. They 
feught the battle of Muighe tuireadh, (of the 
Towers of the Magi) widi the Fear-bolg, ba 
hainmhin ettrocair ro fearadh an cath (in eatorra,) 
with brutal cruelty on both iides ; Eocbad Mac 
Earg was Tmghfhlaith^ or Chief Commander of 
the Fir^bolgy and he cut off the hand of Nuadhat, 
and at length his head* In another MSS. we are 
told, that the Tuatha Danann, ever remarkable 
for their Sorcery and Necromancy, made a Silver 
hand for Nuadhat, whence his name of Airgiod* 
lamh, or Silver handed, proh dolor ! 

To an Qrientalift, acquainted wtth t|ie fabulous 
hiftory of the Perjiansy there niuft appear a ftrik* 
ing coincidence, of names and fads, between the 

on Ovkl's Fadi, that from tbefe a Monk, has afhially fupplied his 
books of thofe which are loft. Stephens, Muflard, and Middle* 
ton, have otAj iketcht this conformity of Ceremonies, but Mr. 
Bowman has proved it is univerfal in the earlr fuperftition^ of 
che Roman Religion. (Min. Antiq. Soc. 8 Feb. 1 7 $9,) 


i68 A yindicafmH 9f the 

Ferfian and Irifli Hiftory* llie Tuatha Daiam 
are the Pijhdadan of the Ferfians* Nuadhat Air- 
giodlamh, is the Zerdoji (or Gold-hand) of the 
Perfians ; and Eochad Mac Earg (or the Horfe* 
man) is the hxy^fy (or the illuftriow Horfeman} 
King of the Scythians, who gave that pretended 
prophet fo much vexation. 

Firft then, Tuath and PUh (c) are ^nonimous 
words in the Chaldee, and both figniiy myftery. 
Sorcery, Prophets, &c. they are both ofthefiunc 
figniHcation in the Irifli, therefore by Pijhdadann 
and Tuatha Dadann^ I underftand the Dadanites, 
defcended of Dedan, who had ftudied the Necro- 
mantic Art, which fprung from the Chi/dim or 

In Liber Aruch under tfl we find YU*l^t0t9 Tuta* 
Dagon, explained to be the priefts or Sorcerers of 
Dagon ; in Hebrew (Dt9 Tut is a Myftery, a Secret : 
(Liber Zohar Cb. t^. we find Tut or t9t3 the name 
of the Chief Anpel, alfo of the Mefliah () and hence 
I derive the Tut^batb worn by the Rabbins on 
their foreheads in the Synagogues. In Chaldee 
WO^VO Tiita is any thing myfterious. (Rabboth 
Cap. ofiO In Arabic Tawid, Averunca* 

Chaldee n^Q pitzah, aperuit, interpretavic, m^ 
Sors. No*^^sSors^ Syriacd I^DD praedicavit : Perficd 
pifhin guftun to predict, (Jai ^ufhm the fame, 
whence our Lia Fail)^ In Iriih Pijhof^^ Sorcery, 

(c) Tualthtt Htrm laircintAU 
im nicfead fichlaith nua. 
FiUes Mihemi^ vacicinaba/nmr 
fldveaturum tempus pacis novuoi. 

(Prima VUs Patricii. Colpn p. a.) 


AncUnt H^ory of hreknd. 1 69 

foftttne*tcUing) conjuring, &c* — the word is 
now taken in a bad fcnfe a$ in the Hebrew pg ma- 
ledicere. (d) 

As to the Irifh Tbua or Tua^ (in the plural 
Tuatba^) there can no doubt arife of the figni- 
fication of the word, and that it is here applied to 
the Dadannim if Chaldaa. Symmachus and Hi- 
.eronymus are explicit, as coUeded by the learned 
Bochart* ^^ Proinde ut Bacchae Tbyades^ iic Ba^ 
^^ bylonii harufpices a Symmacho vocantur ^vii. 
^^ Dan. 2. 27.— Hieronymus, pro arufpicibui, 
^^ quod nos vertimus in Hebraeo pntJl habetur, 
<< quod folus Symmachus et;«V interpretatus 
<« eft." (e) 

ever SacHficula Bacchi. (ApolL)— -Oi^a^ quas 
Grseci folent ii«r«Te(neo«ra/r appellare, i. e. qui exta 
infpiciunt) & ex iis ventura praedicunt. (f j 

In a former number of this work, my readers 
were ad?ertifed, that the war between the Fir^olg 

(d) The Prriiaiu derive the fttme PiJhJadim from fi/hdad 
a Lawgiver. Pei/h-nihaud is a Law : and fo is dad m Arabic ; 
in Irilh Doth : in Chaldee and Hebrew m dath i but there is 
no fuch word as Pi/h in die Chaldee, fignifying a kw, and from 
the Chaldataos we derive this Colony with fome good pretence. 
Mirkhofxl and Khoikdemir affure as, diat the 4 Dynafties of 
the Per&ns iociude all the Kings of AfTyria, of Cbaldxa, Ba- 
bvloD, Medes, and Periia, known to the Greeks, who like the 
Hebrews, have often taken Viceroys and Governors of the ancient 
fSimp of Perfia ibr abfeJute Monarcbs, becaufe diey were better 
known to them than the Sovereigns weitv whole Refidences were 
in Proytncet very diftaiit from theoL 

(e) Bochart. Geogr. Sacr. L. i , C. i S,— to which he adds, 
ut jam nulli fit obfcurum cur Graeci tot voces barbaras ufurpa* 
verint in Bacchi facnn : ilias fcilicet a magiftris Phaoiiribw c^- 
dicerant. Tuath hi Irifli is alfo explained by phoras or foras, 
an Explanator, revealer, iiiterpretor, ftc. 

(f) Lexicon Graecum ad facri apparatus inftruitionem. 
Antverp. 157s. 


1 70 A Vindication of the 

and the Tuatba Dadantiy from every circumftance 
that could be colleded in Iriih Hiftory, was cau£- 
ed from Religious motives : fome innovations at- 
tempted by the Tuatha Dadann, in which they 
fucceeded ; for this reafon, I was then of opinion 
that Bolg fignified a Prieft, as balg is a man of eru- 
dition, (a^ a further purfuit in this dark and myf- 
terious hiftory, has convinced me that I was right 
with refped to the principal objed, the war, and 

ferceiying that the Scene lay with the Chaldeans, 
was mifled by Buxtorf, who makes Balg a Seft 
of the Jews, nib3 Bilga Nomen Sacerdotis cujuf- 
dam, qui ex captivitate Babylonica Hierofolymam 
rediit. Nehem. 12. 5. — cujus Seftatores didti fue- 
Tunt Bilgitae : videtur & Ordo virginum facrarum 
abeo fuiffe, de quoordine quaedam nita rO Cy^'lD 
Miriam filia Bilgse, i. e. de ordine five obfervan- 
tia Bilgae dida — the Signification of our Fir bolg 
has been fufficiently and iatisfadorily explained ki 
the preceding pages. 

It will appear, that this war between the Fir bol^ 
or JFIr D^Omany or men of Omariy and the Tuatha 
Dadann^ is the War defcribed by the Perfian Hif- 
torians, to have fubfifted between the Pifdadian 
Kings of Perfia, and the Touranians or Scythians^ 
cauicd by Zer4ujl the firft, (or Zoroaftres, on 
the introduftion of Pyrca or Firctowers, like thofc 
iVA\ remaining in this Kingdom,) in which attcqupt 
Zerdu/i loft his life. 

In this inveftigation, fo many circumftances, 
proper names &c. concur, to cftablifli the faft, 
that they have induced me to follow my ^iginal, 

(a) Arabicd Gelg whence Baligh or Belch, the City pt 


Ancitnt Hi/iary of Ireland. 171 

ibe iriii Hiftory, in the explanation of Berjtan 
names \ becaufe the Irifh naine$ appear to be the 
iimple tranilation of the Perfian, and at the fame 
iime^ the words are to be found in the Arabic or 
Perficy though now become obfoletc : this I hope 
iwill be a fuffidcnt apology for differing fo much 
from the learned authors, who have gone over thi$ 
ground before me : it is alfo to be confidered^ 
that.thefe Authors have had no other refource for 
4ieir inveftigation, than the Arabs, and th^ 
Greeks ; the firft pro&iTed enemies of the Perfes^ 
or fire worfhippers, the latter ignorant of almoft 
all Afiatic police or religions, yet pretended to 
know every thing, which made Luciaii begin one 
of liis Satyxii^l pieces againft hiftorian^, with de- 
claring that the only true propofition in his work 
was, that it/bauld contain nothing true. (H) 

My guide in this intricate path, is more than 
language ; it is a chain of hiftorical events, (whe- 
ther real or fabulous, I do not pretend to deter- 
mine) which illuftrate the <early part of Perfian 
hiftory, and plainly prove, that both the Perfiaa 
and the Irifh or Scythian Anecdotes, mud have 
been handed to us by one and the fame people. 
The diverfity and difficulty of languages, fays the 
learned Sir William Jones, is a lad obflacle to the 
progrefs of ufeful knowledge ; the attainment of 
them is however indifpenfably neceiTjiry : they are 
the injlrunients of real learning, (b) 

To underftand the .fubfequent part of this Chap- 
ter, it is neccffary my readers be made acquainted 
.with the Pcrfian hiftory of the Pijhdadiam^ and 
with the Writers of the lite of Zerduft. 


(b) AJJreisto the Aliatic Sncietj. 




1 71 A Vindieatian of the 

My hiftory of the Perfian Empire, lays 8ir 
William Jones, it cxtraded from ferenl Afiadck 
Writers, and might have been confiderably enlar*- 
iarged, if all the ntbles and dull events, which are 
found, it muft be oonfefled, in great abundaiice 
in the Originals, had been trasfcribed at fiili 
kngth. The Perfians would not readily forgivt 
my prefumption, if they knew what a liberty | 
liave taken with their Chronology, and how numf 
iboufand years I have retrenched nrom the pretends 
ed duration of their Empire. 

From RicHARDSov^s DifcrtaHou on the Languages^ 
&c. oftbe Eajiem Nationsy p. 47* 

^ The reigning families of Perfia^ previous to 
^ the Arabian conquefl, are comprehended, by 
^* their hiftorians, under four dynafties (or iami- 
^ lies) ; the Pijhdadianij the KmaniaTUj the Jls^ 
^ kaniansj znd tht Sqffanians* The Perfians, like 
^ other people, have aflumed the privilege of ra- 
^ mancing on the early periods of Society. The 
^ firft dynafty is, in con^quence, embarrafled by 
** fabling, (c) Their moft ancient princes arc 
** chiefly celebrated for their vidories over 
^^ the Demons or Genii, called Dives : and feme 
'* hgve reigns affigned to them of 800 or 1000 
** Years. ' Amidft fuch fi^ons, however, there 
^ h apparently feme trutb. Thofe monarchs ^r^^a- 
*^ bfy did reign, though poetic fancy may have 
^ afcribed to them ages and adventures, which the 

(c) Sir William Jones fays, the Perfian hiftory begins to be 
iiiU of abfurd fkblet in the irigii of Danb. B. Chrift, 424. 

<< laws 

Andmi Hyiary rf Ireland. 1 75 

*< Iftws of nature rejeS;. We difpute not the ex* 
iftence pf our £ngli(h Arthur^ though we believa 
not in the Giants and Magic of Geoffrey of 
^^ Monmouth. The Dives may have been favage 
^ neighbours conquered by the Pi/bdadian Kii^^ 
and magnified by tradition as beings ofafuper* 
natural fpecies^ The Gods^ the Titans and the 
heroes ot the Greeks ; the Giants, the Savages^ 
^^ and the monfters of Gothic romance, feem all 
^^ to have originated^ from fimilar principles ^ 
'^ from that wild irregularity of fancy, and that 
^ admiration of the marvellous, which, in various 
^ degrees, runs thro* the legends of every darker 
^^ period of the hiftory of mankind. The longer 
^ vity, at the fame time, afcribed to this race of 
^' monafchs, may either have been founded oa 
*^ fome imperfect antediluvian idea» or may be re« 
f* folved, by {\k^^i\ngfamtiesj iuHt^Aoi individu'. 
^ als\ and that the Caiwmarasy the Gbem/hids^ 
** and the Feridouns of the Eaft, were merely fuc- 
^' cefEons of princes, bearing one common fur-^ 
^^ name ; lUce the Pharaohs, the Ptolemies or the 
daefars of the Weft/' (d) 

With the fecond dynafty, a more probabk; 
fyftem of hiftory feems to commence ; yet ftill 
^ tiie era of Kaicobad the founder of this houfe, 
cannot be precifely fixed. Though hiftorians 
** differ, however, with regard to the Chronology 
^^ of this prince in one point, which may lead us 
to afcertain it with tolerable accuracy^ they ap- 
pear, in general, to be unanimous. Darab the 
younger, dethroned by Alexander, is called the 
9th Sovereign of this line. He was affaflinated 
about 300 Years before Chrift. If 30 years ar^ 

(d) O'umra in Irifli> is head cf the Nobles. 

'* allowed 

174 ^ tindication ef the 


*^ alldw^d tKerefore as the medium of cadi feign, 
** or 270 for the nine Kings, Kaicobad^s Sovc- 
*' rcignty may poffibly have tomfmenccd aibdUt 
^ 600 Years before our era, which will compre- 
*^ hcnd the tvhole of that f>eri6d of Perflan hiftorV 
** for i^hich we are indebted to the Oredcs. Sir 
I. Newton, it may be objeded, with other 
Chronoldgifts, have allbwed but ab Years to ^ 
feign, and made that the univerfal ftandard for 
^^ all nations t but with fubmiffion to thofe learned 
*' men, nothing carries with it a ftrbrigcr tendcil* 
cy to unhinge all chronology, than fuch an un- 
modified fyftem/* 
*' The Kaianan dynafty being foppofcd then to 
** commence nearly about 600 Year^ before the 
•* birth of our Lord, this brings us to the reigil 
of that King of the Medo Perlians, called by the 
Greeks Cyaxeres ; (e) which according to Sir I. 
^* Newton's conjefture, is fuppofed to have begun 
*^ in the Year Nabonaffar 137 (about 610 before 
** Chrift-) From this period till the Macedonian 
conqueft, we have therefore the hiftory of the 
Perfians, as given us by the Greeks ; and the 
" hidory of the Perfians, as written by them- 
" felves. Between thofe clafles of writers, we 
" might naturally cxpeft fome difference offals ; 
" but we (hould as naturally look for a few great 
*' lines, which might mark fomc Jimi/arity of^ory: 
" yet, from every refearch which I have had an 
" opportunity to make, there feems to be nearly 
** as much refemblance between the annals of 
England and Japan, as between the European 
and Afiatic relations of the fame Empire. The 

(0) i. e. Cai Cofni.^ See p. 6i . 

•• names 




Ancieni Hi/iory of Ireland. ty^ 

n&mes and numbers of their Kings have nd 
analogy : and in regard to the tnoft fplendid 
^' fads of the Greek hiftoriant, the Perfians are 
entirely filent* We have no mention of the 
Great Cyrus hoi: of any King of Perfia, who in 
the events of his reign, can apparently be forced 
*' into a fimilitude. We have no Craeius King of 
*^ Lydia : not a fyllable of Cambyfes or of his 
^' frantic expedition againft the Ethiopians. 
Smerdis Magus and the fucceilion of Darius, 
the Son of Hyftafpes, by the neighing of his 
^' horfe, are to the Perfians circumftances equally 
^^ unknown as the numerous afiailinations record-* 
^^ cd by the Greeks. Not a veftige is, at the fame 
^' time, to be difcovered of the famous battles of 
Marathon, Thermopylae, Salarnis, Platea, or 
Mycale : nor of that prodigious force which 
** Xerxes led out of the Perfian empire to over- 
'^ whdm the States of Greece. Minutely atten- 
^ . tive as the Perfian hiflorians are to their numer^ 
^ ous wars with the Kings of Touran or Scythia : 
(f ) and recording, with the fame impartiality 
whatever might tarnifli as well as aggrandize 
the reputation' of their country : we can, with 
^* little pretence to reafon, fuppofe, that they 
" ihould have been filent on events of Aich mag« 
" nitude : had any record remained of their ex- 
^' iftencc, or.the.&intcft tradition commemorated 
" their confequencefc." 

From this learned Orientalift's refearches, we 
have two points eftabliQied in favour of our Ififh 
records, firft, that they were not copied by Iri(h 
monks, either from Greek or Latin Authors, for 

(f) Tbc people whofe hiftory we are now treating of. 


176 A VinMeatiM tf the 

iK> trania&iotts of the Grecians at this period, as 
aflerted by their writers, appear in die Irifh hifto- 
ry : fecondly^ it correfponds fo much widi the 
Perfian hiftory, that it muft have been brought 
with them from Afia, and in point of time there 
is ^f e^t coincidence. 

The Irifl) Annals inform us, that Mogb Nuad^ 
bat or Nuadhar, that is, the Magus Nuadhar, was 
the leader of this Oniony into Eirin^ which we 
tranflate Ireland, but may hare firaified Iran of 
Perjia^ and that this event took place. Anno 
Mundi 3303» that is, aboat 705 Tears before the 
birth of our Saviour, (g) 

Mr. Ricbardfon clearly proves that the firft King 
of the fecond DynaAy, begun his reign about 600 
Years before Chrift. Nuadar was the 8th King 
of the firft "^Dynafty, and there were three between 
him and Kaicobad, or the firft King of the fecond 
Dynafty, (as in the following table) : allowing 30 
years to each, and adding three times 30, or 90 to 
the former number, the Sum is 690 Years from 
the end of Nuadar^s reign, which ftibftracced from 
705 leaves 15; that is, about the middle of Nua- 
dar's Reign, he led the Pifhdadian Colony into 
Perfla, or Iran, ioon after which he may have mi- 
grated with the Phscnicians to Elirin, or lent off 
a Colony with them* 

> It will appear hereafter, that, this Nuadhar 
Airgiodlamh, or filver handed, is Zerds^ the tft, 
wbofe cadftenx^e Flayfair makes about 600 years 
B. C. ; be <:aUs him a Perfiaa, we contend from 
Irilh hiftory, and other corroborating circum^ 
fiances, <hat wifl appear in this chapter, that he 
was of the family of Dadan^ fon of Rbeginay fon 

(g) Sec Page 73'. 


Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 'i 77 

of Cujhj fon of Cham or Ham ; yet the circum- 
ftance of Airgiodlamh's death by Eochady (that 
is, the iUuftrious horfeman,) correfponds in name, 
with the death of Zerdujl the 2d, who lived about 
490, B. C. according to Playfair, and was killed 
by the Scythian King Arjafpj which is only the 
Irifh Eocbad tranflated into the Perfic language, 
viz. Arj iUuftrious, afp a horfe, of this hereafter* 
(a) The Perfians have blended the tranfa&ion of 
one Zerduft with the other. 

(a) Tauk was die old Arabic name for a horfe, as we colled 
from Hjdes notes on Abulfarag. The ancient Arabs^ fays that 
aothor, worihipped thefe idols | /fW under the figure of a man ; 
Sawa^ under that of a woman; Ti^uiA a Hon ; Tauk a horfe, 
and Neffr a Tulture. Arabes autem videntur has formas elicuifle 
ex appellativis horum nominum iignificationibus 1 and here we 
muft obferve, that modh or wodh is mhodh, i. e. mhodh in 
Irifli, a man I Saobha a remarkable woman, called Queen 
Shebha, and Shevan a Mifce, a fabulous Mry Queen ; and 
Eoc or Toe, is a horfe. The termina^oQ ad implies iUuJIrit, 

M Th« 


A Vindicatim ff tki 

The Dtha^ty o» the PiRftiAKf^ 

Accordmg ta Visdblou and Caland^ fccxm the 
earlkft Hiftory to thi; Chriftian Enu (b) 


Reigned years. 


1 Cai-umarath 

2 Siamek' - 

3 Tahamuras 

4 Gjam&id 

5 ZohakorDohak 1000 

6 Afridoun or? 

Feridoun S ^ 

7 Manougeher - lao 

1000 years 


Cotemporary with 
Pharaoh ot Mofes, 
according to the 

8 Noudar 

9 Afrafiab 

10 Zab - 

11 Gufhtafp 


20 or 30 

2989 Sum of their Reignsi 

(b) Supplement to D'Herbalot by Vifdelou and Galand. 

C A L 

jindeni Hjfiery of Ireland^ i yg 


Reigned years. lived. 

1 Caicobad - 120 

2 Caikous ^ 150 

3 Caikhofru - 60 « 

4 Lohorafp - 120 

5 Kiflitafp - 120 •* 

6 Ardihir or Ba- 7 

haman J '^ 

7 Queen Homai 32 « 
& Dorab the ift. 1 2 or 14 
9 Dorab the 2d.^ 

conquered by> 14 
Alexander, j 

7^4 cor 742 Sum. (c) 
M 2 The 

(c) Herodotus, Xenophon, Pftufaniat, Jaftin, aod ofther hif- 
toriansy differ fo remarkablyy efpecially with regard to namesy 
eras, and adts of the early kings of Perfta, that, if it was of the leaft 
importance to reconcile them, it would be impofCble. (Rich- 
ardfon's Difiert. p. 242. 

Kings of Perfia according to the Greeks. 

Cyaxeres, ion of Aftyages. Ante Chr. 61 o« 

Curios the Mede. 



Smerdis Magus. 

Darius, fonof Hyfiafpes. 




i8o A Vtfuiuation of the 

Third Dynasty of the Greeks. 

Alexander begun his Reign in Perfia, 331 before 



Thcfe three fum8 added together, cxclufive of 
the interregnum of 200 years, make, in the whole 
4062 years, to which add the interregnum, and 
Caiumaraib muft have reigned 4262 years before 
the chriftian era ; but, allowing 30 years to a reign, 
according to Mr. Richardfon, and multiplying 
that number by 7, the Kings before Naaudary 
and adding the 1 5 he is fuppded to have reigned 
before he led the Piihdadians into Iran^ according 
to Irifh hiftory, then Caimurath begun his reign 
only 930 before Chrift. 

Gujhtafp is proved by Dr. Hyde to be the Dari^ 
us Hyjiajfes of the Greeks, and to have reigned 
5 1 9 before Chrift ; adding 300 years to this num- 
ber for the ten preceding Kings, will bring the 
commencement of Kaiumurath's reign to 819 
years before Chrift, which only exceed the Irifh 
Chronology by 1 1 1 years. 

Anaxerxes Longimanus. 
Xerxes 2d. 
.Darius the baftard. 
Anaxerxes Ochus. 

Darius Gxlonianus. 
Alexander ante Chr. 330. (Sir J. Newton.) 


Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. . i8i 

It is remarkable, that the fabulous reigns of the 
Pi/hdadians end with Manougher, and a more 
rational account begins with Naoudar, with whofe, 
life our Tuath Dadann hiftory commences, with- 
out afligning any time to him or any of the reft of 
the Dynafty : but in the third Irifti Dynafty, that 
is, this Milejian line, we fhall find Dohac^ Tagh^ 
fjmras^ Queen Homaij and others, with Scythian 
names, and a regular Chronology afligned to them, 
as if they lived but yefterday. We Ihall here col- 
late the two hiftories* I muft firft premife that 
Kai in Perfic, and Ce or X>, and Cai or Cu in 
Iriih, fignify a prince, jn giant, a hero, as in Irifh, 
Ce-bacche^ the great, the illuftrious Bacchus. Cai- 
cullan or Cu-cuUaji, the great CuUan. It is writ- 
ten O and Ctf/, and it auo flgnifies a houfe, a fa- 
mily, a hufband. Kaiyan is the Perfic plural — 
hence Km-cobad is the Greek Cyazares, Kai-Kus^ 
Darius the Mede. Kai-Khofru^ Cyrus or Chof- 
roes, &c. and Cai-amra in Irifh, is King of the 

L Kaiomerasj is allowed by all the Afiatic au- 
thors to have been firft King of the Pifhdadians ; 

(d) before his time there was no King, they 
were all Emr^s^ independent of each other, by 
which much confufion enfued ; they therefore 
elected him Kai-omara, i. c. head of the Amra^s. 

(e) He civilized the people, taught men to build 


(d) And It b as remarkable that he rook the title and fumame 
of Buig/uan, as if defcended of our Bolgi ; but the Periians hy^ 
the name is contra&ed of Jibuhihan^ i. e. the fether of the world ; 
it is compofed, fay they, ora word which is Hebrew, Syriac 
and Arabic, and of another that is purely Periian, and therefore 
Kaiumarath is Adam. 

(e) Sir Wm. Tones, in his hiftory of Perfia, had inadvertently 
faid Caiumaras feems to be the K- of Elam, mentioned in Scrip- 

iSi A Vindication of the 

houfes, and to live in village, to manufadure filks 
and cloths ; in (hort they make him Adatn^ which 
is a plain proof that the Perfians knew little or 
nothing of his hiftory ; others make him the ion 
of Aram, fon of Shem, fon of Noah, and that he 
dwelt near Mount Ararat ; all this is afcribed to 
the Irifli Tighermos or Tihermas. See Art. 111. 

IL Houihang (f ) is faid to have bcftrid a inon- 
(Irous animal, called Rakhjhe^ which he found in 
the New World, being the iffue of a male Croco- 
dile and a female Hippotamus ; this ftecd fed upon 
the fleih of fcrpcnts and dragons. With this mon- 
ftci^hc reduced the people of Mahifer^ who had 
fiflics heads ; this is fuppofed to be the conqueft of 
a people that lived on the Perfic gtilph, called by 
the Greeks Ichthjophagi^ and are the very Firbolg 
or fir D^Ovtan^ mentioned in the laft chapter, and 
the fubjugation of them by the Tuatha Dadann^ 
mentioned in this. The Magogian or Pcrfian Scy- 
thians having been remarkable for their fifhing en 
the Cafpian J^nd Euxinc feas, on the Euphrates 
and the Tygris, and on the coaft of Oman^ or the 
Perfic gulph, the Indian fca and the Arabian gulph. 
Oman was a narrow ftrip of country bordering all 
thefe, as already explained. 

nrrc. He correds himfelf m the. preface, and places Caiumaras 
about 890 before Chrift. But this obfervatlon confirms our ex- 
planation of Caedarlomar or Cend-ar-ule Onii-a, figniTying tbe 
fame as Cai-uroara, head or chief of the Emirs. Ci,r-omera$ has 
the fame fignification as Cead-ar-ule Gmra, i. c. chief of chiefs, 
Cai in the Perfian fignifies z great Kirg, Sir Wm. J. Inlridi 
Cc, Cai and Cu. 

(f) This Houfiiang obtained the name of Piibdad or the Le- 
giflator. Sir Wm. Jones. From the romantic hiftory of thri 
Prince, it is more probable he was fo called from Pifli and Da- 
dan, that Is, Ocilled in thd magick of the Chaldseans or Da- 


Ancinn HiftQry cf Ireland. 183 

Nothing can be a ftronger evidence that the 
Ferfiaa9 Imew no more of the PiChdadians than the 
bare ntme, than by beginnit\g their rational hifto- 
ry by the word KAiyan^ (or the fecond Dynafty,) 
the fignification of which i$ Kings. Would they 
ftile Ae firft Dynafty Law-givers and the fecond 
Kii^s f Are not all King$ in the Eaft, Law-givers ? 
This Hoif/haf^ holds tne place of Siamei in the 
Fiflidadian Dynafty, according to fome Afiatic 
vrritersi and they give him the name of Piflidad^ 
or die Law-given 

IIL T(^gbmuras^ fumamed Divbend^ i. e. the 
iiumbler of the Devil, fuppofed to be the fon or 
grandfon of Houihang, and by fome his coufin 
only* He ib the firft Perfian Prince recorded to 
have had a prime minifter ; he fortified the fron- 
tiers of Perfia, and laid the foundation of IJlacar^ 
or Perjipolisy which was fini(hed by his fucceffor 
Giamjiid. Shedad» fon of Ad, a King of Arabia, 
nephew to Taghmuras, fent an army againft him, 
under the command of Dohac^ fon of Oluan, who 
furprized him, and obliged him to fiy and to aban- 
don his ftate to the Ufurper* [He firft ufcd a 
compleat fuit of armour : he was called Divbend, 
or the Tamer of the Giants. Sir Wm. Jones.] 

This is the Tighermas or Tibermas of the Iriih 
hiftory, who was continually alarmed with the 
pretenfions of the family of Heber-fionn. The 
firft gold mine was difcovered in his reign : he di- 
vided the people into clafles, and obliged the qua- 
lity of every perfon to be known by his garb. The 
cloaths of a (lave of one colour, the habit of a foU 
dier two, of the officers three, &c. (This is 
afcribed to Gjamfhid, fucceffor to the Perfian 


1^4 ^ Vindication of the 

The Liber Lecanus concludes the reign of Tie- 
hermas, by a0crting that he flew 7000 Judi (Jews!) 
Leab. Lecan. foL 1 4. In what part of Ireland were 
the Ifraelites fixed ? Tabmurus lived B. C. 835. 
Our Tihermas is placed at 1 188 B* C. 

The Iriih Prince is faid to have died on the eve 
of the feftival of Sambna^ (g) as he was worjhip^ 
ping Crom cruadhy the fame God that Zerdt^ or 
Zoroqfires adored. The Irilh Seanachies have pla- 
ced Tighermas at Anno Mundi 28 1 6, (h) about 600 
years before (Airgiodlamh, or) the firft Zerduft 
appeared, and 700' befbre the fecond Zerduft. 
(The name of Zerduft's God, was certainly Ke- 
rem Kcrd, i.e. the great Creator, (i) the invifible 
and true God, and hence the Irifh Crom Cruadh.) 
He was fucceeded by Eochad Eadgothach, fon of 
Dairc, or Darius. 

IV. Jamjhid, (k) or Giamjhidj or rather Gjem 
Shidy his name being Gj'emj to which Shid was 
added as a furname. Shid in the Perfian lan- 
guage, fignifying the Sun ; his eyes having fuch a 
luftre, that none could look on him in the face, 

(g) See Colledlanea. No. 13. 

(i) lilac tamen jdololatricse gentes (Ceylonenfes) n&n plane ig- 
norunt D^um, quippe qui ab eys lingua Indica agnQfcitur Kerur, 
factor omnium rerum, C reacormundi. This is the Cruatkdr of 
the modern Irilli, viz. Cruathoir neamh agus teahnhan, maker 
of heaven and earth. (Vide Irifli creedj and Hyde, p. 134. 

(k) Giamdiid was a Scythian. Dcs que Ics Perfes one eten- 
dit leur empire jufq'uau pied du Caucafe, ils ne font aucontraire 
port6s vers le midi. Glamfliid a quittd ces iiiontagnes pour de- 
fcendr^ dans }es plaines, ou il a fond«: Perfcpolis. (Bailly fur 
I'Atlantick, tog.) In the courfe of this work, it will appear, 
that Zerduft was a Chaldaean, who reflored fire worfhip in 
towers, t Monf Bailly has inconteibibiy proved, thai fire wor-> 
fliipowed its origin to the Northern Scythians. 


Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 1 85 

It is not certain whether this prince was the fon of 
his prcdeceflbr, his nephew or his grandfon. He 
divided his fubje&s into three clafles, viz, foldiers, 
hufbandmen and artizans, and direded that the 
different degrees of people (hould be diftinguifli- 
able, from their garb. (1) In his time mufic and 
aftronomy were firft introduced into Perfia : he 
firft built granaries, and in bis time wine was 
brought into general ufe. He inftituted the Nau-- 
ruzj i. c. the folemn obfervation of the new year, 
which feftival lafted fix days ; on the laft day of 
this feftival, a youth went about crying out, lam 
al Manfur^ i. e. Auguft, my name is al Mobarekj 
i. c. the blefled. 

He gave the left hand the preference, which has 
been obferved at all times fince in the Eaft, fay- 
ing, it was fufEcient for the right hand to have 
the advantage of being the right, and that the 
left (hould be expected to make fome compcnfa- 

Giamihed at length took it into his head that he 
was immortal ; fent pidures of himfelf throughout 
the empire^ and ordered them to be worfhipped with 
divine honours. This caufed a rebellion in the 
province of Sigjijlan^ from whence an army march- 
cd under Dahac which defeated Gjamfhid, took 
him prifoner and put him to death, by fawing his 
body in two parts. 

The Iri(h Luaghad lamhfadha^ appoints Bras- 
comhrac, (m) or Tournaments to be held at Tail- 
tean on the firft day of Auguft, every year, a day 
which is ftill diftinguiflied by the name of Lugh^ 

(I) See the Irifli Tighermas in the preceding article. 
(ni) See note N. 


1 86 A Vindication if the 

nafa^ in honour of his name, (n) Lamh is a 
hand, and fadham or fhadhlan is to diftineuihy 
that is, the man who dijiinpdjhed the left hand from 
the right. Hejirji introduced idolatry^ and erefled 
Pagan altars^ though fome have afcribed this to 
Tighermas. His wife's name was Tailte, who was 
married to Duacb Doilj a great general, after Lu- 
agh's death. Luagh fignifics a bright 6ame, a 
dazzling light, correfponding to Gjemihid. Lu- 
agh is alfo an image. 

V* Dahac, Zahac, or Zoak. This monarch 
gained the crown by the fword, and governed 
fiercely, with little regard to his fubjefts : he was 
deeply Ikilied in the occult fcienccs, a completely 
wicked man, with a deformed body and a terrible 
countenance. The Devil having tor many years 
obeyed him, demanded that he might have leave 
to kifs his ihoulders ; which being granted, an 
ugly ferpent immediately (o6k poft in each, and 
gnawed itfelf a den in his flcfli. A Sorcerer fug- 
gefted to him a remedy for this evil, viz. that of 
waihing the ulcers with warm blood of men, and 
of applying to them the brains of men newly flain. 
The Priefts employed all their arguments to en- 
gage him to have recourfe to the blood and brains^ 
of fheep ; but to no purpofe : thofe however, that 
were entruftcd with the care of thefe unhappy 
wretches deftined to flaughter, often, out of mere 
pity, let them make their efcape : fo that flying to 
the mountains, they there formed themfclvcs into 
& particular nation called the Curdes. Among 
athers put to death for this cruel tyrant were the 

(fi) Nafa, a celebrarion, feftival. Mihr-nayaxjh in Perlia is 
Miihrae celebratio, fsu Laudatio, feuSaluiatio. Hyde 121. 


Arnhnt Hiji4rj of Ireland. 1 87 

fens of a certnin Black/mithy ixrhofe name was 
Gao^ Gau or Gav. Thh man, driven to madnefs 
at the (ight of his children's blood, ran up and 
down the ftreets crying, out for juftice, holding a 
leathern apron in his hand, as if it had been a 
ftandard. In a fhort time he became formidable; 
and placing Phridtm^ the fon of Giamjhid at their 
head, they conquered Dahac^ took him prifoner, 
and confined him in a care. The hiftory of Da^ 
bacy fay the authors of the Un. Hiftory, is too ab* 
furd as well as fabulous to be related ! ! 

Duach Fionn, fays the Irifti hiftory, was fon of 
"Seadhnay who had his limbs violently drawn afun* 
der : but Duach Laighreach feized upon the 
crown. An, Mund. 3480. The remedy of the 
Brains in Dohak^s ftory, is worked up in the Irifli 
hiftory into a Ball of brains ; and they fay, when- 
ever a champion overcame his adverfary in ^ngle 
combat^ he took out his brains, and mixing them 
with lime he made a round ball, which, by drying 
in the fun, became exceeding folid and hard, and 
was always produced in publick meetings as ail 
honourable trophy of experienced valour. Gabb 
or Gou in Irifli is a blackfmith, and the Gou of 
Tatnhra was an honourable poft, with many pri'* 
vileges(a); he had the charge of all the fires, 
common and facred, and hence the name Gabby 
from Gabbadh to burn, to blaze : as gabh an teine^ 
the fire burns ; Gabh-adbradb or Gabh-ara^ a wor- 
jQiipper of fire ; whence the Perfic and Arabic 

(a) Sec Collea. No. XITI. The word is fpelt Gahh in 
Iriih, and pronounced Gou ; the proper pronunciation of Gabh 
IS Ga^v I in Perfic Gavan^ Fabcr ferarrius. Hyde Rel. Vcl. Perf. 
Dirfefc Gaviani, Perf. the ftandard of Gaov lyHcrbclot, 

?• 324- 


1 8 8 A Vindication of the 

Gbebrj Ghabr^ Guebr^ and Ghavr (b). In Arabic 
Kubis is a fire; and Mr. Richardfon, p. 1431, 
tranilates Gebr^ one of the Magi, a prieft of die 
worlhippers of fire, as if from Kibr or Ktibrj no- 
bility, eminence 5 — I am of opinion that Gabhar 
is the Scythian word fynonimous to the Arabic 
atajh'perejiy i. e, a worfliipper of fire, and not 
from Kubis. (c) 

There would be a link wanting in the chain, if 
we could not produce a Gav or Gou in the Tua- 
tha Dadann hiflory, to correfpond with the Pifh- 
dadiajn Gou. . Goivne Gou, i. e. Goibhine Gabh, 
or the Smith Gou, is recorded in many Irifh Ro-^ 
mances. Gorman M'Cuilinan, has preferved the 
following fragment. *' Ncafcoth,i — This is an old 
flory among the Irifh. — Goibhne Gobh the 
fmith was making arms for the Tuatha Dadann, 
at the time of the battle of Mugh Tur (the Ma- 
gi's Towr). Lu&airc the carpenter was mak- 
ing fhafts of fpears, and Credne was making 


(b) Nam bujus religion is homines omnes in genere ^ Perjis Mo- 
hammedams voclranmr Ghthr & Ghanir^ Turcis Ghiaur, Her- 
berto noftrari Gtnver, £t quia iftonim hominum lingua i reliquis 
Pedis non inc^l-igirur, Mercatores ibi apud Ifpahan uegotiantes 
cam vocare folenc linguam Guibricam, volentes Hnguam non in- 
telleftam; unde in Gallia Gafconica Gk^MV^ vocitacur etiam 
quaevis lingua parum intelleda in genere ; & hinc quoque nobis 
Anglis fermo incongruus feu inarricularus, & minus incelligibilis, 
dicitur Gatiri/^fcu Gihberijh. Hyde Rcl. VeJ. p. 359. 

(c; In Seguin's Theilalonian coins, p. 14. there is the figure 
of a man, v^ ith a hammer in his left hand and a key rn his right 
hand ; and the infcription is KABEIROC. This, fays D. Sc- 
guin, is certainly a vulcan, cCim utrique circa ignem verfentur, 
T he Greeks borrowed this name for Vulcan, either from the Pcr- 
fiqns or from the Magogian Scythians. Origencs contra Cclfum 
meminit nt^aJr >» Ka^f/pir where the Gabhar are called Gahriy 
a word not much altered from the Perfic. 

** rivets J 

Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 189 


rivets j they were all three moft expert work- 
men. At this time it was reported to Gou, that 
his wife had played the wanton : he had the 

^^ (haft of a fpear in his hand ; and fnatching up 
his uir-netfi — ceirde, i. c. his working apron, or 
defender from the firc-fparks, he run out, and 
throwing about him his pole and apron, he 

*' found that he killed whomfocver he approach- 
ed ; and whoe^ver (hewed contempt of this pole 
and apron, were afflided with fwellings, boils, 
and putrified blood, and would burn within as 
if on fire : and in memory of this tranfaftion, 
the hill where the battle was fought was called 
Neijh-Scuith (d), i. c. the Apron of the Scy- 

« thians/' 

VI. The Phridoun or Feridoun of the Pi(hda. 
dian Dynaily, is the Iriih Ollam Fodhla^ a prince 
remarkable for his wifdom, as Olam his name im- 
plies : in Arabic Alim^ in Hebrew and Chaldasan 
Alaph. See Fodhla explained, before Olamh 
Fodhla, the head of the Mufes or Graces. 

VII. Naudar, Nodhr or Nuadr, was fcarcc feated 
on his throne when the Touranians or Scythians 
conceived hopes of conquering his empire. Pa- 
(hang was at that time King of Touran, dired de- 
fendant of Tur, the fon of Phridun, and claimed 
by right the kingdom of Perfia. Afrqfiab his eldeft 
fon raifed an army to conquer Iran : the two ar- 
mies being oppofite to each other, a Scythian 

(d) Nei(h, or Neafli is an apron, it (ignifies a defence, a guard. 
Uir-neifi is a Smith's apron, becaufe it defends him from the 
(parks of Wr, i, e. fire. Ceirde is a trade, a fhop, &c. In the 
Arabic Azar is an apron, and Azur a defence. Nu/hir is an 
apron, and Nufr a defence. In Irifti, Neas is an apron and a 
defence. In Annoric, DavenJkUr an apron, 


1 90 A VindicaiioH of the 

champion whofe nime was Bafman challenged any 
of the Pcrfian warriors to fingle combat ; which 
was accepted by Gobady grandlon of Gadh or GaUf 
abote mentioned ; ihe combat terminated in fa* 
vour of Ga0^.*-*Not long after, the two armied ea^^ 
gaged; Afrajiab attacked Nuadr in his camp^ 
took him prifoner, and ordered his head to be cut 
off. Some Afiatic writers make Jthis prince ex- 
temporary with Jofhua^ and others place him 
niuch higher. The Scythians now remained maf- 
ters of all Perfia (e) ^ at length they concluded a 
peace, and fought out the lawful heir of the houfe 
of Keiomaras, and put the crown on the head of 
Zab. Some authors pretend that Zerduft flou*- 
rifhed in his reign. 

Nothing can be more ftriking than the afllmity 
between the ftories of the Iriih Nuadhat and the 
Perfian Nuadr or Naoudhar : The Iriih hiftory re- 
prefents a religious war between the Scythians 
and Tuatha Dadimn \ the caufe is exprefled by 
Muigh Tuirridh^ the Magian Fire Towers : the 
Tuadia Dadann at length prevail. Nuadhat lofes 
his right-hand in one battle ; his countrymen, by 
art«>magick, re-ptaced it with a filver one y hence 
his name Airgiodlamh^ i. e. fihrer-handed : in a 
fecond battle he lofes his head. He was the lead-* 
er of the Tuath Dadan. 

In the Perfian hiftory Gobad (which word we 
have flicwn to be the root of Ghebr the fire-wor- 
(Hipper) fights in fmgle combat and kills the Scy-r 
thian ; Naoudhar is at length routed, and be- 
headed in prifon ; — and fome place the prophet 

(c) Afrafiab, a Tartar or Scythian King, reigned over Pei*- 
fia fiitj years. Le Brun Voyage a Peric. Tom. a. p. 387. 


Ancitni Hi/iery of Ireland^ 191 

Zerduft in his reign : There were two prophets of 
this name ; the time of their exiftence is much 
difputedy as well as the identity of the perfon and 
etymology of the name, (f ) 

We find his name written in the Arabic and 
Pcrfic very diflfcrently ; as Zerduft, Zerdaft, Zer- 
ridufbt, Zarradufht, Zaratufht, Zerdhuiht, Zetd- 
hafht, Zardufht, Zartuiht, Zeratuiht, Zarhuft, 
Zaratuihtrifh, Zaratuihtra, Zertooft. Bar Bahlus 
the Syrian derives the name from Zar, gold and 
du^ (for debtt/bt) a kingdom, i. c. Aurum regni. 
Dr. Lord was informed by a Perfian Prieft, that 
the right pronunciation was axar-doji^ i. e. ignis 
amicus : (^^ a friend is from doft the hand ; be- 
caufc we take our friend by the hand.) The learn-* 
ed Hyde fays this is a miftake of the Perfian Prieft, 
and that the A in Axar could not have been 
dropt ; the name he allows is difficult to be ex«- 
plained : Zer he fistys is gold, or money, and 
dajbi is deformed. Pravm.^ malo afpeftuy deformisj 
q. d. Aurum pravum ! ! quae quid em fignificatio 
aon multum quadrat, fays the learned Do£kor ; 
an Arabian explains it by Zerdih-dibi and zerdi-^ 
hafli, pure gold ; fed haec etiam non fatisfaciunt, 
replies the Do£kor. 

In 1 707 Lc Brun converfed with a Prieft of the 
Gwbres^ by an interpreter, who told him thaf the 

(f ) Herbelot vous dlra que les premiers pyrtes connus ont 
tub tniu¥6s dans rAdhefbidgian, qui eft la parrie la plus Sep- 
Mntrionale de Tancienae Medie, & toujours fur des moatagnes. 
Je Toiu al fait remarquer que 2Soroa(h'e (ou Zerduft) ]e reftau*^ 
tateiir dc ce cuite^ forci kuili des momagnes, avait inf6r6 dans 
fes T6cks de defcriprions, qui portent I'impreinte du climat dt 
49^< d'un climat pins feptentrionale que le Caucafe. (Bailly^ 
fur rAtlantide, p. aiu) 


19^ A Vindication of the 

name of their great prophet was Zar-fios^ whooi 
the Perftan Mahomedans miflook for Abraham. 
He told them, that he came from God ; to which 
they replied. If you fpeak the truth, walk over 
fome melted gdld and filver which we will prepare ; 
and if you do this unhart^ we will believe you 
and obey you. That he did fo, without receiving 
the leaft injury, and on this account he was called 
Zaer-vsfteji^ which (ignifies a perfon waflied, or 
bathed, in melted gold or filver. Une perfonne 
lavee dains de Tor ou de Targent fondu. (g) 

The leader of our Tuatha Dadann or Chaldsean 
colony, was named Airgiodlambj that is Silver- 
hand : this I take to have been Zerduft the L a 
prophet of the Perfian Pifhdadian ; and Zerduft 11. 
coming after (about 150 years) took the name of 
Zer-dq/i^ that is. Gold-hand, for zer in Perfian is 
gold or filver, and dqfi is a hand (h) ; and we 
have, in the fecond Dynafty of the Irifh hiftory, a 
Sior-lamhy which name I fufpeft to be taken from 
Zer-doji ; in Irifh, lamb is a hand^ and deas the 
right-hand, by pre-eminence : laman is to handle ; 
in h rabic and Perfic ; dojl is the hand, without 
diftindion, but lums kirdun is to handle (in Irifh 
curradh4amh\ and in Arab, lamifeh faktuny is alfo 
to handle, or to apply the hand ; hence I conjec- 
ture, that the Irifh lamh and deas were once com- 
mon in the Arabic and Perfic : however, our 

''g) Voyag. dc Com, Le Brun. T. 2. p. 387. If not the 
Scythian ilory 6f the (il?er hand as probable as any of the Perfic 
ikbles of this Prophet. 

(h) The Perfian fcholar may here objedt, that the adjc&^vc 
fhould have been ufed and not the fubftantive, viz. Zerfan gol- 
den^ b'lt it is common in all languages to compound two fub&a« 
tivei in proper names. 


JinckfU Mi/ltiry (f Jreldnd. 193 

tranihitors make Sior4amh Ibng-handed^ the fame 
as the Ferfi^n Jrd/hir dira»^q/lj which the Greeks 
have turned into Artazcrxes Longimanus. 

In the Arabic book olF Zinato' 1 Magjalis, Zer- 
dttft, it is faidy was of Paieftme, a fervant of a 
Jewilh prophet ; and that he had the art of hold« 
ing fire in his hand, Ti^ithout being burnt or fuf- 
fering pain*; ignem manu tenuerit & manus ejus 
non tuit combufta, as Hyde tranflates it :<&— Might 
not this give him the name of Metal-band ; and fo 
by pre-eminence Silver-hand, Gold-hand, &c. ?— 
or, might not Dr. Lord be rightly informed by the 
Perfian Prieft, who faid' his name was Azar-do/l^ 
that is* Fire-hand, miftaken by the Perfians, or 
cprruptedto-Tier-doft?— andas %er in Perfic figf- 
nifies money, as well as got(l, fo the Scythians 
adopted Asr^hdj which fighifies money and 
iilver. —'■' ^- - ••'•'*' * ' • • • 

There is good reafoin^ ib'ffly'tflnnion, to fufped 
ihis Zerduft thi Firft was tbtiarttobcis <yf^(jMolzis 
of the Sidythians. The name in Irifl) will bear 
the faine conftruftion,-^ Aifgibd lamb or Zerdu/ly 
viz. Cim M^ Shn is filver, znii'^ Luis eft Lus is z 
hand.. Simd^hiu- is not more diflant irowZwnoi:iisi 
than many other names: the Gi'diks have twifted 
from tV^i oHgihal fighification and orthdgr^^y. 

Heroddtes Alys, ^^ Ihat the ikihabitants ^ along 
the coafts of 'the Hetle^tft ififbrmed him, diac 
Zamolxis had*«1>een a^apre to' Pythagoras^ fon of 
Mnejiatchus ?* and that- after having obtained • his 
liberty, he; acquired • pikt ' riches, and * returned 
into his own-cirMtry.*' His principal vieW' was to 
polifli a rude f>epple,- and make them live after the 
manner of the lanians* In order to brix3i|^ this 
about, he built a ftatcljt:patace^ where Jie-^^d 

- - N ...^ ••;r*ti:all 

194 jf V0u&c4ti0» fT ih 

all the mhaj^tsmtB of the cky hy tnras, iafiaoat- 
ing, during the repaft« Jthatt they ^ho lived as he 
did, were to l>e rnxf^nsjii'^W thf ^f^bxlp be had 
people employed m huiidjag a chw^t^er under- 
gromnli and haviag Aiddei^Iy ^fyfsp^^td^ he 
concealed hiozfelf lord^rae yearsn^— -His people 
9ioiirBe4 for ham ap de?4 i but io th4 fourth year 
he ib^wcd hifn&lf i^aif)* wd this pretended mi-^ 
xacle ilriK^^ his cmi9«pyia«i fo* that th^y believed 
aH he i^, wd be was at laft dfis&^dyT^He then 
giyes 9, lidic^w s^copunt of the vw^mx diey 

Isid thtMT ^KWia before him« by thrpwo^ a 
pan «p in^ the air and qatchi&g him on the 
^ints id three fpeiirs } — ^but, ad4s fl^radotus, i 
donh believe all thefe dccumftanccs^ 4nd fure I 
Sim» th«t Z^takis Kved fpng before PjftJbarorajJ* 
Zterduji made his fir4 ifjf^^^ance, fome fay, in 
Media^ others in Ecbatana ; — ^he abfented himiel^ 
for fipffvs tUae, and pretended he had been taken 
^ tp H wren, ta be jnftmfted in thofe do£bines 
be was abont tp deJiver.'^He retired to a cave» 
and tbere lived a long t^H^» where he wrote hia 
book ir^{^ did Mahomet, wd th^e he cpmpofed 
hi$ Ateorao j-1-fo did Pytbs^gwas, for this philo- 
i^ffkmr^Q^ a part of impofture, as well aa Zer- 
duft, ZnfQirftero pr X^HSWW^-^Th^ who pro* 
fafed this religipn Qf Z wd«ft in Lucian- s time, as 
redkoMdup % t^, wer^ the P^tffbmst Perfums^ 
BaSrmm$ ^kuNUy Sofamy Mtdi^^ nnd many other 
barhuous natieM (i)« F^pm aU thefe circum* 
ftanecs \ conclude, ^t Zamol^is and Zerduft the 
Firil were the fame perfon with «mr 4irgiodlamh, 
and ^hat Zerduft the $4fiWd may have been the 


Anckm Hffi09y ^ Inland. J95 

fame with Zoroafter ; yet there is great room to 
think die laft was a borroveci cbara&er. 

Our lri& biftoriana make Air^od Idmh a ChaU 
daean, from which country many readable au* 
thors bring Zerduft. If we are to fuppofe the 
Greek Zoroaftres to be the fame perfon } which 
the learned Mr. Richardfon much doubts. As we 
ftall have occaiion to mention the opinion of this 
great Oriental fcholar frequently, on this and other 
Aibjeds, we will here fnbjoin the paragraph from 
bis difiertation» Sed. 2d. ^^ The language fpo* 
*^ ken anciently in Perfia opens a wide field for 
*^ un/atiifadory enquiry. Dr. Hyde derives it 
^ from that oi Media ; which is much the fame as 
*^ deducing <me jargon of the Saxon Heptarchy 
^^ from another* The union of' thofe people, 
^^ named by Eur<^>eanst M^des and Perjians^ is 
'^ of fuch high antiquity, that it is loft in dark* 
^^ nefr : and long precedes every glipfimering we 
can diicover ci the origin of their fpeech : 
whatever their langus^e was, therefore, it mud 
have evidently been very early the fame, with 
'* the fimple and common variation of provincial 
*' idiom. B^it in tins tongue we have no genuine 
^^ remains* We are told indeed, that it was the 
^' language in which Zt^oajitr promulgated his 
^^ religion and laws : but this advances not our 
** enquiry : for where or when did Zoroajiet live f 
^^ and where do the works which have been at- 
** tributed to him exift ? The writers both of the 
•* Eaft and Weft fpeak fo vaguely ^ and differ fo 
pointedly^ with regard to this perfonage, that it 
is compleatly impoilible to fix either the coun- 
try, or the period which gave him birth 1 
whilft Zeratujht of the Perfians bears fo little 

N 2 " rcfcmblancc 




19b ^ Vittdi^iM cf tie 

** refemblance to the Zatoqfier of the Greeks^ 
^^ that unlefs Dn Hyde, and other Orientaliftsy 
^^ haH refolvedy at all events, to reconcile the 
^^ identity of their perfons, we fhould have much 
difficulty to difcover a fingle fimilar feature. 
Thofe fragments of his fuppofed works which 
the learned Dodor has given us under the title 
of the Sadder, are the wretched rhymes of a 
modern Parfi Dejiout (Prieft) who lived about 
three centuries ago :-^and the publications of 
M. Anquetil du Perron (Oriental Interpreter to 
the King of France) carry palpable marks of 
the total or partial fabrication of modem times, 
and give great weight to the opinion of Sir John 
Cbardin, that the old dialed of Perfia (except- 
ing what remains in the prefent language) is 
loft : that apparently no books now exift m 
^« it/' 

However, as the name of Zerduji has been 
tranflated by many into Zaroajier, e contra, we 
(hall make a few quotations on this fubjed in fup- 
port of our Irifh hiftory, and fuppofe them to have 
been the fame perfon. Our Iri(h Seanachies (k) 
fay, that the Tuatha Dadanann (of whom ^r- 
ghdlamh or Zerdu/l was their head) were defen- 
dants of Chanu In another Irifli MS. Airgiod" 
lamb is called Cat Ctdlan, of the High Prieft, and 
i$^ faid to have foretold that Niun would come ; 
that is, the Mejftah : in another place he is called 
Draos, and foretells the coming of the Meffiah 
alfo : of all which in their order. 

(k) Or SoLoachi nath, i. e. Sanchoniatho% or thofe verfed in 
the fcience of antiquic/. 

- Agathias 

Ancient Hi/hr^ of Ireland* 1 97 

Agathias fays, the Perfian name r Z^roafter 
wa$ Zaradus^ that is^ Zerduit ; (pdr^' fi o z^po- 
«rp^ »1»^ ZoipAJ^ifO that it is uncertain when be lived 
or promidgated his laws» The modern Perfians 
lay, that he lived under Hfjlafpes (lege Gofttalp) 
but it is not known whether this waa thp father 
of Darius or another of that name. Qut thus 
much is certain, that I^e was the head of the Ma- 
gian ri:lijg;ion. (m) 

' Caf&anus fays he was Cham : Quantum antiquse 
traditiones ferunt, Cham filius Nose» (n) 

And Porpbyrius, that he dwelt in Babylon with 
other Chaldees : he calls him Zabratus*. Tbe Iri(h 
MSSt fpe^ of a Prof^biet Abratach, but no parti- 
culars .of him are handed down to us. Tro^us* 
infifts that be was King of B^i^ria, and warxed 
with l^inus (o)« Augui!):ine ^ys the fame, dp) 

Suidas makes hin^ 4 Chaldia^an, and A^npbia«t 
©us, a» Armenian, ..,. 

. In tbe Perfian Book.called Mugj. Zerdufht is 
faid to he the Son of Sad yi^man ; which perhjipS' 
was written for yemen or yumany a word fignii^ing 
die right hand, and Sad^ means a bodily dete& ;* 
this name perfedly correfpoiids with' the ftofy of 
our Airgiadldmbj who loft his right hand in th^ 
battle of the Fir^ tower, and Zerdiift is fai4 to 
have }oft bis life by ^ Scythian pri^cci in attempt*, 
ing to introduce Fire fowers or pyrea: but all 
agreed, that his mother's name was Doghdu^ whofe 
Spn (Zerduft) was named Hakim^ feu viri do£ti 2( 

(m) Agithias de Perfis. Lib. a. 

(n) Cauianus ColUtionis. 8vq. Cap. at. 

(o) Trogus. L. I. 

CP) APg^i^vs D« Ciyit. DtL I« at. C. t4. 


198 A VhuBcathn of fie 

philolbpiii : (z) Now Dazbda xs at n^tme veil known 
in the Irilh bHlory of tS^ Tuatba Dadarm^ fbrnc* 
times a God, at others 2 OoddeiSi : (b) he is pla* 
ced in the lift of Kings next to Jirpad lamb^ an4 
his children are fidd to be numerous, amongft 
others is Cheacbty a name corrc^onding to th$ 
Perfiaii and Chaldee Hakim or ChcJ^im^ fignifj? 
ing Wifdom : the firft Grammar of the Irifh lan- 
guage is called Uire Cbe0d ncf i^ghaoijb^ that is, 
the beginning of Wtfdom of the learned, com* 
monly called the Philofopher's Primnieir9 the 
Primmer of the Bards, &c. &c. as the Irifh Se^na- 
chies explain it (c). 

Zerduft was Chief Prieft of his order, he ww 
named Mog Gt Mp^, J^brHv^ KaRv^ or CaRv ^ 
(plur. KaRv^fffj) Kai-KaUvan^ Chief of the Magi. 
Dqnifimand^ Pbarband^ vel Cbradmandj Sapien^ 
tes, Scientes ; Ebdem Senfu eft Rod. And his in- 
JFeripr Pripfts were named Mardi-Ckpday i. c. Vit 
Dei ; Mardi-Cbpdavand Vir Domini, vet Daru^ 
i. e« Vir bonus, vel Bahmattj i. e. JBonis moribus 
praeditus. Sic q^uivis vir fpiritiral^ fgu inferiorin 

. (a Hyde "de Vec Pert RcRg. p. ^i 2. 

(b) .He is fomeriinb called S^iui or BoJl. Ikikul i^fi^ 
alnm an Dg^hda, L e. the omnifei^t RtmJ\ a Mine df Daghda, 
(Vet!' GlofsT Hib). Rod in Perfic^ is the fame as Ehamj u e. 
a MagOs. Of the C!ank Daghda we fk^]\ tre^t fe(>.irately» hif 
children are called Mitkr or MiMir^ that is, the rays qf the Snnj 
asd htis wife's aame is GarmoHx 

(c) This name Nafkaoijkt is baittted down to the Iriili fnmf 
the Perfian Nogujka which was a particular fe£t of the f^ire* 
worHiippers. NoguAia ex Ghebrorum Se£tis quaDdam Sefta eft. 
Nogu/ha eil Se£ta Ghebrorum et Mofcorum — in pterifque 
Lexicis exponatur Ghebr St^ Infidel is, fpeciatun Ignicola. — fed 
in aliis exponitur Sabios. (Hyde from Perfian Authprs, p/ 
358). This Sed were the Touran and Qmamtt Scythians, qt 
whom we are now treating. 


JncUnt Hifivry 9/ ktland. 199 

ordinif Saotrdos g^^tali Ifpi^eto (d). This it 
tlie Irilb Ci^iltius an Epkhetgrren to St. Patrick 
(e); Ciil-de a Prieft €^ God. ; Gaffleaeb a Km^ 
In all our Irilh MSS* Lexkons we ^nd Mugb^ 
«x|damqd l)y ^ i»^ Ji/^at ds dhiaidb^ i. e. a namt 
(acred to God; that i^ a ^cred. namf • .Pbilea 
or File^b were men in iioly orders that compofed 
hymns' for the Church Service: Draoi,'^ the 
Irifc name of a Pricft of the tower ckrfs, Radraire 
or Reat-aire» a Clergyman} (Aire, Office, fiinaion) 
and Cai-Cufhin or Cu CuHan^ that is, the high 
Frieji (or Zerduji^ is faid to have predi£ted the 
costiog o/i &e Mef&ah i in thefe. words I find it 
recoide4 in Arch Biihop Cormac's MSS. Lexicon. 
«^ Niun^ i« e# Mac Se4abar^ ut dixit Cu Cukin^ 
*^ prof^t^ns de Xti adventu : Nian duine tirfa^ 
^^ eadbo% Mac Seathar dmm Hcfa^ (and adds 
*« Cormac,) ipfe eft (Icrfa i. t.) J^fuii u «. Ktan 
^ fl^U C9m a* a man^ viz. the fonrfG^dJball 
^< cme Of a fnan^\ . ^atbar pr Scailar (as it 
ftandsjin the modem Irifli Diaionaries), we hjnrc 
(hewn at p. 21. (Note) a is the Phsnician StOW 
Soter Dominus^ Dcus f g), p*> ianan^ ex^itare. Sic 


(d) Hyde» p. 36$* Hence frrobtUj omr ChdJ^^ ov Imned 
riefts ; in like manner fnnn the IrHh yPfmrfm wjarfk an in- 

ftniaor, a good man, Perfic Paraft, p«ni» vir^ pim, dalrocttiy 
is formcj the Englifli -P4r>i- (Vieyra). 

(e) Coiioqdia quadaa <ie rebus Hiben. in qmbui cotkqnen- 
ces introdncunrar Sc. Patrictus Coilliut & Oflinlii HibenHoft, 
the title of ft MS& in the Clarendon colleaion* 

(g) 'ne pTonimciatbn of hfa in Irifii is Eefii. J«ftts Chrifi; 
fiiyt Oflerbelot^ is caiitd Iffa by the Mnfulmans: Jtjkfwt in 
Hebrew, is tdedbf tbe Syrians and Aeraba to fignify a Sa? ioor, 
.and widi them is become a proper name 1 and diis name the 
Mahomedans particularly appljr to Joflina, the fuooellbr or 
Mdfe^ and to Jefui^ fon of Siia^ But frnHO Hebrews^ 


aoo • A Vindication ^ ibe 

pOfiuRt ex Aracb^ -ldi ^ le^tur^ kiStt Solon fXfi 
inuriy "Sobolcs'6ftai*hien>jli8. Pat 7*. V «7^ 

T!0*^. .*1**W Wn» qibdVatuTW eft ALcitare, £• c 
excitatiirus eft deftmcntcs lA'pulverei id^ Voca- 
tur nomto feius (fcilicct MelBac) ]lp*« ihuni— h£c * 
non eftradicalci fed fornfi'ae infiniim infervitJ 
Effcti autem thcma' ^^i Nun undc jHj Nin^ filSkis, 
foboles. • Buxtorf. Chal lex. p: 961 fh). 

In Sherii/iand a Mohammedan ifrriterj, • fH^ have 
this rfcn>ai*kable paflage,^ thus tranflatcd by Dr* 
Hyde. \Ex cU q^ute praedixit Zeraduiht in Libro 
Zendaycftacft, qu6d dixit ultimis tempetibiis apl* 
parfturiim Hominem' -diftuin O/han^erbegbaj- qui 
muhdum f^Jgione &' j^iftkia 6rna*(Mrus effet (ij. 
Deinde ems <cmp6re<a))pariturum -etlaiti tPetyra'A 
qm'Tebto-ejtls & rcfgrffo ejus iholeffiaHi aflFertiet pc'r 
viffihtt anno«, . Dr. Hyde tiinflate^ (^Jhan ekrhefba 
homomiindi, h . P^^fydrah'UiaAxAm^ Is* a former 
• tiumberAVe have ftewn LejBrun's aecoantof ^j^^xr^ 
which he learnt from tHe mod^rtl PeffiantJu^-r 

^^ f • i i t '• • ■ i '. » • ' . . ' * • - - • ; »*, 

CiiaWhs ana "Arabs take jofitota Ebn wbiin of Jonktbnof 
Nuii, to^havcbeen a perfbn raifed above human nature^ and tm 
have partaken of the divine nature. This extravagant opinion 
has been ^mliniced by fome ^MMulaiansra]fe,«>B«.ehe SehUe^ 
(ded) have adopted it M iamAfi( xWt AH.- The Tarikb Mon: 
tekbeb^' fajs'thut JoflUdVli '^^ McAiti Was fent by God, jco drive 
the Giants out of i^i^n, 'i. e^Jeticho. < That he was coterapo-^ 
raiy with Nukidbar,' df the^Pidfdadian race : Of R|ha or Ariha 
we fluUI fpeak hereafter. '- ^\»'- 

(h) Gen. 21. it. 1^5 Nm' a $011,' oneinaftate offutjcc- 
tion.' 'Pfal '72. V. vj. hi^nanie py min (asa verb),' -i; e. rfiall 
become ft Sm before the Suk : Pn»v.'a9. V- ^^-^ ^ kft^be ihall 
be ftia me Nun, more than one bred as a fon.i $ee^ Baits and. 

(i) Hyd*^, p. 3S3. . * : " 

(k) Ces €hiebres-comptent les ann^ da mdpdexiepois Adam, 
i^u'ils uomment comme nous : mais ils donnent d'autres noms a 


Jncknt Ihjhry of Ireland. 201 

It if inpre than probable that our Tuatha Da- 
dafin brought this prcdifUon with them, froni 
j^hignce the Iriih Monks formed tRe fiory of Oijhin 
god Patar or Padar, i. e^ Patrick ; though all ac- 
knowledge that. Oijhin lived long before that Saint^ 
(att leaft two centuries). I cannot find any other 
name, by which Zerduflit is faid to have called the 
Meffiab in his prxdi&ion. Abulpharagj tells us» 
that Zeraduiht foretold to the Perfians, me coming 
Qi Ghrift, and ordered them to prepare Gifts for 
Jtdii) } thiat a Virgin fhould conceive ; and that a 

£» deftrndansr Us difent qpe lors*quil fut par?enu a fa 30 
annedy Oujkm vint au monde, & i\% reconnoilTent ponr un 
chef dt famiUe^ h apres celui-ci em pour fuccefleur Jtm-fal^ 
qtt'ils pretendent qui fiit leur premiar Roi, & qui vccnt 709 
Alls; Voyagei de M. Le Brno, Vql. %. p^ jl^9^— >Sce alio laft 
No. of CoUedbuwa, PreC p. xcyi.— I canoot fee bj. what aucbq. 
pxj Dr. Hyde tranflates Qihana-derbeglia, by,' homo mund^ 
ailiina in Perifian, learned, as mana afliina, learned in niyflerKs!. 
Hyde; iris true, followed his original, but ercry Arabiaa Scho^ 
W knows dMt jldtieia^ is die odier wwrld, the cverlaftin|; 
KingdofOy ^xemkj i TiffrV^Aa wAifiJCingdm nu9uU laft fir 
fviir, Petyar or petyara)i> in Perfian 'is afflidtion, mifety, a 
giaiK, genius, demou^. a f ightfuL afped, ah' enemy, a name 
eafily converte^l to Pacftrtc or Patrick r ahd we are told in Iriik 
hiftory, that when Patrick larriYedf tbty. named him Tealguti^ 
or ^elehin 1 which iSgniBes a Demon. This is mqft probably 
the}6rigio of the ftovy of Oiihin, peculiar to the Irifli, Scots and 
Mank% worked up by chriftian Monks into Oi/hiQ and Patrick. 
Obierve tbere were two of this name^ . vfz.' Patrick Rufdela and 
pitrick Aiftiw;- bith faints. 

Les Gnebres d'aujourd'hui, font de.paqvrtnignonios, quiont 
perdu par la fuite des terns, k par les grands changen^cns, qui 
ibttt arrives f n Perfe, la veritable connoiiSince dii Culte de leurs 
Ancetrceus, dont ils n'opt r^tenu que la lettre, comme les S|ma« 
I'itanSy ont retenu Ijei Pentateque. Cependant, les Gu^bres dc 
^(re terns font eftimables en ce^ qiiMU rejettent abfolufueut le 
f:ulte do faux Dieu'x & des Tdole?, & quilt ne reconnoiflent 
flu'vm fcttl Dicu. Lett, feu Us Rem. da Com. Le Qrun. 


±oi A Vindication df tie 

Star fhouid appear at the time of lus birth, and in 
the centre of tbe Star would be feen the figure of 
the Virgin. *• le therefore O, my fond, lays Zci^- 
*^ dxxfhtj will fee this Star before ^tl other people : 
•* when it appears, go ye the way it dirc^$ wor- 
^ fliip the new bom, and oflfer your gifls, for lie 
^ is the word.** This Prophecy was deliireredl ia 
Bacbara where Zerduji dwelt. The Iri£b hiftory 
informs us that a Draoi Bachrach, i. e< a Dam or 
Prieft of Bachara did prophecy and fiMrctel tke 
birth of the MefSah: that he (hould be bom in a 
wonderful manner and fhouid be barbaroufly 
murdered by the great council df hTs own nation* 
See Keating, p« i87.-*-andmore at the clofe of 
this Chapter. 

lit the Sadder of Zerdufht as given us by Dr. 
Hyde, we find the fiit temple or Tower, or Honffe 
of Prayer, named Apbrinagban ; the facred feflivals 
bad the fame name : The Pcriians in India had a 
itated feftival once a knonth* Hoc convivium lea 
has Epulae //prm/rhabet mMed^pbrinagbanj i. c^ 
Benedidalia feu benedicendi Epulae (1), in t^ 
finguiar number it is Apherin \ (m) or Affrin (n). 
In the Chaldee we find fl^*l9N Aphriun, Templum. 
In Iri(h Afrithgnam (o) is to blcfs fgnam or gnim 
is the verb agere vel fecere^. The Chappel, Mafs* 
houfe, or Houfe of prayer, is known at this day 
in Ireland, by no other name than Ti^Afrion^ u <L 
the houfe of bencdidion. 

(!) Hyde, p. 269. 

(ro) Do.—*- 199. 

(A) Richardfon* 

(o) Brigit the daughter of DagftJa^ a Goddefkp worfhipped 
bythePileadh, and great washer afrit hgnam^ ^leffing) efteon* 
cd ; (bandea agus ba ro mor an afritbgnam), — ut in Cantico 
Onticorum ^oft /•v fibi fecit Salomon^ id eft, p^'^OM fin feck 
Salomon. See Aldrete Antigu, de Efpana, p. aoj. 


Jnci ent Hifiory of luUmd. S03 

llidre can be no ddubt of the round towers in 
Ireland, having been Rrc towers j. the Ti-aifrionn^ 
Che houfe of benedlAion. The Arabs cait diem: 
PetJtiny L c. a fire, hearth, in Iriih Breocan. The 
conftru£tion of them was well adapted to the pur- 
pofe: the door being always from i a to 15 feet 
from the bafe, the iacred fire at the bottom could 
not be molefted by the wind : it was covered by a 
Cupola at top, (p) and four fmall windows in the 
^des near the the top, let out the fmoke. The 
diameter of them is no more than fufficient for the 
Cai'CuIane or Draoi to perform his facred office : 
bis Zend or prayers were not to be heard by the 
iCougregation, as in the fervice, his m outfi was 
covered left he fcould breath on the holy fire, fo 
^hat he mi^mbled ot muttered his words (d)*. 
When he had done, he probably afcendcd t<5 tnd 
door or to the top, and gave his. Afhr'm. The: 
facred fire was^ fed by the wood of a facred tree ; itl 
Perfia the name of that tree is Haum at Magjtu^ 
i. e. Haum Magorum : In Irilh Om. and Omna was: 
Crann-naonfia or ^jicred tree v we tra^iIate it an' 

(p)* Zettluftic exmixlt JomiciUa ignis^ St fdcit ea cmti copdhr 
|BX€el&^ .& ifftesn gM{^ non MmMJttm'-^(fibfidaf i air Arab>^ 
henc^ die cnttotti of the SefdMU fatt%lbg ttp' the ^tvofd bjr t&e 
fmcred .fire, ^hkh f«cred fire was named Ate/k-^Bihram literally 
igois M»nis» and the Greeb. chougltf theiv cLief GodwaiMan» 
whereas k figpiiies. 9 red fire^ like. th« coJoor of dbat Planet. 
Nan licet apud Ferfas %nesp, cnitro am g}|Klio expiofor^ nt vim. 
jri inferre videantnr \ «dnee apud. Sc^jus Magolo-Taacoi^. ^: 
letiam nplunc tale inftrumentuift admoven prope ijnoia^ H>dc, 

P- 355- 

(q) Hyde, Hence TuaiA-caint in Iriili is Gibberiilv 

i. e. the muttering of the Huatluu Tuav-ciaaad TtH-cfaai]^ 
Wit, cunning. Augury. 

(r) Hyde, 406. O'Brien's Irifli Diaionary. 


ao4 'A Vindication if the 

ThePerfO'Scythi of Ireland named thefe Towers, 
Tuir-Beily or the Towers of Baal or Belus^ si 
name facred to the Sun ; whence Bel-ain^ a year, 
i. e* the Circle of BeL) In Pharb. Gj. a Perfian 
author, we are tpld that Ardejhir Babek^ a Perfian 
King, conftru^ed a certainlofty building which 
he n^med Terbali, ^to the £ait ot the City of U^^^ 
r(fghun in Perfia, — $iUa etiam yeterum templorum 
Pemcorum nomina ii^ fequentibus memorantur^ 
et eorum omnium nomina hodi$ recupcrare & r^f 
Cenfere, eft plane impoflibile. Hyde io8» 

The facred fire was named Hyr, ip Irifh (7r, it 
vas alfo named Adur, whence th^ A^air of Ire- 
land, ns^mes of places where fome facred building is 
always to be found 5 pur modern Churches are coxn-r^ 
monly. annexed to . thefe old fire towers ; a ftrong. 
arguiRent that thev were originally (acred buildT 
ings. The Praefeaus ignis was named ^lyr-bad, 
in Irifh Ur-Baidh^ fcil. Ignis Sacerdos ; we now 
tranflate baid a prophet, (a) . The Urbad continu- 
ed night and day in the fire tower, and all other 
Priefts were fubjed to him ; (b) we have the fame 
accounts in the Irifh MSS. This order was alfo 
named Mogb. Primus ordo ante^ vocabatur Mogh 
& poftea nyrbad. (Hyde) Mogb Mugb or Magb 
was the name in Ireland, hence Ard-mogb the 
Metropolitan See of Ireland, and all thofe old fa? 

(a) It » very remarkable that the word Bot or But in Infli ^ 
fignifies alio the iaered fire : and that this ihonld be the name of 
the Idol of Mithniy or the Sun in Ceybn, BiU in Ferfic finiifies an 
idol of any kind. Idolum in infula Selan feu Ceylon cohtur, eo- 
dem nomine gaudet. Et hinc quod inter Mithrit iconifmos, 
DoAor religionis feuSacerdosSelaneniium lingua vocatur Budum\ 
Hyde p. 1 34. 

(b) HaliBii a Perfian Author* Hyde 366. 


Ancient Hiftory of Irelahd^ 265 

mily names beginning with the Epithet Mdg^ as 
M&^ Mathghamna, Mig uidir^ Migcana, Mlg 
Giolla Riabha, Mig Raghnuil, M6gh Luiga 
MacLuchta9(c) &c. &c. and this name was borrow^ 
ed of the Chaldeans, another ftrong drcumftancc 
from whence Zerduft came, correfponding with 
our Irifli traditions. Olim in Chaldaconim Curia 
horum Reftor fupremus (Jereni. 29. 3. 13.) dice- 
batur Hfi^^il Rah Mag i. e. MagOTum Praefcctus. 
Our Tuatha Dadan brought with them the Corr 
or Coire an Daghda^ the twifted Knotted- Girdle 
of Dagbdaj which was never to be put ofil (d) 
This Girdle had four facred knots on it ; it was 
made of wool or Camels hair ; eorum cingulum 
hodie eft funiculus ex lana, aut pilis camelinis 
tortus, corpus bis cingens, & a tergo duplicando 
claufus feu connexus. Ifte autem Nodus non venit 
in numerun nodorum qui mox recenfebuntur : 
iftud Cingulum eft ^uadrinode. Si aliquis adeo 
Infauftus fit, ut Cingulum amittat, non debet ede- 
re aut bibere nee colloqui nee i loco fuo movere, 
donee aliud acceperit a Sacerdote talia v^dente. 
(e) quia dum difcin^us eft', fupponitur non bene- 
didus & poteftati Diaboli fubjedus, uti & olim in 
Anglia di&um ungirty unblejfed. £t t)mnes tarn 
Viri quam Faeminae hodi£ utuntur eadem cin&ura 
ab anno aetatis i amo. cum praefumantur Religio- 
nis Principia intelligere. Magorum iftud Cingu« 

(c) Mugh, quail Much. Mugh, Much, Mugbfaine tra 
ainmfain dileas do dhiadh. Mugh, Much^ Mughulmc, thre? 
divine names. (Connac's GloC) 
(d) Sec. p. 76. 
(c) Hyde, p. 37^- 


\wi aeftfmatur famdiffmuaiy praedpoi qubd fit m 
fignvm obcdicotiac 9on&om erga Dcum. 

The Pcriitns call thu Git&e Ctf«i^, that is 
curkd or twift^d, n Irifli Cammr^ Camogj &c 
tnd C^rr ^ CWrr arc Syaonimous. (f ) Cufhti u 
another Perfic name ; m Irifli C^s (g) whence the 
Ceremony of receiFiag die Child into the Church 
18 named Qeremania Kujhti buftun. In the Sbab 
nama Ne/r^ is the explanation of this Girdle. ^^ I 
^^ am Zerduflit the prophet, I am the prophet the 
^^ great God fends unto you, and have brov^ht 
^^ this book Zendawfia from Faradife and Uiis 
«< Sudm (Caifock) and this Cu/bti (Girdle^) he 
^^ gave me fayingy put on this Sudra and girt this 
^^ Ctflhii rou^d your Lines that your Soul may be 
<^ freed from hell, and find falyatioxu" The Sm^ 
drs is called &U0dh by the Iriih, Suadh i. brat 
011ai9Qhaa« i* «• the Mantle of aa Ollamot Do^^n 
<Vet. Glofs.) (h) 

It m^y be faid that the few fire towers exifting 
in Ireland, plainly evince that this fire worihip 
was apt an eft^bUihed religion, and that they muft 

(f) That Colre in Iri/h is a Rin^ or Girdle^ is eyideot from 
Corjimc Mc Cuilipan ; in his LiCxicon he explains Boige, faaig, or 
taice^ a ring, 'bond, twift or turn, bj Cotre, tiz. Boige ainoi 
do Coire faimi fognkhi le heeas CcMdu, ife dina Cmtk fogniad 
k baes Gearda 9 Slahbmid al^ agvs ai bt m^ gflafob iaaraaik 
0) daffCcaon cinnte moiri i. e. B^igt btha same of divers Gtnr 
or rings made by ingenious braziers : it is fo named from the form 
gjven It by the Anift of which nine make a Chain, and not to ex- 
ceed that number, except the great ftrong head (^g*) « 
X (g) Cat a twifted Lock of hair. 

(h) Whence ^vaiM iignifies, a Nobleman, a Man ofLetterip 
becaufe diftinguiflied by the Suadh or Mantle. 



Andent Hf/hty tf Jinland. ao7 

have ]>eea applied to Ibme other ufe : to this ob» 
jfiiSAon^ I aiijwery that many have been puUcdi 
d^vm, md that thefe were ouly Cathedrals ; that 
o^Ksr bittkUngg of wattles and ftraw, (or CcnidcK 
nes) to cover the congregation^ may have bepi 
CTj^ed rpimd them, and we ihall find moft of the 
Irtflb Towers conne^ed with our GathedraU, a$ at 
Ckynef C^ells Glandalot^h, ^c &ۥ Notan* 
dum eft, quod onme Pyreum fiiit Ecclefia Cathe-> 
draiis dotata ad aknduoi Epifcopum, & Sacerdotes 
neceflarios, (i) and like the Gbebres of India, they 
often prayed to Culinary fires, where a Tower was 
not conveniently at hand. See Chapter ReUgioxu 
Befides thefe, there were the Antra Mitbra^ 
the Caves of the Sun, or of Mihr^ in Ireland : 
this was an Abufe of the Perfic Religion, (k) 

(i) Hjde I0& Befiire the tine of Zerduil ift. ^or our Airgiod- 
lamh,} (bene were no covered temples ; they thought the re- 
prefentativeof the Great God Ihould not be confined to a temple ; 
vaMny of our Scythians ftill adhered to that Se^ and tbb ac- 
counts (or tiie multitude of open Temples to be found in Ireland 
and Britain. Zerdoft zd was only the reformer of the Tower 
Sed, in oppofition to the x>ther» which coft him his life. Origi- 
nitus itaque univeirfus eorum cukus fiebat abfque templis. Thus 
Agrhrtth Nephew to Afrafiah prevailed on the Touran's or Scy- 
thians to ered fome in Turqueftan or Scythia. See DUerheix 

(k) MuVvt in the Irifli Gloflaries; is ikid to fignify the Rays 
of the Sun. See Collect XII. Mihr in Perfian is the name 
of the Angel fuppp(ied to fuperintend the orb of the Sun. Septem- 
ber in Pema is named Mihr from this Angel : and the i6thday 
of every month is alio called Mikr : in confequefiop of which 
dity iaiagintdthe homof an Qx killed on that day, n(ku{l be im- 
pir^gnai^ w|li extraordinary a]Ui-<le<DQiuacal virtues. {Richard- 


^ i 

208 * A Vindication of the 

Porphyry gives a very particular defcrfpdon of 
them ; he (ays that Zoroafter retired to a natural 
Cave to contemplate on the Creator^ and on Mi- 
thras the &ther of all : that afterwards the Perfi* 
ans made Artificial Caves, in which the Myfteries 
of Mithras were celebrated : and as diefe Caves 
were under the Earth, the water conftantly drop* 
ped through the roof, which was attributed to the 
Nymphs Naiadesy being always prefent. The 
Cave was dark, yet the Symbols of all Virtues 
were difcemible in them. Porphyry then enters 
into a more minute detail, mixing the Mythology 
of the Greeks, and fpeaks of Saturn, Ceres, Pro* 
ferpine, &c. 

It muft be evident to every Reader acquainted 
with the Religion of the Perfians, who neither al- 
lowed covered temples or Images, that Porphyry, 
and Eubulus, whom he quotes, have falfelv at- 
tributed the Roman and Grecian worfliip 01 Mi- 
thras, to the Perfians, whofe Religion was, in eve- 
ry refped, diametrically oppofite to that of the 
Greeks and Romans : in this part of their Mytho- 
logy, there is nothing in common, but the name : 
for how could the Romans borrow all tneir figures 
and compound figures of Mithras, of the Perfians, 
who had neither Cells, Statues or Altars : The 
Gaurs^ the defcendarits of the ancient Perfians, 
have never had any yet. 

The Romans muft have borrowed thefe Mythra- 
tic rights of that great fwarm of Pirates, (menti•^ 
onedp. 176.) who being an aflfemblagc of Barba- 
rians of difiPerent nations, inhabited all the Sea 
Coaft round the Mediterranean. Amongfl them 


jtfuient Hi/iory cf Ireland* 209' 

Vftte, fome of our ancient Scuthi or Seamen, ori- 
ginally Perfians, but, they confided chiefly of 
rhrygiana. They were Mailers of thd Mediterra^ 
nean Seas, till about 678 years of Rome^ tvhen 
Pompeius was ordered to extirpate them, which 
required the united force of all the maritime pow- 
ers for eight years. (I) 

This mixture of people, jumbling together the 
Mythology of the -^Egyptians, Tyrians, Pcrfians, Sy- 
rians, &c. formed a Religion of the whole, import-^ 
ing it to.the Greeks and Romans ; and hence aro- 
fe thofe abfurditics in both, where no refem- 
blance of the Original is preferred, the name ex- 
cepted, (m) 

As a proof that the Roman Mithras is of this 
Origin, all the figures that have hitherto been 
produced of that Deity, will on examination bef 
found to be in Phrygian drefs, not in Perfian : 
Phrygian or Cilician, is the fame thing, for thefe 
Pirates are fomctimes called Cilicians, and ^ trabo 
in two places tells us, the Cilicians were of Troy^ 
and every one knows the Troad was ixv-leffer 

Porphyry therefore had not the leaft authority^ 
or Eubulus, whom he quotes, for making Zoro- 
after the author of the Mythriaci : if by Zoroafter 
is meant the Perfian Zardu/t : Np myfteries could 
be more repugnant to the genius ot that phildfo-* 
pher, and to the religion of the ancient Perfians : 
this has been obferved by Julius Firmiclus, '^ Vos, 

(I) Plutarch in Pompeio. 

(m) See Explication de div. M<Mi, fing. qui ont rapport a k 
Religion des ancienrfeuple. 

O " itaquCy 

212 A Ttndication of the 

and the Holy Ifland, or Ifland of Saints. It is 
about nine miles diftant from Sligo. (See PL 5.) 
Here, not only the ruins of the caves are to be 
feen^ but the Clock Greine^ Sun Stone^ or Mtddbr^ 
from whence the ifland takes its name, is ftill re- 
maining in its mod perfed flate, being a conical 
pillar of (lone, placed on a pedeftal, funrounded 
by a wall to preferve it from profanation* This is 
the \Avif&' of the Greeks, and the Mabody of the 
Gentoos. Ajiid EmiiTenos Solis fimulacrum 
erat grande Saxum conicum nigrum, quod jada- 
bant a Caclo fuiffe delapfum. (Herodian^) 
. Captain Pyke landed in the ifland of Elephan- 
ta, near Bombay. In the midft of a Gentoo tem- 
ple he found a low altar, on which was placed a 
large poliflied ftone of a cylindrical form, (land- 
ing on its bafe, but the top was rounded or con- 
vex. The Gentoos^ fay^ he, call this the (lone of 
Mabody^ a name they give to the original of all 
things. And this Hieroglyphic of the Supreme 
Being is intended to (hew, that it is beyond the 
limited compreheniion of man to form to himfelf 
any jud idea of him that made the world, for, 
they fay, no man can behold the Great God* and 
live, which is the reafon he cannot be reprefented 
in his proper (hape. Upon the Captain's enquiring 
the reafon of placing fuch a (lone there, and in 
that awful and folemn manner, it was anfwered. 
That this facred (lone is dedicated to the honour 
of Mabody^ who created the univerfe, and his 
name is placed under it, and therefore that (lone 
which defends the name of the great and incon- 
ceivable God from all pollution, is itfelf a holy 
memorial and monument of what cannot be de- 
fcribedj but is not itfelf a God, yet being thus 


Ancient Hilary of Ireland. 2 1 3 

placed, though a ftone, no propfaane or polluted 
man ought to touch it. 

Hence we fee the reafon of our Muidhr being 
placed in an iiland far diftant from the (hore, and 
furrounded by a iowwaU ; of the cells of purificati- 
on within the building ; and, hence the early mifC- 
onaries in Ireland, immediately ereded chappels of 
the chriftian religion in this iflaod, which, no 
doubt, were much reforted to. 

Linfater, in his voyage to India, p. 8i. tells 
us, that the Brahmins report, that their holy men 
in the Rajah's country, can give an account of 
thefe monuments, and that they are recorded in 
their Hanfcrit book:s. That no offerings were to 
be made at the altar of Mahoody but by thofe of 
clean and unpolluted minds. He faw one ereded 
in a tang of water to prevent any unclean thing 
coming near it. At the North and South of the 
illand' of Elephanta, there are other Pagodas full 
of imagery^i except the interior of the Mahoody 
temples, and each has a fpring of water or a tank 
near it, to purify all that entered. 

This is certainly the ftone Herodian faw at 
Emifla, in Phsenicia^ where, fays he, thev wor- 
(hip Heliogabalus ; but he faw no image falhioned 
by men's hands, but only a great ftone round at 
bottom, and diminifliing towards the top in a cor 
nic form. Our Muidhr and the Mahoody of the 
Gentoos are not conical, but only columns of 
circular bafes rounded at the tops. 

Muidhr in Iriih, in the ancient Glofles, is writ- 
ten for Midhr^ which is explained by the Ray of 
the Sun : but the Mahoody of Captain Fyke is 
certainly corrupted from the Gentoo Maha-deUy 
L e. Magnus Deus, in Irilh Mah or Maith-de^ 
bonus deus. 


214 ^ Vindk^tm oftlf^ 

As to names we m^H ftot ^ furppz^A , to fy^ 
them corrupted, if introduced ^y tk^\ Ipyaj^gf^^ 
mixture of pirates aiii;! tif eir. priefts theretofore 4c- 
fcribed. Pliny is deceived by ajdefcriptio^ of tb|f 
kind, primus certe omniumy obeUfcoriua erc^lL- 
onem mdituit Mitres^ qui in Solis urbe v^jpkpJ&^U 
fpmnip iufftts— po(|;€a et J^lii rcgum ifi dji£t9) 
Vfbe. (d). / 

Hence Obehflcs were dedicated to the Sub, by 
all nations^, obeltfcum Deo Solf /peaa(i murftre d^di- 
catum fui/jfe. (Aramianus,) 

Chijaenfes & Ii^di prster imagines in p^godijS ic 
delubris praegrapdes aliquando etiaip int^r^rffpesj 
praetextipi (i nature Ip^ pyramdalem f^f^vf^. ycrg^* 
^nt^ in Idola fprmiare (oieb^qt. (l^a^us;. I^fd^ 
tc.) *. ' " ' 

lyfultitudes of thf fe fiones are to be fppQid in 
the BrHfftWC ifl^^ tp wWfih the iPrffjift J^m^ 
were, differs.; ii? general; they ar^ ?flWK>iigtoti 
fi^cb, I tliv^ 1^ I^udJQtone Qbeli^. ; 

'l^jp Pjigan Irifh. l^sarnt from t^ef(? T^athjt O^* 
dann, to dedicate ().b)eliik8 botli to Sua ^4 

mii^^s.3ol et ppnvinus Lunus : £ar ; lyiQ^c iQ IriflH 
^^^ ?» ?P«het qftbeSuJj, a»fl 

jE^^qrBjac i^th^Bfloon: tbefc weijt u^^ tfac 
generqjl iwme of TJiie pr Duile, i. e. tljp Elqn^nts^ 
I^dcjajbhai ^iiiniann 4U<>^^ ^.a nidhal^ no Arracbt 
JJ? -^fifff^. f^Q gniti? an|gcint<?, i. c. v^rW.grf^tjau 
ngurae Solis & Lunse^ L e. ]Vfo)q agms J^ag-HCC^r* 
rnai^ Mc'Cuilenann);^thait; is, Indealb)ut k the 
na,ipc of the altar or Idpl of the Element?, made 

(d) Nar, Hift. L. 36. C. 8. 


Ancient Hifiory rf Ireland. aig 

by tbs& Pagan Irifli^ that is, of the Sun and Moon, 
or Mole 2Uid Sag. 

The defcription giren by Hcrodian made Dr« 
Hyde think ElagcAaltu is corrupted of bl^S'^^bJiy 
Agli4>al, feu Eglibal, i. e. deus rotundus ; where* 
as£HsDeus, and Gabal an intenfe fire, therefore 
Elagabal was a proper epithet of the Sun. We 
find the infcription in Spon and Gruter atai-^bqao 
Agai Bolo ; the fecond a in Agai, has been taken 
by fome for a and corrupted into Agli ; but if we 
e:»mine the figure in Spon, there can be no 
doubt ^f the true reading ; the deity is there re- 
prefent€4 with a moon on his {boulders, and con* 
fequently it was the Deus Lunus of the Syrians^ 
whofe name in their language could not be better 
cxpreflfed than by JARE-DOL, or ^jjaTH**, i. c. 
Lunus Dominus. See Pocock's travels, v« 2. p. 
165. D'Herbelot at Riha ; of which the Irifhre* 
tain Re^ (the Moon.) Jericha^ or the city ol the 
Moon, is called RI^A by the Arabs, and fome-^ 
thnes ARIHA, as ILIA-U-ARIHA, or Jerufalem 
and Jericho. 

The Irifli language clears up this matter, and 
fheijirs, that Halley and Pocock are rigfit. For 
Re, Ire, and Eag are fynonimous names of the 
Moon, and Male or Mole fignifies Fire and the 
Sun. Cabal fignifies the fame, and hence Elaga^ 
bal was the Syrian name of the Sun alfo ; i. e. Do-r 
minus ignis, (e) 

We have here given the figures of MaJacbal and 
Aigaibal, from Spon, pLvi. fig. i. and think there 
cannot be a doubt of their having been introduced 

(e) Eandem Pyramidis figuram vel Obelifci, videtur habnifit 
Elagab^los, quo nomine Sol in Syria ab E&iefeaU colebatnr. 


fi i6 A Vindication of the 

by thofc wonderful pirates, who made religion a 
cloak for their depredations, and formed a moft 
ridiculous religion for the Etrufcans, Greeks and 
Romans, under Deities, whofe names are only 
to be explained by a refearch into the languages 
of thofe nations that compofed that neft of ruffi- 
ans. And we flatter ourfelves, this obfcrvation 
will throw new light on the Greek, Roman, 
and Etrufcan antiquities, folving mzny curious 
monuments and epitaphs that could not be ac* 
counted for in any other manner. 

But ftill the obelifcal monument of the great 
Deity prevailed in the Britannic ifles, being mod 
congenial to the ancient religion of the ^ cythians, 
and of the Eaftern part of the world. 

Deus Amazonum, cui omnes facra faciebant, 
nihil erat, ni(i lapis niger. (Apollon. Rhod. Ar- 
gon. L. 2.) 

Affyrii prxmi erexerunt columnam Marti, cum- 
que inter deos coluerunt. (Chron, Alex. p. 89.) 

Veneris Paphiae fimulacrum vetuftiffinlum, al- 
bae Pyramidi diflimile non erat. (Max. Tyr.) 

£t eadem Specie in hodiernum ufque diem^ 
apud Indos, fimulacrum fingitur Mahadeu. (Pel. 
dellaValle.) Jablonlki. 

Pyramidas atquc Obelifcos ignis naturae, Conum 
vero. Soli tributum. (Porphyrius, ap. Eufcb. pr. 
Ev. 1. 3.) ; 

Obelifci enormitas, ut Hermatales adfirmat. 
Soli proflituta. (Tcrtullian.) 

Obelifcum Deo Soli fpeciali munere dedicatum 
fuifle. (Am. Marcel.) 

Nomen antiquiffimum Obelifci apud jdSgytios 
fuiflfe Pyramis. Etenim, Pire vel Pira, ^gyptii 
dici Sohnij tritum vulgatum eft. Deinde, Mue^ 

i. e. Splen^ 

Ancient Hi/iary tf Ireland. 217 

%• e. Splendorem & radium defignat. Erit itaque 
Piramuey Radius Solis. (La Croze. Jabloniki.) 

Non pauci (Sinenfes) muta fimuiacra, vei eti- 
am informes adorant lapides ; namque ii ferm^ dii 
gentium funt. (Maffeus. Ind. Sinens, p. 271O 

And that the Allah Acbar or Deus maximus, 
the black ftone of Mecca^ was of this kind origi- 
nally, there can be no doubt. Mohammed not 
being able to get the better of the fuperftition of 
the Arabs for this (tone, converted it into, a pious 
fraud : the killing and perambulation to this ftone, 
annually, the procei&on round the low wall, plain- 
ly indicate it to have been a Muidhr. See 

In this chapter we have (hewn the OSSIAN 
or OISIN of the Gaodhal or Scots and Irifli, is 
of Oriental origin. He is always reprefented as a 
divine Bard, even by the moderns. OriginaUy 
he was a prophet ; hence he was called the divine 
Oiihin, fon of Om, or Uaim, i. e. of Terror, one 
of the emblems of the Deity. Camden calls him 
Ofshin Mac Owim. See Om, in the Hindoftan 
and Iriih collated at the coiiclufion (f). He was 
at laft miftaken for Uifean, the humbled one, 
otherwile called Socraiy that is. Legion. See Oo-* 
iana and Sookra^ in the Hindoftan, as before* 
The two charaders have been blended and minced 
together at the pleafure of the Monks and Bards, 
till at length they have loft all idea of both. Like 
the modern Guebres, who informed Le Brun 

(f) The Irifli, &ys Camden^ retain many fiinnets of Fin Mac 
Huyle, Cfker Mac Osfhin, and Os/liin Mac Owim. See alfo 
Mt. Hill's colledion of the poems of CXIian, p. 32. 



aift J Vindkathn tf ib$ 

that Oifin wa& the ion of Adam, infteadof Aiam^ 
unlefs it be the millake of Le Brun. 

Still feme parts of thefe modern poems pfeTerve 
a few lines of the original fpirit. As, in the 
prayer of Oiftin, Patrick addrefles hkn in theO^ 
words : 

Bherimja mo dbearbha dhuil 
Oifm navL glunn 
Nacb bhttil Ncamb aigt*atbair 
Aig Ofiar no aig GolL 

That 169 
1 pledge my deareft hope^ 

O Oifhin ! of divine defccnt :-^ 
Neither yow lather is in Heaven, 
Or Ofcar, or yet GolL . 

Hence the Old Perfians and-Guebres feigned be 
was a prophet from Heaven ; and when the>Ghiif- 
tian writers came to be acquainted with oriental 
mythology, they miftook Oilhin for the Meffiah* 

If the ancient Irifh had not underftood Oifhin 
to have been of divine dcfcent, it is not probable 
that the firft Chriftians in Ireland would havel 
taken his name ; and if Oifhin had been fo zea- 
lous an oppofcr of Chriflianily, as the modcra 
Poems make him, they would have dcteflcd the 
name, and have taken another ; yet wc find no 


Ancient Hi/iory rf Ireland. a 1 9 

lefs th9ii fix CSfanftijUl DiTxxies of t]u$ WiX^^ re- 
corded by Colgau, viz, 

Offan confefs. Athrumse, 

Oflan alter Athtrumae, 

Oilin 61. Ernani difcip. S. Mupua;} 

Oifin Abb. de Cluainmor, 

Offin fil. Kellachi, 

OfliA hua Lapaia Archid. Dpreo^* 

I am here fpeaking of the original Oifhin of the 
Eaft. Doubtlefe there may have been many of 
more modem times, who took that name on them- 
felves; but oriental anecdotes, ftill preferved in 
the writings of the Perfians, and among the ig- 
norant Guebres, or Fire-worftiippers, point out 
the Origin ; and the accounts given of thii pro- 
phet by the Orientalifts are full as coafufed and 
coQtrddidory as thofe of the Irifh Bard$« 

E X P L A. 


The Plan of the Temple of the Monument of Muidbr^ 
in the I/land of Innis Muidbr^ new Innis Murra^ 


i, b^ i^ The walls built without inonar of large fidnes ; the 
wall from five to ten feet thick and ten feet high. 

C. C C. Celts covered with earth— all that part /haded 
with a light ink being earth thrown up, fo as to make the Cells 
in a manner fubterraneous. Some Cells are fallen in^ othenlook 
horrid and gloomy, having a fmall hole at the top and another 
in the fide, feemingly to give air not light. They have all been 
vaulted with the fame rude ftones. 

The Cell C at tke entrance is lighted by the door. It appean 
to have been the place where the Candidate was refted, before 
admittance into the other Cells. 

J. d. The entrance fo narrow u fcarce to admit a man to 

A. B. St. , Molafes Chappels. C. St. Colum Kills Chappel. 

D. The Altar. 

The Chappels are all built with lime and flone in a rude man- 
ner. They are modem to the reft of the building. 

FIG. a. 

The Moidhr furrounded by a Wall — 

FIG. 3. 

The Monument of Mahoody at the Ifland of Elephanta in the 
Eaft Indies, from a drawing made by Captain I^ke. See Ai^ 
chaeologia of the Antiq. Society of London. ' Vol. VI. 


Fio. I. The Figures of Malac-bal and Agai-bal from Spon. 
Fig. z. The Muif^ qui a Sole cecidit, from Dr. Hyde. 


AVifuUcathfij &c. 221 

The learned Benediftin, Author of the Religi- 
on des Gaulois, and of the Explication de dirers 
monumens finguliers, qui ont rapport a la Reli« 
gion des plus anciens peuples, was not a flranger 
to thefe itinerant Chaldecs or Tuatha Dadann. 
Speaking of AJirolm^ he fays, '^ this Science 
owes its origin to Ajlronomi* Thofe who made 
the courfe and movement 01 the Stars their profef- 
fion, finding little or no profit thereby, transform- 
ed themfelves into AJirologers^ and availing them- 
felves of the weaknefs and credulity of mankind, 
always defirous of looking into futurity, they turn* 
ed a mofl noble Science, into tricks and impofiti- 

^^ The firft that brought this AQ. into vogue, 
fays he, were the Cbaldees. Strabo remarks, that 
they had an Obfervatory at Babylon, where Af- 
tronomers were maintained, whom they called 
Chaldeans : fome of them made regular obfervati- 
ons, but thefe were laughed at by the reft, who 
turned AJlrologers^ and were permitted to leave Ba« 
bylon, and to migrate over the world. Some 
went to Egypt, otners to Greece, and in fine 
over all the world." " From hence arofe three 
diflferent Schools of Judicial Aflrology, one of the 
Cbaldees themfelves, a fecond of Egyptians^ and a 
third of the Greeks.^' (Dc L'Aftrologic Judiciele 
p. 430.) 

With thefe Cbaldees proceeded alfo the aft of 
divination by Plants ; hence all the terms of Divi- 
nation ufed in the Irifh Language, of which hun- 
dreds are to be found in the Old MSS. and fome 
in the common Didionaries, will be found to be 
Cbaldaicy and always afcribed to the Tuatha Da- 



a29 A ViniMcaiion of the 

dahn, by wfaicfa it is evident, they were originally 
the Dedannites rf Cbaldaa. 

Monf. Bailly hints that the ancient Bramins of 
India were Chaldxans : it is probable they were 
tbefe itinerant Tuatha Dadann, who mixed tvkh 
our Magogian Scythi, ahd travelled caftward to* 
wards the Ganges and Tibet. 

In the Mmutes of the Antiq. Society df Lon- 
don^ dated 19 Feb. 1767, is the following £xtra& 
of a Letter froih a Gentleman dotted Banares 2d 
December, 1765 : it was addrefTed to Mr. Hollis. 
Cafhi is the Univerfity of the Bramiils, fitna- 
ted on the South Side of the Ganges, in a fiat 
Country, 600 miles from Bengali. The City 
is large, well built, and the houfes of hiewn 
" Stone. 

** The inhabitants are jnuch tnore cohverfeble 
** than thofe of the Province of Bengali. Among 
*^ them arc faid to be many mien of learning, who 
teach the Harifcrit and Periian Languages, and 
what is mod extraordinary, fome who (ludy the 
** Cbalddicy m which it fecms, their Books of 
" Phyfick arc chiefly written.'* ^ 

Ih ixiilitary Proceffiohs, the Perfians carried the 
figure or Emblem 6£ the Siin^ and never f>roceed- 
ed until be was above the Horiztm : frotn the de- 
fir iptioii of Curtius, it appears to have been a fat 
ihewn through a Chryftal, like the Maijheac repre- 
fented in XIIL Number of the Colle£hinia. Orto 
Solfe procedunt : & fuper Regis Tabemaculo 
(rnide ab omnibus confpici pofiet) Imago SoUl 
cbryftiiHo inclufa fulgebat. 

The PerfepoHtan -proceilion reprefents a 

grand Sacrifice : nulla autem Soils Icon ejufve 

« portitio ibi vifitur, fays Hyde ; on a clofer infpec- 



Amient Hilary of Ireland. 123 

tion probably die Maiiieac may be difcovered. 
Libations are carried in very fmall patera^) and to 
this ufe, I think, the fmall golden Cups found in 
Ireland ferved. See XIII. No. of the Collectanea. 
Hsc autem Deo fiebant non Soli^ ut putarent 
Grsed— (Hyde) but how does all this agree ix^ith 
Herodotus, who fays, that the Perfians had nei* 
ther Statues, Temples, or Altars, (f) They cer- 
tainly did reprefent the Sun by a Bull, with a Se- 
micircle of Rays, and fo did the Tartars and the 
Irifli. Keating,^ p. 28 3, — ^In thofe times they wor- 
Slipped a Golden Calf. Maoiigeann a Oruid, af« 
ked Cormac to worfhip Laoi ordba^ fays the Ori- 
ginal, that is, the Golden Bull : it is the Perfian 
lai a Bull. I will not worihip the Signum, my Ar- 
tificer has made, replied Cormac. Ni deann (air 
Cormac) adhrath don Ceap do rinn mo cheirid 
£ein. Ceap is a Signum, a Sign fet up in time of 
battle : it was here the Symbol of the Sun, Ceatd 
ift a Brazier^ Tinker, worker in metals. Keating^s 
tranflator calls it* a Golden Calf, yet makes Cormac 
reply, that be would not w^^rfhip a Log (f Wood. 

lai nummis Magni Mogul Imp. Indies exhibetur 
Corpus Solare fuper dorfo Tauri (aut Leonis) qui 
iliiid eodem modo geftat. — Sic nempe pinguntur 
Signa ; adeo ut in di£bo Iconifmo exhibeatur Sol 
in ^fno Taum Perfarum more defignatus. (g) (K) 

The ancient Records of Ireland aflqrt that the 
Iri(h Pagans worihipped no images; the rough 
unhewn Stone capped with Gold and Silver, re- 
prefented the Sun and Moon, and round thefe 
were i ^ others, Ihewing the number of the figns 
of the Zodiac, thefe were Scythic, or Touranic. 

(f) Herodotus, p. 62. 

(g) Hyde, p. 1 1 5. 




224 A Vindication of tbi 

Images have been found ; the drawings of (<naa 
have been fent to me fince the publication of my 
laft No. ; but whether they are of Pagan or Chrif^ 
tian date^ 1 can form no j udgment : One is here 
reprefented, which I think was Anu or Nanu. (See 
PL7«) it is of brafs, near 4 inches high ; it was found 
in the bog of Cullen, County of Tipperary, and is 
now in pofleffion of Captain Oufley. Hyde allows^ 
the Perfians had a Venus. Nufquam autem repcri 
Perfas ullas alias babtajfe ftatuas prater illam Vene^ 
rii^ (h) exceptis Hybridis iliis & haereticis inCap- 
padocia Perfis, quorum 3trabo meminit fe vidif* 
fe. ^' Ifti inquit didi funt nvptti9oi Ignis accenfores,. 
qui Iconolatriam cum Pyrodulia milcuerunt." £ju» 
verba funt. ^* In Cappadocia (nam ibi eft cvxor 
Tribus quaedam Magorum qui Pyraethi vocantur^ 
& multa Perficorum deorum Templa) non cultro, 
fed ftipite quodam ma&ant facrificia^ tanquam 
malleo verberantes. Sunt & nvpon^tia, fcil ipwn Sep« 
ta qusdam ingentia, in quorum medio eft ^-^h^ 
Ara feu Focus in quo Magi cinerem multum & ig^ 
nem perennem fervant; & ^o quotidie ingreSi 
fv«f«(rir accinunt (feu canunt preces fuas) fere per 
horam ante ignem Virgarum tafciculum tenentes.**^ 
Many of thefe circular Septa are ftill exifting in 
Britain and Ireland, with the Altar in the Centre 
—in Ireland they are called Druid's Temples^, 
they ihould have been named more properly the 
Temples of the Draoi or Magi* 

(h) The Perfian names of Venus is BiJoncAi or BiJucht^ Na^ 
itea ind Metra. The Irith names are Bidhgoe, Anu^ Nanu and 
Mathar. The Syrian names are Nanai and Anai. The Iri(K 
fomerimes write the name h^atrg^ as Nang-tae^ vel Nang'-dar, 
i. e. Dies Venens. See Chap. Religion.— The Perfian temple 
of Nansa is mentioned % Maccab. Ch. 1 . V. 11. 


• • 

Ancient Hi/icry tf Jreland. 225 

My readers muH by this time have perceived a 
great coincidence and affinity between the ancient 
Irifh, (or Scythians) and th^ ancient Perfians* I 
am afraid the Irifh were Pagans, though like the 
Perfians they had the knowledge of the true God : 
imd that all that I can fay ip their behalf, or pr* 
Hyde in favaur of the Perfianis, we muft allowj 
that the vulgar at leaft, were little better than Ido- 
laters.— (i) In Ireland they were contaminated by 
the Tuatha Dadann. 

From this digreffion we return to the Dynafties, 
where we ihall offer a few more ftriking coinci- 
dences of names and hiftorical relations, and then 
proceed to the famous P^nian and Milefian Hif- 
tory of the Irifli. 

Dagbda or the deitv of fire, fucceeded Ltiagh 
lan^bade. Keating caus him Dagbda the great^ 
.and only fays, he reigned 70 years in Ireland ; 
yet in all the Irifh MSS. we find the defcendants 
of this Dagbda , came to. Ireland with the Tuatha 
Dadann. Confequently he could not have reigned 
in Ireland* (k) ; . . 

P . ; Dagbda 

. (i) Porphyry has quoted an oracle, wMoh, he fays, was pro- 
nounced at I>e]phos> of a very extraordhaTy oacuire : ic rum 

Chaldees and Jews are wife in.worftiippin^ 
A felf begotten God, of all things King. 

Tlie Chaldees were the Magi as #an be proved from Laertius ^ 
^nd were undoubtedly the Magi of Ireland, known by the name 
of GiUce. The Perfians call thofe Magi who were employed in 
the Service of their Gods, (&ys Dion. Chryioftom,) but the 
Greeks being ignorant of the meaning of the word, apply it to 
fuch as are flLilled in Magic, a Science unknovm to the Perfians. 
(Pion Chr. Grat. Boriothus.) 

- (k) It is to be ob&rved, (fays Mr* Bryanr^ thatwbea Cblo- 

l aicf 

m6 a Tmdkatbn^ tie 

Hdghda Sn Ittfli hiftdrjr is th« h&tttitt^j 
Cliildten, l¥&o ttritfa hittifelf had the ^po^tnx of zp^ 
bearing in fife, ahd ti comniandih^ it to be pre^ 
lent on ad occafiofis. Ibmnf^rjpfioHi &om good 
ai^otiti^^ retat^^ what hfe leaitied of JEoro^ers 
It is reported, ifays he, diat di^odjgh lotc of wit 
doih and juftlce^ Slorbailer (ot Ztrduft,) with^ 
drew hinifelf fh:)ni meii, and hVed ah^ie in a cer^ 
tain mountain : that, afterwards leaving the motitt<» 
tain, a great fire defcending £rom abore oontinu*- 
ally burned abotit him. TJ|)bn this the Kxn^ and 
nobility of Perfia came and prkyed With him t6 
God, &c* (1) 

Ddghda ifiras the Obd of the EleiKtent* (m) thi 
Godofprofperity, of generation, and of vegetati^ 

Khamahi^ or kbisierzady fumamed Homaiy a 
Qtteen of the IfeoMid Perfian Dynafty. Soihe Oki- 
ehtaGfti fufped no fiich Queen cxifltd, and the 
Tarikh Cosddeh Shakes ho merition of her. The 
OtfentU writers ixj t!hat tttk was isi great Archited, 
and adorned the city of Perfepolis r to her aUb \t 
attr3:iuted a multitude of fmall Pyramids, fcattered 
diroughottt Perfia and every where overturned by 
the Sddiers ci Jiexander ttie Great* 

About five months after her acceffion to die 
throne, flie bf oiight forth a Son, who the Aftrolo- 

niei went atnrcad aad tot4fi any where a Settlement^ they in- 
grafted upon their mu^cndmi /dftmy^ the fubfequent events of the 
place. And aa in thofe dayt they could carry up the Genealo- 
gies of their (ninces ti> their very Source, it will be found that 
the £rft King in every Country, under whatever tide defignec^ 
was the Patriarchy the Father of Mankind* (See IHx&ce.) 

(1) Oret. BorKUien. 

(m) Colle^buea^ Vol* j. p. $94. 


Ancient tiijhy tif trttand. S27 

gers dedased would bring great miifeistones <m 
the Country, and they advifed, he fhould be im* 
mediately deftroy^d. Hie tenderneft of the mo^ 
thcr would not permit Uanud to foUow their Coun^ 
fels ; ihe therefore made a little wooden Ark, and 
iiaving put die child into it, fufiered the Yeflcl to 
fail down the Gihon or Oxus. It i$ faid, Homai 
was with Child by her father Bahaman. The 
Child was found on the Water by a Dyer who 
aurfed and educated him : He was named Darab^ 
which implies, poJMtd or found on Water, (n) 
Young Darab arrived at the age of maturity, de- 
termined 6n the ptofefiion of Arms, and joined the 
army then marching againft die Greeks : he was 
nt laigth dilcovered to be the Son of Homai j who 
having reigned 30 years, reiigned the Diadem to 

The Surname Hoiuas, g^ven to the Queen, iig^ 
siifies a bird peculiar to the Eaft, which is fuppc^ 
fed tD fly conftaiktlv in .the air, and never to touch 
the gooiind : k is looked ^upon as a bird of happy 
omen, and that tncriy i^caA' it over(hades will m 
time wear a -Grown : it denotes a Phoenix, a large 
royal Eagle, a Pelicaii, naidaifird rfParadife* (o) 



This ftory is told in a different manner in the 
Irifli hiftory, viz. Anno Mundi 3559, Mocha 
Mong-^r^tadb obtaouQi lAie Crown. In the Govern- 
ment of this Princdfe the Royal Palace of Eaman 
was ere&ed. There were three Iriih IVinces who 

(n) Rkrhardfon DiiTeitat. p. 54. 

(0) Richardfon Arab. DiSionaiyy tt Homai. 

V 3 for 

228 A Ttnikaiion rf the 

for a long time xraged continual Wars for thcGo* 
vernmcnt of the Ifland. 

Their* names were Acd Ruad^ Dicdhorha or 
Diarba^ and Cimbactb (Canibyies) : after wearing 
one another out with fhruggling, they came to an 
agreement, that each (houid reign fucceffively for 
a certain number of years. 

Aod Ruad was the firft that wore the Crown, 
and died, kaving -^^nly a daughter behind him, 
named Mocha Mongruadb. Diaihorba next ob- 
tained the Government, and reigned the whole 
time; then reigned Cimbaotb his fulLtime, and 
Aod Ruad having left no Son, Macba M079gruadb 
claimed the throne in right of her infaecitance. 
Diathorba oppofed her, thinking himfelf next in 
fuccellion on failure of male ifTue in Aod ruadb : in 
confequence of which, a civil war broke out. 
Soon after, their forces met, and Macba obtahied 
a compleat Vidory* The competitors of the 
Crown being apprehended, a Council was called 
to determine what fentence fiiould be pafled upon 
them ; and thinking the peace of the Government 
would never be fettled, if they were permitted to 
Uve^ they condemned them all to death. 

The Queen being of a merciful difpofitioUt 
interfered, and defired their lives might be faved. 
And being z: Lover of jircbiteSlure^ (he propofcd 
thefe terms : that, inftead of D6ath, their punifh- 
ment Ibould be, to ere£t a mq/h [ftatefy Pfduce^ 
where the King Ihould always keep his Court. 
They agreed to the Condition, and the Queen un« 
dertook to draw the plan of this Strudure which 
fhe executed with the Bodkin of her hair : be- 
caufe, fay the modern bards, Eo is a bodkin and 
muin the neck, whence Eaman ! ! ! 

(p) Keating, p. 1 56. 


Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 229 

Macba iii Iriih, (ignifies a Royfton crow, an 
ominous bird, an eagle, a pelican ; Mong is the 
creft of a bird, the mane of a horfe, &c. and 
ruadb is red. Mocha mang-ruadb is the bird 
macbaj with a red creft, and certainly implies 
the bird of Paradife, the lame as Homai in Pcrfic ; 
from hence we have the Irifti word moing-rea/t^ 
a comet ; literally^ a ftar with a red tail, or flam- 
ing crcft. 

If fuch a perfon as Queen Homai did exift, I 
am of opinion fhc adorned the city of Batch, or 
Baligh, which was alfo called Balch-Bachara, and 
fometimes only Bachara (a), which by fome Arab 
writers is (aid to be fo called from Balcb an Oak, 
but more probable from, the Perf. Belgb, and the 
lariih Balg and Bocbra^ all fignifying wifdom ; and 
this is the true meaning of Hainan or Eatnainfi* (b) 

In Balch-Bachra, Zerduflit is faid to have pro- 
mulgated his do£b:ine, and then to have prophc- 
fied of the Meffiah : conformable to this we find, 
in the Irifli MSS. he is called the Draoi or Daru 
of Bacra^ i. e. Draoi Bacbracb a Prieft of Bachara. 
It is certain, fays Keating, (from ancient MSS.) 
that Bacrach a Druid (Draoi Bachrach) did pro- 
phecy and foretel, that a mod holy and divine 
perfon fhould be born in a wonderful manner, 
and be barbaroufly murdered by the Great Coun- 


(a) Sabii fculptilia colentcs eadem lingua dicebantnr, Bochar^ . 
quod exponitur but-prefian ; acque etiam exponitur mtjama aLwty 

]. e. Locns colle^tionis ^cientix: unde nominatur urbs Avicen- 
nae. Bochara propter Do£torum Virorum ibi confluxuin.— la 
Irifti hocfiadh is to argne on a learned topic, whaice hochaire a 
logician. SamaOlamham^ i. e. A^^t^rr O/am^^n, the congregation 
of the learned : the academy of the learned. See hereefcerf 

(b) Hyde, p. 153, 493 


230 A FindicatiM of the 

cil of his own nation, notwithftanding his defign 
of coining into the world was for the happinefe and 
falvation of the whole earth, and to redeem them 
from the delufidn of infernal demons. (t)\ 

Keating's tranflator, miftaking bachracb the ad«* 
jedive for the noun, makes it the name of the 
Draoi ; but it can be no other than Zerdtt/bty who 
loft his life in that city, as before related. In 
fome Irifh MSS. this prophet is called Dunn^ in 
others Iri^l Faidhy i. e. the holy Ir the prophet. 
Zerduji took on him the name or Er as we have 
^ewn before, and Dun was the Chaldasan name« 
X^ Dun per totam fcripturam fignificat publicum 
ofEcium in Ecclefia, feu prasdicationem qua argui* 
mur, reprehendimur, difcernimus bona a malis : 
hence in the Irifh Pynn, L e. Olamh, i. e, vptH 

From thefe prooft of the affinity of the Irilh 
language and hiftory, with diofe ot the Chaldecs 
and Ancient Perfians, there can be no doubt of 
the Irifii being (as they affirm) of Scythian and 
not of Cekic or Oomerian origin. They who pro- 
feflfcd this firc-worfhip in temples or towers, that 
is, the religion of Zcrduft, in Lucian's time, as 
reckoned up by him, were the Perjians^ the Par^ 
thiansy the BaQriaits^ the Chtmarefmains^ the Ari^ 
anxy the Sacans^ and the Medes (d) j — four of 
thefe nations were Scythians, Accordingly we 
find moft of the Perfian names ©f the true God, 
of the Demons, Peri, Angels, &c. preferved in 
the hifli language, yet the names of Princes, of 

(c) Keating, p. ig/, 
jpd} jLucian de Long:cvi$, 


Jrtdent Hifiorj tif Inland. 231 


Heroen^ tj^a. are tranflated into the Scythian or 
IriA dial^ : Fpr example, 

Persic. Irish. 

Chodai Cod €hodhia, Gomhdhia 

Bifhtcrna Dim S^fheach-tiema 

Mana Ditto Mann, Manann ; Arab* 

Mann, beneficitj Man- 
nan, benigniis^ and witib 
the article aly Deus - 

ShbS^ IW//^, lem Seathar 

Ard the name tf the An,- Art (me of the names of God 
gel who prefides over 

HMtaCide^ialParadifej Naemh, Nean^ ii&»m^ 
I e. Dara naem the from the Arabic num, 

abode of the Bleffed naym, delight Joy\ prof-^ 

peritj^ benefits ^ftfuows^ 

ASaxozathe Angel of death Saman 

Derviche, qui rcgarde le Dearc, i* e. dcora De, 
pauvrete rpUgieufe i. c. feeking charity for 


Afumn, felon ks Mages de Perfc, Ic memc 
que Mordai^ Tangc de la mort, ou celui qui fc- 
pare lies aoaes d'avec les corps, les auteurs de$ pa- 
japhrgfes . Chalda^qucs de PEcriteure fainte Ic 
nomment Malakadmouta^ i. c. I'ange de la mort* 
(D'Herbdot) See this Ipfh feftival defcribed, 

CoUcftan^a^ V. 3, p- 444* ^. 


2^2 A Vindication of tbi 

The Irilh deity Saman was fuppofed to be the 
judge of departed fouls ; at his difcretion they 
were condemned to be puni/hedin bbir4nj or 
given over to Ifrion or Ifr4nj i. c. the land or 
abode of the lin^s {e) ; or they were to reaflyme a 
being on earth. The Brahman* s believe, that thofe 
that ihall worihip God from, motives of future hap- 
pinefsy ihall be indulged with their defire in Hea- 
ven for a certain time, — ^but, they jhall return to 
earth- — ^they fhall afibciate with the firft organized 
Purman (f ) they (hall meet. They fliall not re- 
tain any confcioufnefs of their former ftate^ unlcf$ 
it is revealed to them by God. But thofe favoure4 
perfons arc very few, and are diftinguiOied by the 
names of Jate^ Summon j i. e, the agquaimed with 

(e) JitCs^ At. lit a demon, genius, fpirit ; jan the ibtti ; Jan 
ben Jan the name of an imaginary being, who makes a great 
figare in eaftern fabyJous tradirion. He il fuppofed to have been 
tfa^ Monarch of that race of creatures pilled 1^^ the Arabians Jan 
or Jimt^ and alfo of the Peris or Fairies, both of whoqi inhabited 
the earth before Adam's creation, but were then banifhed to a 
comer of the world called Jinniftan^ for difobedience to the Su- 
preme Being. — With thefe the pifh'dadians are faid to have 
waged war. (Richardfon.) 

. Jfrin in Jrifh fignifies hell. Before Chrtftianicy was introduced, 
it was the name of the cruel demon thas punifhed wicked mor- 
t lis : it is literally thtj/rjin^ or cruel Jin or demon of the Per- 
sians. (See Richardfon s Dt IT. p. 274..) He was called Goii-ine, 
in Arab, g/mi lin or the malevolent demon. Arab. gaUan a de* 
pion, om gailah the mother of demons. We now tranflate Gp/- 
line the Devil. So we tranflate the Irifti IlA-Uirne Hell .• but it 
exprcfles Paradifei the //>^ niarifion or country, U/Vw of Uirin, 
i\ e. Paradlfe j Old Perfjc Houran Pamdife; Mr. Richardfon 
fays, hura^Ain is the Virgin of Paradife ; kara is a virgin and 
Ain is Paradife ; I have fomeivhere met H^nran an ancient Per- 
fian word for Paradife : AH thefe Iri/li words are evidently 
fferfian, and were introduced by. the Tuath-Dadann. 

(/) Purman unttom. (HoTwel).)— Irifli fomm/ff.' 


Jincient Hiflory of Ireland. 233 

their former ftate ; fays Mr. HoUwell, from the 
information of the Pundit, his inftrudor (h) ; I 
€onfefs> that finding fo much of the Brahman 
language and mythology to correfpond with thofe 
of ^ ancient Irilh, I am inclined to think Jates 
Summon is the Irifh Sbietigb Sbamhna^ i. e. one 
favoured by the deity Saman. 

Before the labours of the ingenious Mr. Holwell, 
in learning the language and do£trine of the Brah- 
man's, what abfurd ftories have we been told of 
the tenets of their religion, and of their God 
Brimbi from whence J^rabmin z pvi^^ becaufe 
produced from the head of Brimh^ i. e. Wifdom ; 
(i) and of j^rabam^ they have no idea. Brimh 
m the Shanfcrita language is wifdom ; the Bedang 
or commentary on the Bsdas begins with a dia* 
logue between Brimb and Narud^ 1. e. Reafon. 

In old Irifli Beid or Beady is a book, a com- 
mentary : Bed'foirimbadby is a commentator, i. e. 
an expolitor of the Bed* 

Brum or Briom is wifdom, whence Brumaire a 
pedant ; Nard is fkill, knowledge, reafon (k). 

The Shanfcrita Bedangy is called SbqJ^er ; which, 
fays Mr. Holwell, may be litersdly tranllated tbe 
body offcience^ 

(h) Pundu a learned man, a teacher. (Holwell.)— In Iridi 
bun-dath or pun-dath, an in(lra6tor oi wifdom, one endowed 
V^ith knowledge ; bunatam to poiTefs, dath i. e. fath, wifdom, 
fkill, poetry, &c. 

(i) Brahma: penetrant toutes cho&s, DUerbelot, p. 195. 
In Irifli Briom wifdom, Mionn tbe head : Brlom-mionn. 

(k) The Irifli GloHaHfts e?en dare to fliew the derivation of 
the word Briom or Briomha ; BrhmAa, i. e. Briomdha quad 
Priomh-dha^ i. e. friom prima, dha vel daa^ Scientia See Pri- 
omhdha, Nard, Src. in Shawe's Irifli Did^onary. 


S34 JFhtdkatiMofth* 

In old Iriih &£r or ^biUy \, e. So^bioi (S<9hi<^) 
is fcience, and Seife or Sheifi^ ia a dUlof^e, or 
difcourfe between Lcanied men ( jdie mam^f r jigi 
which the Bedang is written (!)• 

Zerduji^ it is uid, iludied with the Brahmim^ 
and mixed much of their religion with his qmj^ 
According to the Irifh MSS. Braum or Bri$m W9i$. 
the grandfon of Magog ; for his wifdom h/9 was 
named Ce-bacbi or CaiJbaccbej the iUiidripus Bw^ 
chus or the illuftrious Morusj i. e« ^rior Safifinif 
the Mulberry tree ; (of which hereafter )rr^e i^ 
laid to have fettled in Triatb^Baicch or Ba^ria^ 
!• e. the country or lordihip of Baccbc ; where 
moft probably the Brahmin religion had its fource. 

At a proper time, we (hall ihcw fuch aii affinity 
between the ancioit Iriih and the Sbanfcrita and 
Bengalefe languages, as will leave no doubt of their 
having been one people } or at Icaft xntimsttdy con* 
ne&ed with each other. 

To conclude, this is the hiftory of the Jriih Tuor 
fba Dadann and the Periian Pijbdadann : if there 
is any truth in either, there is ceitainly much 
fable. I am of opinion, that both thefe an4 the 
Cbefdhn or Cbatdeesj were originally Scythians ; it 
is certain we find thefe Tuatha Dadanxiy naioed 
Geafadin in the Iriih hiftory. See chapter divina- 
tion. They may have wandered to BaSria and 
Hindfi^any and there eftabiiihcd the Brahman 
religion. I think, that no nation was called hj 
that name, and that their catalogue of kings^ is 
fabulous : they came to Ireland and Britain w 
fmall bodies, accompanying the Fbeni or Phenici- 

(I) See Holwells diiTertation on tbe Brahm^m t^li^ipii, in 
Dowe's hiftory of Hindoftan. 


Andem Hift^ of Inland. 23 5 

am (m). Some may have returned from the £aft 
to Meflbpotamia, improved in Eaftern knowledge^ 
and have fettled in Singaray from whence they 
may have migrated Wotward into Europe^ and 
carried ivith them the nam^t oi Zingarij Singari^ 
and Cingarif by which they were known in Italy : 
but the Hcbrewa ftiU called them Cuthim. David 
de Pomi8 takes them for a mixed people^ and Elias 
Grammaticus thinks thefe are the Zingari of Italy. 
Rabbini Samaritanas 0^n^3 Cuthim vocant, eo 
quod vcnerunt a Cuda & adduxit AiTur de Baby^ 
lonicaj de Cutba^ de Ava^ de Amatb^ & de Sefar* 
^owm, & coUocavit eos in civitatibus Samaria^ &c« 
•^^-^t videtur mihiy dixit Elias grammaticus, qubd 
ab illis venerit populus, qui ultro citr5que vagaiur 
in terra hoftiatim mendicantcs, quos Itali Zinghe* 
ni^ & Zingari appellant (n). 

To fuch ftrolleri or* emigrators, die Hebrews 
and Syrians might properly give the name of 
Dadan. When Etij^ migrateid from Tyre to 
Cartfaase in Africa, the Phaenicians called her 
Dada trom fTl^ daddi tp migrate ; whence the 
Latin Dido (o)« The Poets took great liberties 


^m) Sec No. XIII. Collea. 

(n) Darid de Pomis, p. 92. Zingano vel Zmgara, Perfooa, 
die ya. girando il mundo per giuntare altmi ibtto il pretefto di 
dat la buona ventura, Lac. Proefligiator. -(Vocabul. della 
Crnfca. — It is incredible how far tbefe QbaiHim or Dedanites 
pufhed tbemfelves ; we find tbem in the Seytho-Scandka OialeA 
pndtT SiaHii^ ideal dk et Smtgate^ Preft; Pbeta, idem Sacerdos. 
Veralius Lex). 

(o) Dido, ab rtTT dadefc Hebreo & Sjrro es vagar i andar de 
una parte a atm. Aldrete Antig. de ISfpaoa, p. 196. See 
fl]fo Etymologicutn magnum. — It is remarkable tbat thefe Zin- 
gari tJT 'Gy^iet of England ca!l tbemfclves Rhmana Skiol, 




33^ ^ VifuScathn rf the 

vith proper names,*— Quoties Poeca afpera inve- 
nit nomina, vel in metro non ftantia, ;^ut mutat 
ea, aut de his aliquid mutilat (p). ^e 7uta 
Dagon of Aruch (p. yjJ) — may have been mifta- 
ken by the Copyift for Tuta Dadan, the i Gimd 
in Dadann, may have been taken for *i daleth, or 
the word deiignedly changed to Dagon, by a 
zealous Jew, as thofe of the Afiatic OJban and 
Petyarahj into Oifhin and Patrick, by an Iriih 
Monk. Our knowledge <^ Oriental hiftory, 
is in its infancy ; in the prefent century only, 
we have learned, that, 'the Brahman*% fo far 
from deriving their name from Abrabani, they 
have no idea of fuch a perfon ; and^that inftead of 
being the mod grofs idolaters, they would think 
it the grofieil impiety to reprefent God under any 
form (q). Their ancient MSS. are become obfo- 
lete, and great attention ihould be given by our 
learned countrymen in the Eafl:, that the Se^ 
nqffiys of Hinduftan, do not impofe on the world, 
by ndfe interpretations of their old books, as the 
Senachies of this country have done with the Irifii 
MSS. What information may we not expe£t from 

which m the Iriili language, means, the defcendants of Rhema, 
who wai the fither of Dtdan : but whether this is their interpret 
ution of the name, I am iiot informed. All Periian Nouns and 
moft of the Chaldstan, (with very few exceptions), when applied 
to any thing having life, from their plurals in an^ as Dadan, 
Omanan, Yemenen. Xenophon mentions the Chaldaeans as a 
warlike nation of Armenia. They were great wanderers, 
whence the prophet Habbakuk, C. i. V. 6. — 1 will raife up the 
Chaldaeans that bitter and fwift nation : who go over the breadth 
of the earth, to poiTefs dwelling places which- belong not unco 
them. (See the Biifaop of Waterfbrd*s Minor proph.) 

(p) Servius. 

(q) Holwell's Introduction to Dowe'i hiftory of Hindoftan. 


Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. %yf 

the learned labours of Holwelly Jones ^ and Hei/- 
bead (K). 

Our Scvthbns, the fons of Magog, fon of 
Japhet, bemg now mixed with the fons of Shem 
and Ham, in Chaldea, Oman, and Perfia, 
thought proper to diftinguifli themfelves by the 
name of Gadul, (now written -Gaodhal). By 
Gadul they meant, their great progenitor Japhet. 
It is very remarkable that Noah fhould give an 
epithet to one of his fons and not to the reft. 
Sem the brother of Japbet "^Tji Gadul. Becaufe 
this word fignifies greats (magnum efle vel fieri), 
the Hebrews thought it fignified eldeji ; whereas 
Moies names him laft : Sem^ Ham^ and Japbet — 
and if the eldeft was diftinguiihed, why not the 
youn^eft ; and would not the fecond fon ezped a 
priority m name over the third ? The LXX tranf- 
latc Gadulj the elderi Heideggar, Buxtorf and 
Bochart agree that the word may be ufed in that 
fenfe r — the true meaning of the word is of no 
confequence to us, — Japhet was ftiled Gadul and 
our Scythians, being defcended from him, diftin- 
guiihed themfelves by that name, and to this day 
nave preferved it (r). They were tall of ftature, 


(r) Synonimous to Gadul, .is the Iriih Oigh^ and the Arme- 
nian Aigh^ nomen Gigantis, (fays Rivola), tt Aighaflnachy >/r- 
meni ab Aigh oriundi,— horum gigantium erat Japeticus ilJe 
fiaigh^ Celebris ac fortis prsefedhis, jaculandi pentiffiinus^ arcu- 
que potens. See Mofes Cheronenfis, L. i C. 9. 

Arab. Kadul magnum efle-»in like manner the Irifh proper 
Qame ^uathal or TW, is the name as the Arabic Titf/Sy ^vda 
Tawel^ whence the Englifli tali 

Gadul^ fays Mr. Bates, ^from Mar. de Cal.^ fignifies any 
greatneis, o^augmentation of quantity, quality, time, age, dig« 
niry^ riches, or any thing elfe.^I grant it does, but it is more 


33^ A Fjnd k d t k n cftit 

and to tbts period hiTebecn lemarfced tat i3mt 
fize. Synonimous to Gadul they called diemfidtfes 
phainigh or Fhaiaic, L e. ftrong^ mighty^ and 
this is cfae origia of tbe Phscaioans tdOman or of 
die red fea, £M>m whence fitcabo and Herodotus 
deduoe their origin. 

It appears that feon after the eagag^neat our 
Gadmli had vnsk Abraham, after dieiadmgof dK 
Caaaanites, as before cited, dteyafiied witfa tfacm, 
and became, as it were, one people ; inflmffing 
them in natagatioo, and permitting them to ihaxc 
their commerce widi tbe Jbdias. 

Tbe learned Gebelin, iaw clearly, that ike 
Fhaenicians and Canaanites, wtre Afferent people^ 
he follows Sir J* Newton and thinks the frft were 
idumseans, whereas, chey dwdt only on the bor- 
ders of Kdom, vi2.inOman. Ajonton qu^ ne'lt 
pas dtomsant <}ae les PAenideut qudque Etrjn^en 

froqiiendf mpptisd toqsaitity, tfatn to ^nali^^ fuGefL ^i. v. 8. 
the child gc^ — '^6. -i 3. the jnan waxed great and went Ibr- 
w»rd, and^ew till he became very efeat.— -3.8. 1 1. till Shclah 
xn^ fon be grown.— Numb. 6. 5. fliail let grow the locks of the 
hair of his head. And in the other fenfe it is 4bmecifnes oM hf 
xhe 111 A, 4Uid eKptained in the Gloflarics by Eaigtiy i. e. npble 
potent, mighty. Thefe Gadul or Giants were in pofleifion of 
the Brittanic Ides when the Cimmerii or Walfli repoflefled them* 
felves of Britain^ (for they were xhe primitive inhabitants). In 
commemoration of the expuliion of thefe Gaduli or tall men, 
they annually burnt a Gigantic figure of wicker, as before rela- 
ted : ifrom that time the Gaduli remained inhabitants of Irelan4» 
Mann i^nd the North of Scotland. The WelTK hiftoriaiis alfo 
mention the battte they encountered with Giants in Cornwall, 
who were the fons of Gog and Magog. The WalHi antiquariet 
have likewife carefully diftinguiibed the Scythians or Magogiaju 
from the Gomerites^ by the name of GniMl^ hence fiumfrtdiu 
a Welfh author, fays^ Scotos Hibemorum prolern^ & ipfi h om- 
nes optimd norunt, eodemque nomine a noftratlbus fcilicet Guid^ 
hil appellantur. 


Antieni fS/hrj rf inland. 059 

UM CanamhUi ay»t hi appeU^g da m^me nom^ 
puifqu'ils etoient venus s'etablir atec euz: no 
doime-f'on pas aux Anglais le nom de Bretons^ 
^t^iqu'iU tie le foient paft d'otiginic, k ae confond^ 
t'^n pas fans ceffe le nom des Gaulois avec odoi 
des Francois Mi 

Wt muft ror ever remain i^norant^ if the Ca- 
tilisa^ftes or Phde&kians diftingmihed the Gaduli in 
their \7ritii1g6 1 it is probable, the name was loft^ 
ijtcept among the Scythians thetnfelves, as that of 
the Idutnasans l^as, after dieir being fubdued by 
the Jetes ; and that of the Moabites after the coa- 
quefl: of Nebuchadonofor. In a letter from Suron 
king of Tyre to Solomon, in a fragment preferved 
by Eufebius from EopolemaS) the Tyrians certain* 
ly tntkts a diflindion } they fay^ ** in c0npHanci 
^^ with your tmaji we find ycu eight tbmfund 
^ftw ^ ^inxcof^ Tyriaas smd I^ssmciaiiB (t)« Stra« 
bo calls the companions of Cadmus, fometimea 
Arabians, and ibmetimes Pbaemcians, which fhews 
lie was fenfible that they were a mixed people. 

If the Phoenicians had been Idumss^s, as Sir 
5« Newton thinks they were, and had navigated 
the Indian Ocean, they would not with propriety 
have given the name Gedul to the Mediterranean 
Tea, for k cannot be called a great fea, when com- 
pared to the Ocean \ yet this was the nafme given 
to it by jofl)ua, Ch. i. v. 4* ufque ad VfDn O^il 
Mare GaduL— 4iere it is tranflated tht grea^fia: 
there is a probability that this fea was fo named in 
compliment to the Gadelians as being the firft navi- 
gators, as the Perlian Gulph was named Bath^Far- 

(s) Gebelin fur I'origine <ks Phaenicicns. 
(i) PrsBp. Evang. p. 449. 


240 A Ttndication of the 

fa (Baahr^al-Fars) from Phdoius Far^^ of vhdmlii 
the next chapter. 

The Scythians thus fettled in Oman, and be* 
come the traders of the Eaft^ would naturally call 
themfelves Anakim^ from Aonac or Anac, a mer- 
chant : the Hebrews would name them CS^^iy 
Arbim from "S^S merchandize, traffick, and by 
the infertion of an epenthetic N comes Erenbi and 
Erembij the name oi a nation mentioned by Homen 
and Strabo. Hpmer's Scboliaft fays, they were 
the fame with the Troglodytes^ but both he and 
Bochart aUo\^ that they might have been a branch 
of the Arabians (u)» Thefe I take to be the true 
derivations of the Anakim and of Arba the fon of 
Anac, of the fcripture : Aonac^ it muft be bbferv- 
ed, does likewife fignify a prince, in Irifh (v). 

And thefe Magogian Gadult^ thefe tall Scythians, 
were known in fcripture by various names beto- 
kening, tall men, terrible to their neighbours, 
from their ftature and warlike appearances • The 
Moabites called them 0*%)M Amim (w), by a cor- 
rupt and abominable punctuation pronounced 
Emim ; the lingular number is Am^ ^ word com- 
mon in the Iri(h language with the fame fignifka- 
tion as in the Chaldee, viz. AmA a tall man. Am" 
hoc (x) a dwarf, Ambds an ungovernable man, that 
will not live in fociety ; hence the Arabic Ammety 
a plebeian. It alfo f^gnifies a community. Our 
Scythians or Omanites or Phsnicians of the red 
fea, were always the dread of the neighbouring 

(u) Strabo. L. i. Horn. Ody is. ^ V. 83. & Schal. in loff. 
(v) Arab. Anak^ Princes, chie^, tall men, and in che Chal- 
dee M^'^M Arba fignifies a trading ihip, 
. (w) Deuceronomy, Ch. a. Z3>ok is the plural of OK 
(x) AiphaCy i, c. ca-Amh.^ca is a negative. 


Jtncient Hiftinry rf hrtland* 341 

ftates. Fond of conqueft, and by trade mer- 
chants, th^y rambled through Afia, inthecharac« 
lers of foldiers and traffickers ; yet were good citi- 
isens and governed by iidfe laws. In their turn, 
they diftinguUhed fome of the Gameritei^ that did 
not fettlci in towns and cities, by the name of Geilty 
Ceiit or Keih^ which fignifies terror, a wild man 
or woman, si fylTeftrotis perfdn, and hence I think 
the name Celt. In like manner the word Amb 
iignifies .terror and a giant ca^ifiN Amim, Emim,. 
timorcs, aut terribiles, vel populi, (five infula 
aquarum) : Gigantes quos ezpulerunt Moabitas a 
terra ipforum, Deut; 2; In Genefin. 14. non eft 
proprium^ fed vertendum terribiles vtl horrendos, 
quod fecit Chaldaictis interpres i fie etiam tranf* 
terendum efle apud Hieronymiis in quasftionibus 
fuis Hebraids in Genefin^ licet lxx %iAfw^ 
tranftulefint* Puto tamen populosefle Raphaim 
fl Moabitis Entim di&os : ab Ammonitisvero Zum* 
ztmim^ Deut s. (y)* 

There are few of my rdaders, even of thofe, 
who are natives of this country, that have had an 
opportunity of fearching the ancient MSS« of their 
mother language* I conclude this chapter, with 
an explanation of fome words mentioned in the 
preceding pages^ not tommdnly knowm 

Mag or Mugb^ or Mogb, a minifter, a fervant, 
is a word in ancient times related only to the 
church. MugA or Mucbj alnrn dileas do dbidba^ 
that is, Mugh is properly a fa c red name ; ths is 
the explanation in many ancient Irifh Gloffaries. 

(7) Stephaousy Locorom defcripcio. Iri(h Rahbmm or Reai" 
hmm^ tQ rob, to plunder^ to ntTiil^ to ovcicome bj ftrengcb. 

C^ From 

Froflk ihis $cfAizn^tarA4 tfad i^ibierfi FcvfiMft 
^orjginaltij^ the fatoi^ peci|)li. ai tbr Bt3yUu«MsK 
hrnkA Mag } m4 hmd iiic kHh Sag^ibifb Briaft^ 
^Ikcrsil^ a iMorfhipptr of GMd)^ chej tpok tihe firft 
)Bi2Lrtolthec4n«qKH)ndiaildfi(i8ificdiIn^ thukv 

JfUm. LsmmL afidilf jhv Sib9^ Pevfian»aEathte!% <»- 
pfaaa M^y%vA^ by .ffer^n w<Nd$ ^riikh fig)^ 
jMtfjIft^/aesr Sacerdoi:^ u e^ Igii!cbla];iaB Sacor^ 
•dej^} for.hcffaig ioftr die detiTcitiofl of dis wori^ 
.,dic7 conftiBmilyfiaMfiat&.UbDg, a.fiioftx)f dak-Iiffe 

;. ik hbmble Afio^ €i|ti2ddsa .{cccimui US Ma^.Hiiidc 
Grnti fcnaiub -MvyA *& hinc ^rndMs fintnakrunt i^ 
.Mbgfttsif k^Ac S^irL &L jttdaiii&.aiieD Oeotes^ fii^ 
•Dr. HjMiek But i ancf of vjmiibiiiil ^teM;h hoine 
catitttxoTb to . die GfaaldBcs^ l^hfaniciaiikL and' ficjfsdilt 
ans^ all; fire- worftippdrsw Ihe Grbok» hbkre prd- 
ftr^'fiie Drue br^pqiaJ: figmfioaiAkn a£ tke fib^if- 

Hum, p. 372. has McCyofonSf-, L e Jffa^bs^ Dew, 

GiJiJkeac and Aifiieaiixj^xz Ttifb ^oidrds. fyMis- 
indiiS' t<r MAgW:: me Oneoisi coiiitertoA tkdo to 
VM/u Anissfr dais^ Magi i PcrfiB a|D|iillaidattiir 
€fiame. (a) 8aada8!iiiakeS"'tfa}l C^temi fdciieffiDi to 
Zarduft, but as. Rebnd'ob&rves^ ddi 4bkt>d he 
.Ofarasr sndis.thc Oi^^i^bCdbK modbhi 6^^Aen- 
dened tt;r Ld Brisn, riis ^Ofhan of Zerdtift^ and the 
cO^n^ afid^G^fi^f th^ Xii(b and KMflandScotb ; 
a pmpbct^ t>]te irnt froaci^^Oddv a^uMed pcrfiaa. 
This W0i»d >v^. camtDon ^ the QhahiMs.<sind Hiil- 
nicians. )tnChazan, or Hazan, Speculator, In- 

(7.) See Vfit, Rcl^. Vet. Pcrf. p. 37131. 

(a) Suidas. ReJandus de Voc^ Ling. Pen. p. 191. 


Jnfikni i^fiity rf, Ireland. 243 

rei habet : Minifter & (Iriftc Infpcdor, Mini/Ur 
SyntgPgaV ^ ^ .^iluus- Di^eoaul^^: qui aiiag 
dicituc U^cttf Shamaib, NuBciiis Ecclefiiv, qui4c£- 
tinatus eft bynagogae nccefTarMi* op^m prseitaiKlis. 
Hie maxim^ oratione five precibus & cantu Eccle- 
fis praeibaty prserat ledioni legali, docens, quod 
& quomodo legendum^ ^ iimilibug quas ad facra 
pcrtinebant : Unde quandomodo pro Cantore, 
rnceccfUqro fttniitur-MS& pro. Mi&iftra io. gex&ere, 
.de filiU Samuflis,' p2^ri diifiinilibug &- adjudifaa- 
duxa ui^tU^i S?u9. 8» j. — pro Miniiliro facrp- 
runv pslfliia uTitatimixiunu (b) Tht root i& in ii^ 
in^aifrmjm to.tfplai% to Qxpound, to interpret 
-^^whonce Aiifie^^ vd Cl^isneacl^, :r Cuifiom 
Wiie^, prudent : aixordioi^ to the proyindalr pro- 
DuitciafW of ni wbicb i^ foaietimes tietbj foaic* 
times. Clietht > Apoti^ w)^4. for Mof/^s Kt Iriih 
is. It^t-au^^;^ ^tter part of tbe compound fig- 
mfjing illuittaou^. la xmr modera I^idipnii»es 
ReaUfiri ii^^terpret^ a Clergyman, ^ Minii(b?p 

I'lje wordrisrChalde&a^^jPbicnkian. r 

J^tim idem i^ quoft Itf fgmJ^ Tadnifim}. Sot^foh 
a2U i« wbeiux tbe Bei^i^ Radf a prie& «of-ihe 
Guebr!W..X/j) , , 

Taeie teords: evidqitl]( grovci that the anc^eat 

UiAkyffhcf$^ |a Afiay^.fnb^cd yrkh the Chal^qe^'^nd 

Vii^tpj^iifJ^^x^l iKicvfLC^ Um} .Cwaanite&y.lKs^aufe 

tth^it kdbajrly fff^^yed in tl^ k(^^ o|,4us 

,«•»•'» ••' ■/• '* 

(q'Rjd^ And hence t!ie Irifli Aantes of JjAghda, 11 ft id 
(6^0^ Rn, V^i Rv^ii RilM tcf wiiji, c. srntM db'! xXfehaVy 
i. e. the 0tMdkm ItAatf^ flihMli^^o^ Dhil^:* J(Vet. GftiliiO 
This Daffhda has been nijftaken by. the Perfians for the mother 

qf^ 4 Jfiftorf, 

3 44 ^ VltuUcaiion of the 

Hiftory , that the Phasnicians were chiefly Scythi- 
ans, (d) 

We (hall hereafter treat more fully on the Reli- 
gion of the ancient Irifh, and of the names and 
orders of the Pliefts. 

. ftBCAPlTnLAtlOK. 


From the moft efteemed Greek and Latin Au« 
thors, we have fhewn, that the Parthians, Bac- 
trians, and Perfians, were oHginally Scythians, 
ccmfequently the defendants of Magog, Son of 
Japhet. We have feen from Mofes Chorencnfis, 
that the ancient Armenians were likewife Scythi- 
ans, looking up to Ja]Aet as their gifeat progeni- 
tor. From the fame Mofes, we have (hewn the 
divifion or feparation of the Sons of Gomer and of 
Magog, at the borders of die Cafpi^ii Sea ; where 
both were known by the Aame oif BtdTa or Bolg : 
That the Gomerites ptoceeded Normward and 
Weft ward j purfuing the Bolg or Wolga, i. c. the . 
Danube, till they fettled in Germany and Gaul: 
That the Maffogians took a contrarv route^ and 
purfuing the Euphrates, were known oythe name 
ciCurdet^ and fettled in Oman in Arabia Felizt 
and in modern Petiia. '- We have feen fo many co- 
incidences and fimtlarity of Anecdotierand Names, 
in the ancient Hiftories of tfie Perfians and of the 
Irifli, as clearly demonftrate, they were orjgiaally 
the fame people, IpUt into nations of (Cerent 
names, in the revolutions of Ages, and both re- 
tainiAg their ancient traditions at this day. 

(d) It u the opiniai of Monf. Baiily, diat the Phaenicttii i 
were oririrally Scjthiani. (See Leora fur rAtlantMcs.) 


Ancient Hiftory rf Ireland. 345 

Wc muft detain our readers^ a little longer on 
fliis fubjedy to enquire into the Afiatic;^ hiftory of 
tfaefe people. 

Mirkhond and Kbondemivy Arabian Authors, 
the Sallufl and Ju/lin of the Eaft, have colleded 
the Oriental traditions of Japhet ; from them we 
learn, *' that Japhet had eight Children, viz. 
" Turk, Tchin, Seclab, Mamcluk, Gomari or 
*^ Keimak, Khozar, Rous, Barzag ; to which 
^' fome have added three others, viz. Sadeflan, 
^' Gaz, and Khalag. Much difpute has arifen 
•* about the primogeniture of thefe, fome giving 
'^ it to Turk, others to Tchin, &c. &c. as natio- 
*^ nal partiality didated. Japhet had for his ihare 
^^ of ^ the habitable globe, frem the Cafpian Sea^ 
** to the Eajiern extremty (c) and all to the Norths 
(f ) and dying in a good old age, lefit the Sove- 
reignty to Turk, and this is the Japhet O^Jan^ 
L ۥ the Son of Japhet of the Tartars and Ori- 
ental Turks, whom they acknowledge to be 
^* the author of their race. 

^^ Turk having many talents and good qualities, 
*^ fuperior to his brethren, was declared by his 
father, to be mafter and fovereign of all the 
Countries they pofTefled, which were already 
jwell peopled ; and as their numbers increafed, 
** Colonics were fent out from time to time, which 
*' became the parents of thcgreatcft nations of the 
** world. 

*' Turk governed his fabje£ks with great wif- 
" dom,and jqftice during 240 years, and left four 
^* Sons, fome fay five, viz. Toutok, Genghela 

(e) That is from the Cafpian Sea to China. 
{{) Scjthia intra & extra Im^tnm, Touran, Tartary, &c. and 
^11 the Oricntaj Turks or Tartars. . 

•* Baregia, 


146 • A Vin^cathn df the 

" Barcjfiii, (B^refgl? or Bate^a, aiias Tix Sht^ 
" her) and Ilak or Imlak. 

'< The Laws made bj Turi^ are naipj^d %^ 
** an^ ^^*, by the Moguls, and fhefc laws were 
" renewed and augmented by Gingbl^ban. All 
** who commit Crimefi agalnft thefc Laws, arc 
^^ faid to ))ave fallen ijito the lalTa, ^this is their 

mode oiF Speech,) and are panUhed cither by 

death or whipping. 

** The pofterity of Turk was divided into-fpur 
** great tribes, as the Jcwifli and Arabian nations 
" have been^ fince that period : thefe tribes were 
•* named Erlat, Gialair, Caougin, and Berlas or 
" Perlas, of the laft came Tamerlane, and this 
♦' fourth tribe was afterwards divided into twenty 
'* four others by Ogou^khan. 

" Thefc 74 tribes were divided Into Right 
*• wing and Left wing, called by the Mogols and 
** Tartar^ Givangar and Bersngar^ and though 
** thefc two wings compofed but one nation ; by 
** a fundamental law of their government, they 
^* were not to mix or intermarry one with the 
" other. 

** It muft be remarked, that Mogol and Tatar, 
** being dcfccndcd pf Turk, and having given 
** names to two great nations of Mogols and Tar- 
•* tars, thefe are both comprehended by Oriental 
•' hiftorians under the name of Atrak^ and by this 
** name forac authors under(land the Kathai or 
** Northern Chincfe, or Tartars adjoiping China, 
•^ Tchin was the father of the Chincfe. 

" From time immemorial fome of ihefe Turks 
*' have lived a wandering life, like tbofe people 
^' called Nomades by the Greeks, and Bfdom by 
*' the Arabs, The Oriental Turks call them 

*' Gutchgungi 

Awmf Wfim if Ireland. ^ 

was the Tyurc^i^w Nji^on fof^^^e^. 

:f''Jk%j^^r^^ an^ ^ P^ct if^i cxplaw the 
*^ V9M Twk UP Agfttty ^ w^U Wftdc ywog OHip^ 

^« Thpwr tljp Sojfi of Fejridpmp Ifi[«g of ijo^p 
^« pyk4adfftnj was father of tJ»e Ti^r^a (or Scy- 

Thus, the learned ?p4 «^ f^ccc^feijiX D'Berbcr 
\/^% &pfp ^e A^th9rs ^)?py« njent^onpd. 

.t?ic tr\i? dprivatipfi rif the vrarijl Turk is from 
1?W^ iCIr. Tore) tjwj b0^4f XhjB Auijwat. 4^(J Tpr- 
^'y i9f T^?Ky fi^^i^ not pply prq^jotipiL, but 
excelling in le^fung^ l>ecoiniog fu|^e^;(>r> Tpz^ 
was the Epithet giy^en to ^a^g on axrcount of his 
rjiris tal^ilts,^ and of ^j^e adyaif cg3;ient or jtiiperiori. 
ty pyer b^ j^rcihren. iV^^ f^y? Mr. flliciuHrafon, 
fignifies a Scythian : alfo the Turks, conmr^ncl* 
\f\g likewife thofe numerous nations of 1 urks be- 
tween Khorafm^ and China, who all claim defcent 
fi^m Tmi4^ the 3an pf japjbct. A$ tkofi: people 
have in j^neml fiae Gouni^ajaDQfiS iwtth large J^ack 
eyes, ^ Pcrfiaft P^eis mrfae fre<}U4Bfit ulc of this 
WQira JjTuf kj tp cxprefe beautiful youth of both 
S(S9bq^ (Ar^^ Did. p. 536.) Turkman, a Va- 
gnfltTurk. (id.) 

From tfaefe quotations, we colle6t the opinions 
of the Eiaftern writers, xif the. extent of ^aphct's 
ChiWren in the Eaft. The Chief of them was 
Turkt 9ad be is plainly diiEtinguiAied froo^ Coiner, 
confeqaently hewas Msgogi^Aox of the ^ScydiiaBs. 
Tory Torcy and 9V», ta Mfli, fignify a rriiice ; 
(in Chaldee yym Toran.)— 91?rr in Irifh fignifies a, a Royal mandaJte, In Perfian Tcrgbyn^ is a 

(g) DHcrWor, jit Tuik. 


24^ A Vindication of the 

Royal mandate. In Arabic Ttreki a . head man* 
Tore a King, a prince, Tariib a Law. 

So much confiifion and cbntradidiioi^^ prevaok^ 
in the Arabian hiftories of the early ages, that all 
we can learn from them is, that by traditign the 
Tartars, Moguls, Kalmucs, and ancient' Perfians 
were the defcendants of Mago?, parucularlv the 
people named by them Tourari. ' 

JQJS Magog filius Japhet. Gpmer & Magogs 
tmde brtae funt diiae gentes'Gejg' and Magog j & ab 
his ScytBaj qui et Magbgi diquntuir. In Taitaria 
funt regiones Cog and Magog, quas illi nominant 
Jug feu Gug & Mungug. Caftellus. 

Syr. Magwg. Gens Scythica. 

JU Gog nomen propr. Regis, aliis Regionis, 
viz. Afise miijoris Ezech. 38. 2. (h) Magog, the 
Pipe Tree. 


(h) Agreeable to the Afiatic Cuftom of calling Priiioes afier 
Trees; the name Magog fignifies a Pine Tree. Magog, nor 
men nr'u *Bra(i]tuni» Jolepho Pini genus candidui Se faigentjus^ 
maceriem referent ficQlneain. Accedunt U^X. a Par. V. jb 
Sjru Sandalum, quod fecund. Botanologosy fixnilitudinom habct^ 
quaiidatli^vm Brafilio & Pino.-— -^When the 'Arabs and Perlians 
compare their Mtftrefles to a Fine Trcc,^ Cyprus or Bklm Tree^ 
fays Sir Wm. Jones, thefe comparifoos would feem forced in our 
idiomSy but have undoubtedlj a great delicacy in theinandefleQ 
their minds in a peculiar manner. 

There is a beautiful Allegory of this kind in the Annals of In- 
nisfallen. Ad. Anno Dom. 1 31 4» confifting of a Scania of four 
Lines, faid to be fpoken extempore by TurTough O'Brien on the 
Death of his favourite Chief Donoghp^Dea. ' 

Truagh an teidhm, taining thiar^ rug bas borb. 
Taoufeach teafin dainidh dhamh 

ponncha Don ; Conn is cial, cm mo chuirp 
Craobh dom cheill, ah teidhm truagh, ' 


Amieni H^l^ of Lrekmd. 1149 

In the Irifli Hiftory of the Tuatba Dadan w^ find 
(he Tonranian Scyduan3 particularly mentioned : 
we find alfo a large part of ancient Ireland named 
Neid ; ve have feen one general name for the 
Sqrthians was Bolg, In the Map of Perfia pub- 
liflied in Dunnes Atlas, we find a province named 
Ears ; to the Eaftward is, Kerman^ more Eaftward 
is N^dbay and this is bordered by the Province of 
BelogeSy extending from the Indian Ocean to 
Thoiiran, i. e. Scythia. Yologefus according to the 
Arabs was King of Armenia* See hereafter. 

The Mediterrannean firom Cadiz to Minorca is 
pdled by the Irilh Muir Touran, whence the Tyrr? 
bene Sea ; froiii Tyrrhenu^, iays Hyginus, the Spi^ 
of Hercules* 

To this let us adfl, the rr^at aiHni^ we have 
^ewn in a former work, oetween the apcient 
Language ci the Inih, and that of the Kalmuc Mor 
guls and of the Cbimfe (i) and in my opinion, it 
amounts to a demonfiration, that the Irim hlilory, 
is founded on truths, and is of the utmoft imppr^ 
fance, to elucidate the biftory of the Wjcftem Nar 
tions of Europe. 

Various caufes contributejd to fplit this great bo- 
dy into diftind nations. Commerce, Conqueft, and 

Dire is t)ie lofs alas { of late 

upon the weftern Shore f 
Pj ruthlefs death and murtbring fat^ 

a valiant Qiief s no more I 
Ah \ woe is me I my foundefl: fenfe 

and kiocired friend fo true ! 
My njoood has loft a to^ritig branch 

mj Donogh dear, in you I 

(Tranflated bv Mr. or.) 
(i) Cbllcaanea, No. X. 


t5d J iXltalicpm }^4i$ 

ilb&vt ftM^ iMKMitiiMs, liitothmiiiciMtldilafaUih- 
eA R^gkvi, by die CfonOtuSioa id" Tonrtirs to 
eontaiti th^ir la^ed #re, atWlqrmxuik^^ ^l"^ ^^ 
mkesi, %h€ (Ufceii4i»tl ^ £l«m Son of ttiem« /Ip 
Some «f the IPeifidfi Kingg of tjntar moft ^saily^ dfv 
fiafty* wor« c<iQfe(&4ty Tourdadaad or QcjrtbSttU : 
In fkct^ tbey «rei« *H orl^naHy cf that Mce c te 
die Perfian ddCaH of the fteligioui ^ar». tfaey ae» 
kiio^R4e^e At Scii^m iitttnii 4xF Msioog ia^iaul 

ScytbtM ISng, '(^hofe miiu^ chjGry it^aidate^ Ar 
li&^r {f tf ^ Pe^r/muy) ^oirtr-ran dicir Coontry in 
cDitfequcfeice of- thfe kinovadon of the Fire tov- 
«F6, fbey tetl fpv, t^t^ iriien ^hey had at icBg^ 
driven him back to Touran or Scythia., oortk of 
the P^al» ltn^ii«, A Wall or IntreMhnxlxiC inras 
built 1>etiveen xhe^ culldd Sidd yagkug*u Magi^n^ 
i •€• the iMt-m^bmeiit ^ Gog and Slagc^* By 
yagtug 4ii9d Mitgia^^ tl>ey miean cbs Nordi uni 
South MopU of rh€ feme IfotiiMi, faya D'Heriw^ 
]ot.(t) SofM Afiatick hiftorian^ fici^s the fanr Ahi- 
thoT) earry this W^ beyond tine Cafpian fieo, 
others fo much towards the Eaft, as tO'^\(C moBi 
to think it k thi3 fame \^al1 that fepavafUra China 
Ipom th€ MogoJ«. 

It was evidently a divifion between the Ori^nai 
Scythians and the Mogb or Rad, the Magi o# fire. 

(k) Shem being the eldeft ^n of Noafa, «n^ in poficffioo of this 
Country before the Maj^Ojgiaos fettled here, the Pcrfcrns thought 
it would be an honour to derive themCeJves froiti Elam ; this 
mixture * of Elaniites and Scyfhians or Magogiani rontributed 
much to the enmity that ever after fubftfted between the fnhabi- 
lants of Touran and Jran—fttr J^htt was to dnnell in the Tents •f 

(J) Majug- Magog—- that part of Eaftern Tartary bordering on 


Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. ^$\ 

wdrftij^rs in Towers. The fame Tntretichfncnt 
is Hud to tiavc been m^de in Ireland, from Drogh- 
^da, to Gailway on the Weftern Ocean, it wa$ 
nam^d ^/kir Reada^ or the Sitagi's diviiipnj 
Tm) dividfihg th^ Kingdpm of Ireland into two 
e^ual parts ; the Northern half was called Ldfb 
Cqnuj and the Sputhern half Leitb Mogh^ that Is 
the Magi's portion } and moft of the Fire towers 
of IreUnd, arc in tjie Divifion of Leith Mo^h^ or 
of the Magi's half.^L) 

And therefore when Patrick arrived in Ireland^ 
to convert the inhabitants to Chriftianity, finding 
his predcceiTprs had little fuccefs, he faid, that he 
w^ a prophet from Neimh-Thar, the (fire) Tow- 
er of Paradife, where he was born, 

Genair Patr^ Nejnthur^ (n) 

His proper name wa3 SiiccaU Succat a ainm hi'- 
irubhrade. (o) He faid h^ was coine to preach 
the doctrine of the great Prophet 0\Jhan (the Mef- 
fiah) (p) but the Magi^ wifliing to keep up their 
authority and religion, then decbred, if tfian i. e. 
Oi/birty was come, that he, ^uccat^ muft be Pafe^ 
rahy that is the Devil, (q) and from hence h|s 
name Patric. Other Iri(h M^i dciclu^ed he was 
Tailgheafiy Arabic^ Talyh gin, the wicked Jin or 
Demon : a nam^ fuppofed tp hav^ been given by 
the Druids to St.* Patrick, fay? 3haw. (r) $u(cai 

(m) R«id-aiTe, a Pricft, Shawe, O'Brien, ht. ft is the 
Pcriian Rad^ i. «. Mag4x. 

(n) St. Fieir's Uft rf Patrif (c-^ifeVw H(»veo, P^rn^fiB .^t is 
die Arabic nau)^ ofihe QQlcAial Par«diir. 
(o) Idem, 
(p) See p. 200. 
(q) See p. i HO- 
(t) Shawc's ^nd O'Brien's Di£t Th&f fay it -was ^ holy name 
l^iven by the Druids } Tdchines, inali dxmones. Suidas. 


^5^ A Vindicatm tf ih^ 

landing tbe f^t worfhip eftabliflied here, and the 
idea of their great prophet^ Air^iodlamh or Zerduft 
9ppearing in. fire, caufed his difciples to declare 
that he appeared in the fame manner* Afpiciebat 
in vifu nodis, AjLiicho memoratus : & ecce Patrid* 
us, quafi tot us igneus domum fuam ingredipba- 
tur, fiammaqm de ore ejus & naribusy ocuUsj ac 
^tiribu^ egreffa ipfum cremare videbatur. Milcho 
yero comam flammigeram a fe repulit, nee ipfuia 
lallatenus tangcre praevaluit : flamma diffufa dex- 
trorfum divertit, §i duas filias ejus parvulasin uno 
Te£ko quiefcentes a|rripien$ ufque ad cineres com* 

Patric th en explains this dream to Milcho, ig- 
nis quern vidifli de me exire, fides eft San£be 
Trinitatis, qua totus illuftror; (s) 

And in the Life pf St. Patrick by his oyrn difd- 
ple Patricius Junr. the Magi or Draoi are partir 
cularly mentioned. Fuit quidam Rex ferox & 
gentilis Imperator in Scotia (Hibernia) Loegarius 
nomine ; cujjus fedes erat, & fccptrum regale in 
Tcmoria. Hie Magos & Aruftices & veneiicos & 
incantatores & nequiflimae artis inventores, habu- 

it. CO 

From all thefe circumftances, it appears, that 
the ancient Perfian mode of worfhipping the Ddr 
fy in Fire, was the Religion of. the ancient Iriih, 
and that this fire was contained in thofe Towers 
now exifting in Ireland. It appears alfo that they 
were well acquainted with the name and do&rine 
of 2^rduft the firfl, and of Zorafter, or Zerduft 
the fecond. The Records ftili exifting, aflPord us 
ample matter to prove that the ancient Irifh adopt- 

($) Scxta Vita Patricii. Colgan, p. 67. 
(t) Secunda Vita Patr. Colgan, p. 14. 


Ancient Ui/iory ttf Ireland. (t$^ 

ed this Religion much about the time of Zerduft 
the firft, and that at the fame time oppofite parties 
or SeSs, fupported the Religion of the Chaidces, 
of which we (hail make fome mention in the courfe 
of this Work^ 

Thefe worlhippers of the Divinity in Fire-*Tow« 
ers, were diftinguiihed from thofe that followed 
the ancient Touran or Scythian mode of worihip 
on hillsy bv the name of Bo{ti*Tlacbdga or 
Dlachdgaj (u; a word of Phacnician or Chaldee 
Origin, HO Beth, domus p^dlak, (x) ardere* 
NlS^'lpO n*»3 vrfiji Ip^VlM adaliku bnura bith 
mkadoiha. Combuflerunt igne domum Sanftuarii 
Pfal. 74. 7* in Irifh Tlachad or Dlakhad benur 
beith cada. UTifhf^ diakta incendium. 

- * • • 

(a) See Keiting Uiwyd, OIBneQ, Sfaawe-at TIachdgt. 
. i^) ArtbicedihK« ^pleodtut Lucerm^ QUUUus. Thetermi- 
oation ^« u a oontra^Mia of agha^ holjr. 

# < 

i • 


^^ A VinMiaAn ^ the 




• t ' 

VtifiiaU divide this inlirejttnl thdptvr intt i^tie 

parti. ' 

THE grettt KMg Fmum F»pfihr wsL^tl^ 
Baoth or Bith, defcended of Magog, (a) He 
wasji ptiflee who )ippttedJiifii(Uf to LoitfiRi and 
made It hf» btifkiofii t^ iMd^rftond the tetrMsX lan- 
guages of the world. Fitmi the tittle tlAAftm ft> 
the general confufion of tongues, there was but 
one univerfal language, which the ancient Chro* 
nicies of Ireland call Gartigaran, or Garti-ghe* 

This learned prince laid the foundation of an 
Univerfity at Eodan or Eothan, as we learn from 
thefe Lines. 

A Moigb Seanair riajin ttor ro tiomladb an cead 

Ag Catbair Eodhan d^fbogltdm gacm billbbearladb. 

In Seanairs plains, oppofite the Tower, was efta- 

blifhed the firft School. 
At the City of Eoden, to teach the rarious lan« 


(a) Set p, s. 


He Mrfoni. wha bad' i\m f^^^t^ M iuperiatrod- 
aAC9 M tWs. .Sc)lpoi, wcjTci |*<^pzi»/ JF*4^ Kiagof 
S|c|((bi^ Q^/ Son p£ Eathof^ a^ Gomtiimt And 
^ige^ Gmin ChnatAM^i. from j^cjeat otlierwife 
i^asied, Idf M^ l^Wmha or Jar £ba Nc»T>haf (b) 

NiDR Son of t^ekiB, Soar^C Nunrod wai /toeA 
MofHRch of t}>e Univerfe* : 

. The a}^Qrv«; threei emiKat Lin^gkuiUtfkft kwiOttcd 
ihe Alpb^et^ wJaicKthey uifcri&ed d& w^od,* as 
the lemved Ci^f^haodMa.^^i^ wrote tbeJ7«r^ 
Afty^i^ j^i^ly.Qb&rvcd. 

jRf^iji;^ ^^01^ eqniinued tweat j years^^ Pr^id^nt 
of this School, where he educated bis yoingeft 
Son JViftfi^ who was bora there.' In the ^od year 
of^ar^ign of t^ion» F^V K^ <^ Sacy tbi^ be- 
ga^ to bmid this School at Ecdhan^ a&d ^ca he 
hiad pr«0^ d0 years, he, r^tarn^ to Scythi% 
and began to build fefhinarie^ of leiirwag in his 
je^n Co^atr^ GiSdli^Soaof E^bor^ b^ ordained 

j?r«fidt»t^ . \ 

aiud the f(pc<ind^\ Soa oiFenm^ was (aat abroad 
if^ travel), wkk^j.^inerotts ratinuci aad when he 
^aiae to the borders of Egypt^ ke ordered his peer- 
ing not to %gei tteit they- we^e Qc^Khi, and that 

ibey ii^d ty€vA}^^^^^^9V^^y^^^y the name 
of ocuitb ; and it ' was the pofterity of Niul, that 
.were cailed* Scythians^ do Jliocht Nizd do^ortiar 
GimStmth. (c) 


(b) Qwin Clu-eaaicb,^ In Hiebfcw,, i^ifies a Wriaor of £Ie> 

(c) The Iriih hifiontu here contradiA theaftlve; : In the 
fecond part of this Chapter, it will be ^Hai^^ that Niul wis 
foa^ tiflitf ia MgffK^ whea Pharraoh dellgjite^t with his great 
fiM]ifi4Sy beftowedoivhiiii bis daughter Seota^ icixa whom tki^ 
pretend the name.Sc>itb a Sc^iaa* ^Umg after thi% Ifikfim 


ft^6 A VindicaHm of the 

Pheniiis took on hiin the name of Occai, dgai 
or Eocha^ becaufe he invented the Beth-Ltiisnicni 
Ogham. Fenius Farfa Alphabetsl prima Hebraso* 
i'um, Grscorum, Latinorum & Beth-Luifnion an 
Ogham compofuit. (Liber Ballymote.) (d) But 
the Uirachead na Ngaois or Elements of the learn- 
ed, &y8 it was Cathmus or Cadmus the Son of 
Renins who taught Letters to the Greeks. Abgi- 
tur Greacad dona, ni he Fenius fein arranighat 
acht Fein^oice fuil re mtiir atuaidh^ agus Cadmus, 
is iad rannighthar Aber Greaca : i. e« certain Fe«> 
hicians from the Nofth Sea and Cadmus inftrufted 
the Greeks in Letters. 

When Fenius was near the point 6i death, he 
demifed his Kingdom to Nennual his elded Son, 
and left nothing to Niiil, but the advantage ari** 
fing from inftruding the youth of the Countries in 
the leagued Languages. 

From this Fenius^ the Irifli Were Called Qic'^ 
Fheni or Feni^oic : a Feniufo Farfaiy Hibemi nomi^ 
nantur FtniU XJiide apud inos Uic-Fenii (vel Feniu 
inc) pofteri Fenii^ in plurali nUniero dicuntur ab 
illo. (e) Fenm was SLuig of the Armetiian Scuthi, 
and his ReAd^nce was about the Si^ttnnis. When 
the descendants of Niul were expelle'dfrom Egypt, 

trriTes in ^gjpt, and marries another Sc^^ DtugKter of ano- 
ther Pharaoh. — ^The whole is allegorical, iigoifying that the M*' 
gyptian Kings delivered to their Care, his Fleets^ Ships, i. e 
Scuith, Niul vras the firft diftant Voyager, and probably in M*^ 
gypcian Shipiy hence Gnn ScuUh, i. e^* th« -marine tribe mari- 

(d) See this explained Cfa, X. Se6!. a.-^^^no^oc f ao^ofo^ 
«apflt! 9onrf|i. (Diogenes Laertius.) 

(e) Colgan's Triadis Thaum, p. 5. Gdlellus derives Pha»i- 
cra firom the Syriac Fitnikia i. e. gloriofiis, magnificoi : but that 
word would have been written, Painigb hi Iri/li. 


Ancient Hi/iory tf Irelaltd. 257 

tkty retutiied to their own Country up this River, 
ufidcr the candufk of 8ru^ as will be rehited in the 
fecond part of this Chapter. 


Sidmaiius obferve.8, that Eufebius always fubffi- 
tutes the name Phanbc for Pbinetu ; hence we may 
fuppofcallthe Greek authors have done the fame, 
except Arrian, who fays, that Bitbus was the fa- 
ther of Phifieus. (f ) liht Irifli hiftory makes Phi- 
lieus or Feniiis, the Son df Bithus or Baoth^ and 
Biibusy the Greeks lay^was the Son of Jupiter, (g) 
We require no better authority fo^ the antiquity of 
our Fenius : for, whehever the Greeks were loft in 
remote G^neakrgy, a God was brought in to ftop 
the edp ; and Jupiter may here have been fubftitu* 
ted ibr Japhet. 

Fenius is a proper name, compounded of two 
Irifli words, viz« Fenn or Form^ fcience, learn- 
ings fagacity, and aoisj which has the lame figni- 
fication. Thefe words are alfo Arabic, Fenn^ 
Science, Knowle(%e, ii^, the fame. Hebr. rt3D 
Phinna and nS"^!! bhinna, Wifdom, Knowledge, 
}ff\t] hnfh the fenfes* (h) The name Fenius be- 
tokens a nlan of great erudition, and fuch he is re- 
prefented te have been. He is adfo named Farfa 

(0 See p; 7. 

(ti) Probably the Son of Eleazor who was called ^17)0 
Phenas, derived his name ftt)in this word, as the Talmud (Sanhe*- 
d¥imG.X;) fays, that he was {n JVl IH Ab bith Din, or 
head of the great Tribvifti of Uniferfity. 

Jofeph was called by Pharaoh n^ITD D3S3r Zephanas Phana, 
a name apparently given him on account of his Wifdom. 

R or 



258 A Vindicatm of tbi 

orPharfa, from the Hebrew and Chaldee UHS 
pharas, to explain, to jihew the meaning of wliat is 
faid or writ : — ^^ It is fpreading forth what was 
wrapt up before. Nehem. Ch. 8. V. 8. ttHSD 
m. pharfhi, explaining and giving fenfe, and 
caufed them to underftand the reading. The 
^' Pharifees are thought to be named from thence, 
*^ as Expounders of the law ; as feparatifts, fay o- 
thers : and from their oftentation, enlarging 
and laying open the Phyladeries, in general, of 
their own piety and good works, uiy others : 
yet perhaps it was but the name of the head of 
that fed, as tzns pheres was a name in ufe 
among them/' (i) Fares, Arabic^, agnomen 
£uniliac. Nomen Arboris, Caftellus. 

Arab, fariz one who knows, 6r underftands 
any thing ; firafet^ Sagacity, Penetration, Judg- 
ment, Jiraji^ expounding, ferxy^ (killed in die law, 
y^nz, clear diitind Speech. 

Ferfic^ Ferfa^ fpeaking ; a good genius or an- 
gel; Ferzan, wifdom. Science; ferzane, a learn- 
ed man. 

And probably the ^nS perizi a>f/>ff^«ioi I%e- 
rizite, may owe their origin to this name. They 
mixed with theCanaanites, (as ourMagogians did,} 
and are not enumerated among the Children of 
Canaan by Mofes, in Genefis loth Ch.— -The Ca- 
naanite and the Perizite, Jofhua, Ch. it. — here 
fays the very learned Reland, Area patet latiffima 
in conje£turas, quibus non deledamur, fpeaking 
of the above paiTage in Jofhua. 

It is alfo to be remarked, that the Arabians call 
Armenia, Barza, and the Armenians write it Ba- 

(i) Bates, Cricica Hebnet. 

riz : 

Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 259 

ri2 : in the Armenian I find no explanation of this 
word^ in Arabic Barza and Baraza (ignifies Exitusj 
vhich made the learned Bochart think this coun- 
try was fo called by the Arabians, becaufe there 
Noah and his family defcended from the ark. 
We find the pld Arabian niame of Armenia was 
Pbarda or Fhardfa^ for Z) or Bal with a point 
over it founds, ds ox %\ dbfal^ and from thefe va- 
riations I conje&ure that ttHS phars was the 
original name, from this Phenius, and that the 
other names are a corruption of the Original. 

Phenius Pharfa or Pharas, was a name analo- 
gous to the arduous talk he had undertaken, of 
prefiding over a feminary of learning ; the modem 
Iriih fometimes write the name Fearfaidh^ (the d 
not founded), whence I formerly conjedured, that 
they meant a Sfdonian man. Faros or Foras is 
the proper orthography, agreeing with the Chaldee 
ariQ and Arabic Fery%^ hence the Irifh Foras-focal^ 
the expoimder of words, i. e. an Etymologicon ; 
and the Irifh hiflory I am now tranflating is entitled 
Foras'feas an Eirinnj i. e. an explanation of the 
tranfacHons of the Iri(h(a), or the hiflory of Ire- 
land explained. 

Fars is acknowledged by all Afiatick writers to 
be the father of the Parthian: and Perfiansj a 
fhong argument, that they defcended from the 
fame flock as the ancient Infh (b). 

R 2 " The 

(a) From Parfa or Phar&, an inftrn^lory a pious derooc man 
u derived the Englifli word Parfon. 

It muft be noticed that Farfaid was veiy probably another 
name of the lame perfoiiy for Parfad or Furiid in Arabic figni- 
fies the Arbor Sapiens, the Mulberry tree, the Morus ; the arbo- 
rum fapientiilima morus. See a few pages funher. 

(b) Perikrum nomen ab Ajabico Paras, Equus deri^anint 


26e A VhkUcatiM cf the 

*< The Arabs bff that Fars was defcended from 
^* Japbet, tome (ay^ he was the, fon of Azar or 
^^ Arpbaxad, (on of Sem^ fod of Noab^ biit 4bJJ 
^^ agree that he gave name to Perfia^ which is 
^* called in general terms the county of Fars^ sod 
** oiAgem: the ancient Perfiand called it Pars 
^* and a native of it Parfi ; Pars^ Parfi, PartU^ 
^* are the fame words, flowing from the fame 
^' root, for th in Perfian and Ture^ is pronoan^- 
^^ ced in the fame manner that we do S (c)^'* 

Aboulfarage fays^ that in the reign of Ptolemy 
Pbiladelpbus one named Arfhak^ iXi Artneoian, 
revolted againft the Greeks aad founddd the Em« 
pire of the Arfacides : we^ fays he^ call them Par-^ 
thi } and Vologefus, one of their kings, is called 

jamdudam Viri emdici ; fie ut nomeii Per&rum Efuii^t nolct. 
— -bodie licet & voce paras, Epio luancur, tamen OTp vulgacius 
eft k magis Perficum : — Quid obilot kaque, auo mums cteda- 
mas non fpfos Perfa» hoc fibi nomen dediife, fed gefttes vieintf 
<«- At de aomtne Ptrthonmii quod nonnulli PeHksi or^inb eft 
Tolant^ incertior eft diiquifitic^; Sceph&mis ak pfolbgos ^u^Sg^ 
CO nomine appellari lingua Scythica. Sunt outem Perfcc a Scy-- 
this orii^ uti Curttus, Arriahus, Anunlanus Marcellinus tradi- 
denint i & Juftinns atite Scyfhfco fer^one Parthos exules die! 
niohuerar, & fic Ilidorus Orig. IX. 2. at Suidas Uoif'^ti. Hcp^rx? 
yx£ff<fn lnuUu — Sed djcamus potius, quod jam a)ii Tklenint 
Perfas 8c Panhds diiFere, m AflyriaiB ^ A^rm, Theflkliaol 
a Thettalia, Tynim a Sarra, i. e. unam eandemque vocemefle^ 
S in Tf mutato. An non uos quoque a tt/^D habemus noftrum 
Paard ? an non fimi liter tsrtiplcCMc & Pardus Littnum a Pan con- 
cirinc derivatur, qua vox & Turcis & Perfis, pardum notat, nti 
Ruflis Bart, S in D mutato ? — Viz enim aiiqua cum veri fpecie 
aliunde ejus vocabuli etymon petetur^ & probabife eft animali* 
bus qux in Periia firequentia funt, nomen PerficUm adhcefiflTe. 
(Relaed. Difleit. de Vet. Perf. Vol. 1. p. a 18). 

(c) DHerbelot ac Fan, Parf. Arg, was die Armenian mme 
ofjaphec. Vologefui is evidently BaAl-Gaots^ i.e. Domisos 
l^heniu.s g^f ^ ^^ both.fignify wifdom. 


Ancient Hf/iny rf Ireland. a6 1 

king of Armcmsu Tfac Btbgife are now 
tested on the eaft of Perfia, and extend from the 
Indian Ocean to the Thouran, or ancient Scythi- 
ans« Bal'gaois in Iriih is fynooimous to F enn«aois 
or Fenitts^ iignifying a man of leanung^ a man of 
vdfdom, excelling in wifdom : Fal-gaois, a prince 
of vifiiom, it bears the iame meaning in the Ar- 
menian langaagc. 

Fenius was king of Pimtus, or that country 
where the river Biortannis flows. The river Par- 
iheneus of the daflk authors divided Bithyna from 
Paphlagonia, and both thefe provinces formed 
Poiitus. In this country the ancients place Pha- 
nioi or Pbemcus :--»BitfayB|9 condita eft a Phanice^ 
quae prinium Mariandyra vocabatur, is the inter- 
pretation of a paffiige in Eufebius by Hieron : 
Phaenix Cadmi frater, a quo Pliaenicem dici vo- 
JuDt, Colonos deduxifle legitur in Bithyniaai^ fays 
Bochart : (d) we i^l preientiy find that he was 
the father of Cadmus : IHiaemce^ nomen ortum 
quidam efle putant^ a Pbaenice Agenoris Neptuni 
filio (f). 

A Pbaenice feptimus in Bithynia regnabat Phi- 
neus vel Phinees, quo tempore Argonauts expedi- 
tionem fufceperent in Golchidem : inde Agenori- 
dem Poetae vocant, quia Agenoris filius erat 
Phaenix (g). 

Bocliart fays, the Phaenicians were in that coun- 
try long before that expedition : Inter illud tern- 
pus quo colonia Phasnicorum in Bithyniam miffa 
eity & Argonautorum profe£tionem, intercedunt 

(d) Eufeb. Chron. ad num. DXCIV. Boch. Geo. Sax. L. i . 
C. lo. 

(f) NoriC Epoch. Sfro-Maccd. StqA. dc Urb. 

(g) ApoII. L. s. Argonaut. 


• a62 A Vindication of the 

Ann! i6o, illi$ accedo potius, quibu$, ciimverifi- 
mile non fiat ut Phaenicis filius Phinssus Argonau- 
torum astatem attigcrit. 

There was alfo the ifland of Phsenius, fo called 
fays Herodotus, from thofe Phaenicians that held 
Mariandinam, i. e. Bithynia (h). 

Pliny carries them into Thrace, which is on 
the oppofite ihore. Auri metalla & conflaturam 
.Cadmus Phxnix ad Pangaum montem (i). 

Stephanus fays, Paphiagonia was fo called from 
Paphlago the fon of Phineus,—- why not Bithynia 
from fit^vf or Baoth, father of our Phenius Pharia. 

Phenius eftablifhed a feminary of learning at 
Eothan or Eodhan, oppofite to the tower of Ba- 
bylon : that iSf on the banks of the Euphrates, in 
Mefibpotamia,' within the bounds of his own 
kingdom. Eo-taun and Eo-dah in Irifli are fyno- 
nimous names, fignifying excellence in learning ; 
they are words commonly compounded with fcien- 
tific terms, to exprefs the ptofefibrs of arts, as 
Sar-tann or Seir-tann, or $ar-dan, a Dodor 
of Mufic. Tann is the Phacnician or Chaldaean 
TOP) tannah, cfocere, difcere, whence NDn tanna. 
Doctor Talmudicus, y^ tannui, Dodrina, Studi- 
um : — dan is a Perfian word of the fame fignifica- 
tion (k). Herpdotus gives an account of a fchool- 
matter called JPhenias, who in early time taught 
youth yfkjufiATti. (Vita Homeri per Herodot.) 

In the map annexed, on the banks of the Eu- 
phrates and oppofite ' to Babylon, we find the 
towns of Sippbara and Naarda : the firft implies 

(h) Lib. 4. 
(i) L. 7. C. 56. 

(k) Keating's thinflator makes thi% the city of Athens, in the 
, plains of Seawir f f ! ' * ' 


Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. 263 

the city of learning: Migo Saphera, Librorum 
^peritus, Literator (1). Nard in Irifh and Hindof- 
tanic is fcience, and at this Naarda was a mod ce- 
lebrated Academy of the Jews. NjmnD Naarda 
Celebris Judseorum Schola (m). Nard-fgol in 
Irifh fignifies an univerfity, i. e. the fchool of 

Fenius had two fdns ; the eldeft, who was to in- 
herit his crown, he called Nion-nuall^ that is, the 
fon of his inheritance. ]*»3 Nin in Hebrew and 
Chaldee is a fon, and brO nuhal is to inherit, it 
is applied to a ftate of inheritance which falls from 
father to the fon, and rolls down with the tide 
of time from hand to hand, and keeps defcend- 
ing (n> 

He named his youneeft fon Niul^ and gave him 
for his portion a compleat education, the name fo 
implies : and it likewife lignifies the Morus or 
Mulberry tree, an emblem of knowledge with the 
Egyptians, the Iri(h and other ancients : arborum 
fapientiiSma morus (o). — Sapiens arbor morus (p). 

The Arabian authors are not determined what 
tree the Nabel was, fome caH it the falmy others 

(!) Judges^ i.V. II, & nomen n:i*) Debir, antea n£)D" 
/V*)p Chinadi-Sephir^it was alfo called Kiriadi-Sanna, from 
the Arabic Sanna, Lex (Iriih Seana>— «adem Urbi ac Kiriath- 
SepbiTy (Reland). The Iriih word correfponding to Sepfdr is 
Sopar or Sophar, as Sophar tobar, i. e. tobar go niomad eolas, 
that is, Sophar tobar fignifies the Tobar or Spring of muck 
knowledge, the Pyercan Spring. (Vet. Glof. Hib. in nay poff.) 

(m) Steph. MorioiiSy de Paradifo terr. & de Bochani Scrip- 


(n) Bates Crit. Hebr. 
(o) Flinty L. 1$. C 21, 
(p) Junius. 


2^4 ^ UmBcaiUri of the 

the date tree : fomc explain it bjr damjb^ i* c« die 
tree of learning, for danijb is wiidom. 

When Nuil came to Egypt, and made them an- 
derftand the iignification of his name, die Egypti- 
ans would certainly tranflate it into their own lan- 
guage: and confequcntly called him Katmis or 
Kadmis, i. e* Mortis M^iiaca : and the fignifi- 
cation of this word in the Egyptian, is analogous 
to the names in Irifli, Arabic, and Pcriic, for 
Kad in Egyptian is intelledus. Kadmai^ Sapien- 
tis amor« — Katmas^ Sapiens infans. — Katmeb or 
Kadmeh, Sapientiz plenus (q). 

Here we have the Nuil of the Irifli ; the Danaus 
of the Greeks, and the Cadmus of the Fhxnidans, 
concentered in one mam Nial in Irifh is not only 
a letter of the Alphabet, but alfo the fcience of 
Letters ; in Hebrew ^3 nuhaU du^t pafcendi 

(q) Woidcs ^gypt. \jsji. In ItiAi Kad, Cead or Kcad, as 
Keadh-fadhy a f^nfe, faxxXvf^ opinion. Cadach, invendo , 
i geotiitjr. 

The uripcnre furniilies ionunierrble £xau)plei of proper oames 
of men^derived from (he names of trees. We iV^l mentio . a few. 

Accos, i. e. Spina. 

Aialon, Hex. fil Sellum, i par. fi] Amafai : i par. 

Allon, Quercu5, pater Sepbei. 

Ela, Qjierciis pater Ofec. 

Gineth, Hortus —pater Thebni. 

Gnni, Hortus, fil. Nepthali. 

Itbamar- finfulii Palmae- fil. Aaron. 

Sanig, PaimeSy vel Ramus* fil. Reu. 


8tnaeus, Spinofus, fil. Charaa-*. 

Sufan, L ilium vel Rofa, Uxor Joacim. 

Thoas, Hyacinthus, fil. Nachor. 

Thamar, Pa I ma vel Daftylus Uxor. Her* 

Vide Scephanus Norn. Heb. Chald. &c. 


Ancknt Hi/icry of Ireland. ,^65 

caufa ut paftor gregem. Ar VO^N el nehlthe 
Daflylus^ per metaphor^ educavit. 

In the Chaldee tifSl Bacca and mn Thodi, 
(igaify the Morus : M33 Baca prifci omnc8, qui- 
bu8 Arboris fpecies eft, vcl de Pruno vel Pyro, 
expon. Modern! de Moro. Arab. & PerHc. 
N!}!1 Baca eft Arbor balfamifera. (Caftelius). 

It is worthy of remark, that in the Iriih and in 
the Hebrew, moft Nouns (ignifying a tree, im- 
ply alfo learning, wifdom, &c. The Irilh from 
hence, form the names of each letter in the Alpha- 
bet, and fo did the Hebrews as we (hall fliew in 
the Efiay en the Ogham (r) : we (hall give a few 
examfJes here, referring to the names already 

Broum, the grandfon of Magog, was alfo called 
Ce^Bacce the iHuftrious Morus, and it is faid, be 
had Bac'tria for his lot, i. e. tria the region, of 
Bacce. Bacca in Chaldee is the MBrtu^ and fo 
Brom in Hebrew is a precious tree, it alfo means 
a philofopher ; and in Irifli Brom-aire is a wit, a 
learned man. ta^idinU Bromira, pretiofaB arbores. 
Scriniola rerum pretic^arum. Ezech.- 27. 24. 
tDn*»ai3 Bromihim, Ch. glius Hulofophi. (Caf- 
tellus from Pefach. f. 49). 

Hence the Magogian Scythians adapted a fyno- 
nimous name for Broum and Baccij viz. JVSj, i. e. 

(r) Bach letter in the IriHi alphabet, bean the name of a 
pardcuJar tree*- the leaf is tho page pr coluaratif a boo)c — the 
root or truQk ioaplies £cience—to prune the tree, or to ^ave the 
branches implies Poetry— it is the fame in the Hebrew, a re- 
markable circumftanca unnoticed by any authors, I have read, 
except Biftiop Louth, who explains a certain meafure in Hebrew 
Poetry from a Verb (ignifying to prune a tree. We refer parti* 
cukn tp the Sifay gi| the Ofham. 


266 A Vindieatim if the 

knowledge, wifdom. Arab. Nojha Graece V!^ isi« 
telligible, and from thefe words arofe all the fa- 
bulous names of Bacchus, viz. Dia^Noi or Dhny- 
fim^ Bromius, &c. &c. and Baca happening to 
fignify crying and howling, both in the Oriental 
and Scythian dialeds, hence all the fabulous flo- 
ries of his howling Orgies, which correfponding 
with the Greek Bromos confirmed the Poets in 
this ' opinion ; all which fymbolical names- they 
probably had from the Scythians and Arabians. 
Bach J in Irifh, alfo fignifies drunkennefsy and hence 
he was made the God of Wine, who probably 
never planted a Vineyard or fqueezed a Qrape* 

The allegory of wifdom and learning, under the 
iymbol of the tree having not been underftood, by 
our tranflalors, much ofthe beauty of thefcriptures 
is lofl., particularly in the prophets. Had our tranf- 
lators confulted the Talmud, they would have 
done well : thefe authors were learned Jews, and 
in moil places gave a proper explanation]: for ex- 
ample: Aos in Iriih is a tree, and it (ignifies 
knowledge ; fo in Hebrew XN As or £s a tree. 
Numb. 1 3* 20. when Mofes fent out to fearch the 
land, he bid them try if aay ^d £s were there : 
did Mofes mean a tree ? did God promife a lan^l 
flowing-- with milk and honey, without a tree ? or 
could Mofes fufped it ? No ! The Talmudiils fay, 
fearch for the wife men, the Ats or £s, and they 
returned and faid they found the learned (Giants) 
there, the Anakim : this is the interpretation of 
thefe learned men, and moft congenial to the text. 
If the Hebrsift will read the 7th Ch. Jefaiah, with 
this idea, he will fee great beauties : the learned 
(trees) men of all nations (hall acknowledge the 
Mefliah. Was Amos a gatherer of fycamore 

fruits ? 

Jinclent Hijlory of Ireland. ^6j 

fruits ? a poor trade for a prophet ? No ! he was 
the gatherer of wifdom. Ch. 7. V. 14th (s). 
This beautiful allegory in the fcriptures did not 

efcape Mr. Bates. ^^ Xi^ ^^ o^ £& ^ ^^^^9 f^ys 
he,-^— All the adUons of the mind are exprefled 
by words diat ftand for, or give an idea from^ 
fomething fen/ible. Q^ Gen. 2. the tree of 
knowledge of good and evif, — ^the tree of life. 
^ —And as the church is the garden of God, 
*^ thence trees are the children of God : — all the 
^^ trees of the wood (hall rejoice,— the trees of the 
Lord are full of fap— and by the comparifon 
Ezek. 31ft. and all the trees in the garden of 
Eden were figurative of greatnefs, ftrength, 
glory, honour, &c. and other excellencies 
God would blefs his people with, — hence X/^ 
lets a G>unfellor, i. e. a tree, a wife man.^-^x'^y 
Uz. Job*s Country. — (Bates, Crit. Hebr.) — to 
*^ which we ihall add that the Talmudifts are of 
^^ opinion that Job was defcended of Japhet"« 

(s) In like manner ^ITX:^ Cattab or Catib» fignifies a writer ; 
Scriba, fcripfit : it is the name of the Chaldsean Mercurjr^ who'pre- 
fided over the fciences. Caiiat^ Mercuriusqui fcnpturz praieft. 
ra»nD Cottabith, Daaylui. ^3 nehl Daftylus. rm Thoth, 
Moras arbor, in libris precum fumitur pro Fragts & Moris 
rubi. Buxtorf. 

EzekieJ comparing the kingdoms of the Eaft to the trees in the 
garden of Eden, thus mentions their being conquered by the 
kings of the Medes and Chaldaeans. Behold, fays he, the AiTy- 
rian was a Cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, his height was 
exalted above all the trees of the field, and under his ihadow 
<Iwek all great nations. — Not any tree in the garden of God was 
like unto him in his beauty : omnis arbor in bono Dei non fuit 
fimilis ad eum in pulchritudine fua — pulchrnm feci eum in mul* 
iitudiru ramorum ejus: & emulatx funt eum omnes arbores 
Hedin quae (erat) in horto Dei. (Montanus). Ezek. Ch. 31. 





26S A Vindicatim rf ihf 

The Irifii choofe for fuch names , the trees they 
called Atbair faadba or Airi^b fe^dba^ i« e. ooblc 
trees. So in the Ph^ienkian and Hebrew yl/jit 
9 willow and /^^^, a Lord, have thie £une root ; 
whence the Greeks called Adomg'ir«7^(Hefych). 
Itaio.$, i. e. (aUgnu^. Frooi this word Atair which 
m Iri(h fignifies a &ther, an origin , a principal, 
ftrength, power; in Arabic ///ir, (and with an ad- 
Tentitious R. Atratj^ father. Uncle, bcotber), 
^bart thought, the Phsniciam named men from 
f^antf , because he derives Atir from the Hebrew 
*V^ batfir, a plant in general i — esc its Cu e. 
Apulejo & Diofcoride) Africana & Punica frfanta- 
jiim ftoinine pro viribus exfculpturi & Hebrseis 
literis exbibituri :— A^ agpredior ut d$Giorts provth 
enn ^d meJiora ientanday quam quad audeam bunc 
€matum mibi /uffejfurum^ (Vol. i. p-7S2)* Atar 
jba lri(h fignifies noble, illuftrious, hence Atbar* 
fiffifj the mod poble of herbs, ground ivy, (faede- 
ra terre^fis :) — many learned commentators ire of 
opinion that the trees mentioned in Judges 9. Ver. 
1 J. ii not a parable, but that the Olive was the 
cognomen ofOtheniely the fig tree oi Debora^ and 
the vine of Gideon : indeed the preceding vcrfc3 
have much the air of Scythian compofition. Oa 
the clcdion of a King or Chief, the elders of the 
tribes were to meet at. Beiih Milidb^ the houfe of 
die princes. In Judges we are told, they met at 
the houfe of Millo^ i. e. omnes principes ad quos 
negotia publica referebantur, qui congregari in 
loco dido Beth Millo, Gallice la maifon de la 'Villi 
(Vatablus). — And the Vine faid, fliall I leave my 
wine, which cheereth kings and men — it is unfor- 
tunately and improperly tranilated God^nd oian-' 
5^Vn*?^? Elohim^ verto deos, i. c. judices & eos qui 


Ancient Hiftory rf Ireland* 169 

in magiftratru funt: homines autem dicit vulgus 
promifcuum, fays the^ learned Driifius : Elobim 
here is the Iriih Laoch^ and the Etrufcan Lucumo a 
prince, a chief, vrhence Mil-Laoch Rex Regum 
and the Hebrew Melek. 

And Pbenias called the primitive language, be- 
fore the confufion, Garti-ghearan^ i. c. the primi- 
tive language, the radical tongue : the parts of 
this compound are now become obfolete in the 
Irilh language. Gart is head^ primus chief, and 
gbearariiA the Armenian gbsren lingua : under FTM 
gart in Caftellus, is the Axzbicjartum quail Ghar- 
tum, radix arboris & cujufque rei, ut prudentias f 
the Irifl) root is garam to call, to fpeak^ whence 
the Greek Gber-uein loqui, narrare : Perf» cha- 
ruihidan, vocem toUere (t)« 
The dcfcendants of this Phenius, called them*, 
felves Fem-oiCf or Fonn-aices and defcending the. 
Euphrates fettled in Oman^ as before related, and. 
from hence I conje&ure tliQ^ PhanUians of the Red 

. (t) Hefiod. V, 260. VicTta. p. 53. Unlcli wc take ihc, 
word from Gort, a Garden, and (uppofe it refers to the Gheren 
or language of Eden, which the Talmudiib might exprefs hj 
n"U Oord a Gtore, many trees pkiited tegefher. Taltnod 
Erobim, f. 19. 


tjo A Vindkation rf fbe 

Phekius Pharsa. 


Of the Travels rf Niui* into Mgypi* 

THE fame of this young man's learning reach- 
ed the ears of Pbaraob Cingris^ ^uig of ^ 
gypty who invited him to his country to inftruft 
the youth. Niul accepted the invitation, and the 
King beine delighted with his learning and beha- 
viour, beflbowed upon him his daughter Scota, and 
gave him the Lands of Caper-Cberotby that lie up- 
on the coaft of the Red Sea. He foon after ereft- 
ed Schools at Caper ^Cberatb^ where his wife ^ivas 
delivered of a Son, who was called GaodbaU. (a) 

During his refidence at Caper-Cberothj the Chil- 
dren of Ifrael attempted to free themfelves irocri 
the Slavery of ^gypt, and encamped near Caper* 
Cberotb. Niul having learned from Aaron, the 
diftrefled fituation they were in, was fo affe&ed 
with the relation, that he offered his friendfliip 
and fervice to Aaron, and fumifhed the Jewiib 
Army with Provifions. 

Niul now began to fear that the Egyptian King 
would be difpleafed at the Civility he had fhewnto 
his enemies, and having communicated his fears 
to Mofes, he propofed to Niul to accompany him 
to the promifed land, and prevailed upon him io 
4eliver up the fhipping which belonged to the 

(a) So named from Japhet Gadu^l— See Introdudion. 


Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. ij i 

Crown of Egypt into his hands. Niul having 
agreed to this laft propofal, Mofes difpatched a 
party of men, who took pofleifion of the Ships, 
and ftood down the Red Sea. On the next day 
was the miraculous paflage when Pharaoh and 
his Army were drowned. 

Niul then brought his Ships to land, and re- 
turned to Caper-Cheratbj where he is fuppofed to 
have died, as there is no further account of him. 

The Succeffor to the Crown of -ffigypt was, 
Pbaraob an Tuir^ who, determined to revenge 
himfelf on the Scythians for the afliftance they had 
afforded the Ifraelites, entered Caper Cherotb with, 
fire and fword. The Chief of the Scythians at 
this time was Sru^ great Grandfon of Niul who 
led his people to the mouth of the Nile, and there 
cmbarkmg, fet fail and landed in Crete, (b) From 
Crete they Dsdled through the ^gean Sea into the 
Pontus Euxinus and up the Bior-tannis as far as na- 
vigable, and then marched under the command 
otHeber^Scot into the Country of their anceftor 
Fbenius Pbarfa. 

R £ HA A R K S. 

If the Scythians or Fein-oicey feated on the Coaft 
of Oman, were the firft navigators : the fame of 
their (kill in Marine Aftronomy, by which they 
were enabled to make long Voyages, having reach*^ 
ed the jSEgyptian Court, it would be natural for 
the Egyptian monarch to invite a body of them 
to fettle in his dominions, to inftrud his fubjeds 

(b) See Ch, 4. Netiiid.<— » quotation from Rand, de Duceto 1 
vzcfa^ed from Loland 


ay2 A VlA^cMlion tf tbt 

in the dnly aft, kL which diefe leanied petyple west 
Accordingly we find theihfeatecl at the Sea Port of 
Caper-Cheroth on the Red Sea^ where he fiiimifbed 
them with Scuth$ i. e^ Ships, (iBgyptiac^ Skeita) 
and that appears to be the Allegory oi marrying his 
danger Scots to Niul, which was the name of the 
iEgyptian Hercules^ according to Ptolidm. Hqihaof- 

In like ihantter it is faid, that Hercules having 
conquered and flain Ahtaeus King of Maurilaiua^ 
married his Widow Tirigii from wtiom the Qty of 
Tiggir, or Tingi^ now Tangier, had been £> call- 
ed by Antadus its founder : Pom|>. Mela* L. 5* 
PUn* I^ 5. C^ t.— ^Plutarch, in Scrtorio^-^Jablon« 
(ki Panth. ^gy* L. 2. G« 7.-«*^whereas we hate 
(hewn froni good Authority, that Tifjjrr was fo na<- 
med from the Syriac, Pbsenician ahd Irifh wofds^ 
imp4ying Mcrehant8.*^Tangier was the Emporittnt 
of Africa. 

The Egyptians, on a religious accd^mt,- bote a 
great averfion to the Sea, which they called TjS^^, 
becaufe it fwallows up their Nile, and hated Sai- 
lors fo hiuch, that they would not fpeak to them : 
and though they were not fond of going out of their 
own country, for fear of introducing foreign cuf- 
toms, yet d^ey were not ignorant of Sea afi^irs. 
Sefoftris built a formidable navy of 400 Ships of 
war^ for bia expedition to the Southern Seas j afid 
alfo a very large Veflel of Cedar 280 Cubits iong^ 
gilt without, and beautified within^ which he -de- 
dicated to Ofiris. (c) But Sefoftris according Id 
Sir L Newton, was Niul or Nilus L di Hercules. 

. (c) Diod. Sicul. Eupolcmui. Un^Htil, 


The JBgifptism Jfewirfpr^ o^ ym^^ S^ilpi?, 
and fuch it^^ M hti M^n^ti -to the ^E^aft^ frox^ 
wAanMihOf hfiif » v#Fy sjwrjvti^i^^ browht the 
i03»lllp4i(ies (Oa C»ni^Ift 1^ tke jy(Uiiifi)i§ >of Sues : 
idle ^(UUiAiMiit f^f n fort i^t Cafer^Cher^th^ ^ Ut- 
4k ]iel9w &^co ^9^ 9K»A «9^y:eaieftt /qr^d^s .tra4e 
in all refpeds. (d) 

{yuUbftraAiis it^\^ Ahat ia ipisrlfain Prince ^^mcd 
£rythr9t WM on^ilcr «f tM Red 6^a, #ii4 <na4e a 

^ctfMAT^im ScanF^h nQf ShifiB of vtijar^ n^r ifritk 
5nom IJbw ^t e iMKiba9t S||^ at ^ d jne. ^o e Vjade 
whkh» )Che i^^Egyi^^aM bujU^ ,a )ar|^ veflel^ to ^iup. 
^ ibc 9>laQe :or tnMiyi^ Ge) 

;Sqme t jifc^ £;y^t)aA)a9 ^ i)e the (ame with Xfatt er 
Edam J yie diom )imi .^s a Scyt&i^n of Q^n^ 
v-doi^lhliire^in jlrUh/f^ii^s it SJbiiHP^> .^bcr wprjl is 

(d) The tfeQs.of*PharaQlC8,ovcrthrt)w were felt jn'fegypefor 
'BtaBy ftges, » (faj% ^. V\Ajhit*) In procefs of tiaie k miii«d niw 
•cker jQoe hciUl, .andf Acquired oiew «v|gour,x-'ihifc lE^posB name 

butpesitr ,hwgiiJOttnatvr;ity^£evim\ circMviftanQes .contributed 
to .retard the literary jnrogceTs of xhe "Ef^^iskDi* Jn thofe eaci/ 
af^ they 'had no wa^ ofcqmpiunicating their idc^s tmrby liiero- 
^Ijpfaics, ^whicb, at'beft'tvas^ ^^ khpe^fefi and doubtiui me- 
&gd«A-<lpffiiKr4rtmv ufiwpmso xhum^ aod ftr^gen ythoAi^enc 
thither on bulinefs were punifhed^wiA (testh chr (Uy^^-n^cifnfns 
pf «jieirJlMjljn.axqhi<pQftt9tXQulpcuf^, i^ad Geometry -remiin, but 
th^fe difplay th^ir jndiiflry more tha^ their tafte.— (Play&ir's 
Chronology, p.*650 >■■' The EEgyptkns iiy theArtofufing 
Ihe^viii^^Jnitaiii^ofSatb^waiiMceediiig ancientt «they give ^be 
ilMour ifff hiy ,#fcqtwy ilQ 4^— iwt, 5»*«' ^nd :atH9Ye 'tl^ li»ic 
credit which is due to the greater part ofxhe hiftpi^ pf this Prui- 
cefs, weHial] prove, fays Gouget, tfiat this diicovery canAot be 
#feriW-M:^hc.5g|pti^,7^'X+ey^^ barxowwi^fhie Scythi- 

an word Efs or ljt\. Ship, and dedicated tikis -inadila^^^ ip 
difcovery to that Goddefs, fiDm the affinity of naiae* 

(e) De Vita Apollonii, L. 3. c. 35. 

S aUb 


ay 4 A Vtndtcatm tf the 

alfo Armenian ; the mountain on whicK tbe- Aik 
refted, is called by them Aortb to this day. 

Erythia was the ancient name of Cadasj now 
Gadiz, both words imply a Ship in the ancient 
Irifh ; and the Rabbins derive the name Spania or 
Spain from ^^3^5D Spina, Navis, \S0 Span, Nau- 
ta. (f ) 

llie learned Niebuhr eives a pleafing account of 
King Erythras ; ^* he reigned, fays he, in one of 
^^ the Illes of the Perfian Gulph, and is there bu- 
^' ried : but the learned do not agree in which of 
** the Iflcs. Pliny calls it Ogyrisj by which be 
** feems to mean Socreta. M D'Anvillc thinks it 
was Ormus ; but it appears to have been Oarac-^ 
ta where Nearchus faw his tomb, and I think it 
is now called Kijhme by the Europeans." (g) 
But Pliny attributes the invention of Ships to 
K. Erythras, which feems to indicate that he was 
fo named from Aortb a Ship. ^^ Nave primus in 
'^ Grasciam ex ^gypto Danaus advenit ; ante ra- 
" tibus navigabatur, inventis in mari Rubro inter 
** infulas a Kege Erythra. (h) This alludes to a 
** pailage in Agartacbides^ who fays, Erythras liv- 
^^ ed in an ifland, and paflfed to the Continent on 
** Rafts of beams, .fuch as the fifhermen now ufe 
•* there, fays M. Niebuhr/* 

The facred Scriptures prove that neither this 
Erythras^ or any other, was an Edomite or Idu- 
mdsan, that had pofleflion of the Red Sea, when 
Mofes paffed it, becaule Edom did not then ex- 
tend to the Red Sea. 

(f) Amblce Cadas^ a large Ship, Ch. Kid. The modem 
Iriih write the word Coras, 

(g) Niebuhri Arabia, p. 267. 
(h) Lib. 7. Ch. 56. 


Andent lUfiory , of Ireland^ 375 

In Numbers C. 20. V. 14. we are told, that Mo- 
fes fent meflengers. from Kadefh, unto the K. of 
Edom.-f-V. 2o. and the K* faid, thou fhalt not go 
through. And Edom came out with much people 
and with a ftrong hand* Thus Edom refufed to 
give Ifrlael paflage through his borders, wherefore 
Ifrael turned away from him. Numbers 1 3. V, 4. 
And they journeyed from Mount Hor, by the way 
of the Red Sea^ to compafs the Land of Edom. 

And it appears that the Canaanites did* not at 
that time dwell on the borders of the Red Sea, for 
the IfraeHtes were then on their journey to poflefs 
themfelves of their country. It appears alfo that 
Edom did extend to the Red Sea in Solomon's 
time, unlefs there is an interpolation, by way of 
Explanation, (i) 

Niul and his Colony were fettled at Caper-Che- 
roth. *^r)3 Caper in Chaldee is a town, village, or 
fettlement, (pagus) and the name of the place 
where Mofes pafled the Red Sea, was Cheroth* 
Exod. C. 14. V. 2. Turn and encamp before P/- 
ha-Chirothy between Migdol and the Sea ; Numb. 
33. V. 8. And they departed from before Piha" 
chirothy and paffcd through the midft of the Sea. 
This place was on the borders of ^gypt, and in 
the Scripture is always written TlTnn""*^Si Piha- 
Chiroth, i. e. the q/lium of Chiroth. Hhirotb^ 
Iroth vel Chirothy Locus deferti ad quern venerunt 
filii Ifrael mare transfretentes. — (k) Piha-Chiroth. 

fofca E/Vii9, 0$ Iroth. (1) 

(i) I Kings, C. 9. V. 26. And K. Solomon made a Navj 
of Ships in Ezion geber, which is befide Eloth, on rh« Shore of 
the Red Sea, in the land of Edom.— This was a general expreffi- 

(k) Hieronysn. Eufeb. 

(1) ^nfrerius Oromon, 

S 2 Niul 

^75 Jl VthJicathn of ibt 

Mzrf luppllfcd Ac Ifraelites trith protifibft*, (mj 
and tnoV^d lower down with his Shipping, tex 
Phsiraoh (ht>uld crofs upon them, ih thcfr tuardi 
i-ouiid the borders of Ottiah on the oppofitfe Coaft 
^ — ^for diey weft obliged to gb toond the bbrderii cF 
Edorti as before related. Ahd in four years aftet 
this events fays the Book oF Leatan, (ah Wfli 
MSS.) the ScVthians fled whh weat part of Pfil* 
raoh^s Jffefet. Nilus, fays Sir I. Newton, Was th* 
Jfegyptiiatt Hwcules, and in the days of Sotetnon 
felled t6 the fttaights, he was thfc <)grtiitis x>i the 
Gauls; C^hronol. p. i8i.) 

lliis is an t^ftern ^ory hatrded dbwn to tfcis itt 
Hebrew and iti Arabic, by the Rabbins alid Mtf- 
fulmahs. Rabbi Shnon, who lived iioo years be- 
fore Chrift, relates it in this manner. ** She \Wi> 
7* as Merchants Ships, that bring their food from 
*^ aiFar : thelb ^re tne words of Soiomoh, Pyov* 
"^* C. 31. V. i\.— iderdhMfs Ships ^ the \S^ t^\lA 
*« dnioth tdnijon, whkh Werte pn thfe feed Sea» 
^ when Ifrael paffed k^from vfar thcj brontgbt 
** ihein food ; thid alludes to the provifions thdfe 
'* Merchants gave to the Sons of Ifrad, who catn^ 
** from ^gypt Without Store of provifions^ I>a- 
** Vid mentiom thefe Ships in Pfaltn 164. V. 47. 
'^ — ^iTiete Went the Ships^^ (that is, on the Red 
^ Sea,) when God fcorned at the Le*vittthan^ that 
^* is, Pbd:ra6h.—Kxii^ becanfe thefe Canaan ShJp^ 
•'< gav^ Ifrael oif their provhtons, God would not 

^' O^ftroy their Ships, but with an £^a(l wind car- 

fm) W6 l«iH^ from Ptolomarts Hephaeftion, tiMt Att'AAr tHis tBfe 
nimic T)f the figypH*a voycgmg Hercules. Sir I. Nlfwr^ *a to 
bim to be Sdac or SeAiftris, and that he was called Nilus, frurti 
tfie great improvement he made to the Nile : and ^tirfsNHas life fays 
was the Ogmius of the Gauls. (Chronology p. 1^1 .) 

« ried 

An^ifni S^/htj cf Inland. 277 

ripd tbi;m hxAown the Rcd| $e^, ^ this wind 
was by the particular ^ppointfneq^ o{ Qod ; To 
this Mofcs refers ia Exqdu* xv. i§. Th^ inha- 
bitants of Canaan, did i^elt away for fes^r, vheo 
they were informed by their countryinen, the 
mariners^ who faw this tranfaaion cf the paf- 
R« Simon makes thefie bhips to have b(elonged 
to (he Canaapites, — we h?ve fhewn from good au- 
thority that Canaariy in Hebr^w^ figuifies a mer^ 
chanty and Canaith and Jinac in the Scythian, fo 
that it i| di/Hcult to diiliagu^h the meaning of the 
Scriptures in feveral places^, where tl^efe W9rds 

The Muflulmans that have made mention of thefe 
Ships are Mederek and the author of the Tebiian ; 
they fay, ^^ that when the Ifraelites had paiTed the 
*^ Red Sea, they were under apprehenfion that 
^* Pharaoh would cro/s in Ships ^ and flank them 
*^ as they encamped pn the oppoiite Shore of the 
^^ defcrt ; for they knew not that he had periihed 
^* in the waters. Therefore^ God caufed the body 

(n) I iber Zoar. p. 87. Exod. C. 22. Prov. C. 31. V. 14. 
Vulgate. She is like the Merchants Ships, flie bringeth her food ' 
from afar. Pfalm 104. V. 26. There go the Ships— there is 
that Leviathan who thou haft made to play therein, thefe wait all 
upon thee, that thou mayeft give them their food in due Serfon. 

Exod. XV. 1$. Then th,e Dukes of Edom, fhall be amaied, 
the mighty men of Moab, trembling fliall take hold upon them : 
all the inhabitants of Canaan ihall melr aw^iy. See Baumgarr 
ten's remarks on this Veri^. Un. Hift. V. 2. 

We ftiall not defend Rab. J$imons explanation of thefe pafla- 
ges : thej are certainly fbnced--the Scory of the Ships and of the 
fupply of pToviiions is fufEcient §m our purpofe :— it was not fa? 
bricated by ^n Iriili monk, no m6re than Caper Chirodi for Pi- 
jbachiroth. From what boob did they fteal d)^e pailages ? fnorai 
mdkion ^ly; 


-27^ ^ Vindication rf the 


of Pharaoh to float on the waves in fight of 
their camp ; which was immediately known, 
by the Steel Cuirafs he wore ^ and this miracle, 
of a body fo heavily loaded with Iron, floating 
on the water, convinced them of the continu- 
ance of God's kindnefs and protedipn. On the 
other hand, the j^gyptians feein? their King 
did not return, faid, he was gone m a Ship to 
fome Ifland, either to hunt or to fifh ; but, 
God here performed another miracle ; for the 
waves threw up Pharaoh's Corps on the Goaft of 
-ZEgypt, that all his fubjedls might be Eye wiN 

« ncfles of his death*'? 


Ancient i^/iory of Ireland. a 79 



WHEN the Gadeli arrived in that part of 
Scythia, from whence they originally de- 
fcended, viz. Armenia, they were harrafled with 
continual wars by their kindred, the pofterity of 
Nionnuallj the eldeil Son of Phenius Pharfa, who 
were afrstid they would put in fome claim to. the 
Government of the Coyntry : their difTentions 
continued feven years, in which time Refteoir the 
Grandfon of Nionnuall was ilain. The Children 
of iV/Wthoi retired to Amafan^ and after continu* 
ing there for fome time, they failed down the nar^- 
row Sea (the HeJlefponf) that flows from the Nor- 
thern Ocean (the Euxinus.y They had been dri- 
ven upon an Ifland called Caronia in the Pontick, 
where they ftaid one year. . They were there in« 
formed by a Caikerj or Prophet, whom they con- 
fulted, and who always attended the Gadeli^ ' that 
it was ordained, they ihould have no reft ing place, 
till they arrived at a certain Wejiern Tfle. Over- 
awed by this predidion pf the Caikevj they pro-^ 
ceeded on their Voyage weftward, and landed at 
the Ifland of Gutkia. Here fome Day they continue 
ed 1 50 year8,and others fay 300 years, but certain 
it is, that fome of their pofterity inhabit that Ifland 
at this day, from hence they moved to Spain, (p) 

(o) PharuGi. quondam Perfse, Comites fuifle dicuntur Hercur 
fis ad Hefperidcs tendentii. (Pliny.) 

Oeinde Pharufii aliquando tendente ad Hefperides Hercule di- 
tesy nunc inculti, & nifi quod pccore aluntur admodum inopes. 
^Pompon. Mela.) 


Here it muft be underftood that Caiker figni- 
fies a Draoiy or Ttofaiche^ that is, a perfon of fin- 
gular ie^rnlAg aitd Wifdon^, & Pi'^p^el^,^ ^ a!- 
ways attended the pa^^// in their military Expedi- 
tions. ' 

It if M A iL It. 

• ft* 

TBcfe is ii6(li.iil| rejirtigndM to toitttubil ^d t^ 
pTotci Geography in ^hls 'accotfirfj tkttptj dDaft 
BM)tidii^ Papbtlgdtiia ^hd Ptrititai,- it^' iiaftl«d 
ficythia. Tliey 6nte?<id *hy CJoHnfry by iM Bittfi 
femiis, the Pdrthtnids' 6f th« aAtteilte,' WHdr ** 
<Hde^ ^ttimiia fMlvPi^hlagbftii sUtd iMftifitb tlhf 
Etixhifc.' Jindlng theift CoutitryiHfejj, d}<l 'not rtf- 
K& theiJr t'eturnj' th*y /etirifid to ^;»^ a 'pOH Ml 
tit Pdiitiis Euxffttis, that they might ifcaitte bf 
Sfea,' if hard pttSkA. < iJfmjiH liei OA the Cdift of 
thcEbJciiiei bet\*e*ft the RiteW ^flfj*/^* ahd'Wft^ 
»i«tf<7»;,' caHed bf ^i* Lallrts .HWM/A* i it Wte' thi tti* 
thi plac«i' of 6(rabd; aiid itt this eofutitty it Wis, 
"that the fitttiotri Antt^tW dt**Tt; "■ ; - • 
< mvih^ delcMtdid (he HAkfybiit ^d (leaf ed the 
^gejtii Sc*,' they fttchjd Wift^afd ifl feifch of the 
Iflaitd pttdiaed fty the Ciiktir ot FrDraiche,= aitd 
hndea in (J**w ttt (?«/*&, • that is, ill dhify .• ^^here 
Sir r.- Kewtoh iBtthi^ Nilas fettfed tht.Sicahi4li 
€olony, the firil ItthftbikmtS'of Sieily : (p) 0«w*i 
Gar^A ot-; GMfoa ht ItiSi figttify Bsd* by the 8ea 
Side cbiftfcd at high Water, Wid frbto wMA th« 
tide retires, in Englifh, S^lf-marjhet ; rich fatietiing 

grounds. Sruatb Srnthdt^h ot Srahach fignifies low 
rich grounds by the River Side; Sruatnac^ abound- 

(p) Chronoi. p. i8i. 
i . ; J . . ing 

*' k» 

|ttf ift IdW gtdundd J frMO whence Sfracujlt vx Si« 
dly^ ^ xi/ecnr SfTif jc«Atj^M« tof 9t»0> Pahs 0tiam 4,yqtug 
vocatur SyrafOy fayd $tq>lianui» fpeaking of Syra* 
c6fe/ Aiid thiflf Patua was knoim to the Greeks 
1bj the name of Guata. Cluverios ex Plutarcht 
IKdfiey Syraciifani agri r^ioiiem ami^am & ferd* 
liem ftfttflt Giiata, nomine ^ mari in mediterranea 
'porre£ium, Perflc Ghafl:, foft Ground refrcflied 
by iftreams. ^ Tpis word enters in the Arabic com- 

Sound Rud-ghut. Tur-ghut) i* e. oose, flime^ 
ab, iineovered ai low winter. Rud in Perfic and 
Tor in Arabic, ii a River, ghut is fat muddy land. 
The EngliOi tranflator of K^tin? makes Outface 
(kfthlnndy and in two words fendsl>ur Oadelian ad^ 
Venturers fifoni the iEgean Sea to Gothland } and 
<he Weftern Ifland, he will have to be Ireland, a 
'^yaflage that has ^iven a modern Author great 
room for criticifm. 

Thri Hebrew word ! think is nW God. Chaldce 
|^r*7tl"Gudi the bank or border of a River, jof- 
C. j. v.* 15. the' River Jordan tovered all the 
^rtt^^ gedothi, the low banks, the % D, and n 
T, are eoihmutable in all languages. CJ^ what 
were the fituations of the Cities of Gath, of the 
Scriptures ? in Arabic and Perlk Gutab^ unda 
aquae,* ffudus : ghad terra molior peculiariter 
aquis irrigua (Caftellus.) The Valley or plain of 
Sogdc, in which is the City of Samarcande, Ca- 
pital oJF Tranfoxania or Oriental Scy thia) Is called 
Gauthahy becaufe it is well watered by Canals, 
from the great River Cm, which overflows and re- 
freihes jthe ground. (See D'Hctbclot atSogde.)-^- 
Htnct the old name of Waterford Guftta--fordSa. 
' SpeHman derives Gvihland^ a vetcre Cambrico 
Cmt quod inAiIam notst, a very proper itamc for 
^•* an 

28a jfVindicaihn of tbe 

an Ifbnd, vrbich is commonly in part overflowed 
at high water, or where there is a furrounding 
Slab or Strand left at low water. 

Gyttia^ Cacnum, proprie illud, quod poft aqua- 
rum intmdationem remanet. Haud dubie enim 
affinitatem habet cum Ane. Sax. Q^e inundatio. 
Alias gus* (Ihre Lex. Suio-GothT) Gus has a 
very different origin, unknown to Ihre. 

Goth*land maxima infula Maris Baltbici — ^haud 
pauci a glebs ubertate, ita appellatum^fiiifle, ere* 
dant banc infulam, tanquam bonam terrami. (Ihre.) 

Quam Britones infulam Guoid vel Guithe, quod 
Latine divortium dici poteft.; (Unde Veda) now 
Wight. (Lelanflus, £x Chronico incerti Autb.) 

Frequent mention is made in Irifti hiflory of 
our Scuthas, or Shipmen, being often in pofief-. 
fion of Gutbia or Sicily : — they touched there in 
their way to Spain y anerwards in their emigra^ 
tion from Africa ; again on their return from 
^gypt. It will not here be imprpper to enquire, 
from ancient hiftory, who were the firft inhabi- 
tants of this Ifland, and of the names of the peo- 
ple and places contained in it. The learned Bo- 
chart has attempted to prove all was Phasnician ; 
we fhall proceed on as good groundl in prpvlpg all 
was Iberno-Scythian. 

Firft, of its ancient names, Sicania and Sicilia, 

Sicania, it is faid, took its name from the Su 
cani. Bochart derives this name from the Hebrew 
word XSO) faken, a neighbour, and thinks they 
were fo called by the Phsenicians, becaufe they 
were adjoining them, when they fettled there* 
Proinde Sicanos a Siculis, ut quidem puto, neque 
gens neque fermo diftinxit, fed fitus & variae ut 
evenit in eadem gente fa£tioncs« £t Punica voc$ 


Ancient ISfiory of Ireland. 283 

Sicanim vel Sicani didi, qui Siculorum Pcenis 
erant proximi, quafi vicinos dixeris. Servius tells 
us^ the Sicani were from Spain, in Lib. 8. j£nJ 
Sicani fecundum nonuUos, populi funt Hifpaniae, 
a fluvio Sicori didi : Diodorus, L. 5, fays, the moft 
accurate ancient authors declare they were indigent* 
Veteres Sicilise incolas Sicanos indigenas efle tra- 
dunt fcriptores accuratiflimi. Timseus fays the fame. 

Thucydides informs us the moil ancient inha* 
bitants were the Cyclopi and Laeftrygoni ; but 
from whence they came, or to what place they 
went, he is ignorant : but he thinks it is moft pro* 
bable the Sicani were from Iberia. (Thucyd* 
Lib. 6.) 

That they were originally from Iberia^ on the 
Euxine Sea, I make no doubt ; and in the word 
Sicanij I think is perceptible, the naiHe ScutAa or 
Shipmen, by which they were always known to 
the Orientalifts. MHD Sacha, navitj i^ Ani, 

LtB^ryffmij feems to have much the fame origia. 
Leaftar in Irifh i$ a boat; or any veflel made of 
plank, as a furkin, barrel, &c. gonai or conai, is 
a refidence or dwelling, hence Leaftargonai fig- 
nifiies thofe that made their refidence chiefly in 
boats and ihips. 

The ancient Irifh were in general fhipmen, fea- 
men, or fifliermen ; but fome of them remained 
at home to cultivate the foil, and to follow trades 
and manufactures ; thefe reiidents on fhore would 
be called Cuclaibh^ the plural of Cuclai or Cu« 
claidh, which fignifies a fettlement, a refidence. 
Our Colonies would then be divided into two di- 
ftind clafies of people, one, the Leaftargonai, who 
jdwelt in their boats or leaftars, and the other, the 

£^4 ^ Vindiuakn ^ tii 

Cuclaibh^ vbo vei« refident on (bore ia their Cih 
$)aidb or fettlcments ; who npver went to £^ bi^ 
on a general migration, and Ind no concern ia 
the (hipping or iQaridme affairs. TbU u the cba- 
rader of the Cyplops given by Hamer^ lib* g- 
Odyfil yet they were the fon$ or Neptune* 

Homerua negat Cyclopibui uUuq^ e£(c naviim 
ufum, quarum ope fedes mutaverint^ 

Nave8 quippe feris non fum Cydopibus uU^ 
Kec f^ber uUa9 adeft qui conilruat. 

At tranflated bj Bochart^ Gfogn Sacr. L* it 
C. 30. 

Paufanias fay« the Hi^cians and Lybiam 
came to Sicily in one fleet ; h§nce Bochart de- 
rives Cyclops from 31^? p*»n Chek-Lelub, id eft, 
Sinva Lilybaetanus vel Sinus ad Lybiam : Txi 
Jttiam tff^yh^p^n Chek Lubim,. Sinu5 Libu©, 
quia 4>o/iiii«( K. xiiv^ commufii plafie in infulam ve- 
aeru&i, ut fcribit Paufanias ivl £Uacis**<*proinde 
veteres etiam locorum incolac, Punice di£ti fuqt 
homines Chek Lub» i* e. Sinu$ ^ilybg^|:aai. Quod 
Graod MXMf^r'om^s fiia moi^ KvicAotV^r inte|^ctau 
funt, qua(i iic appellarcntur, quod Ufium hpberest 
oculum^ eumque orbicularcm : 1^ is playing 0% 
the Ibemo-Scythian words caoc-loibin^ 1. ^. bljn4 
peafantSy or huibandmen. 

Palasp^aCtts will have it tbey w^re fo calM bc: 
canfe they inhabited a round ifland, whereas Sicily 
was -called by the ancient Irifi) Tri-ceamac, and 
fay the Greeks Tftwpwy. and Triguetra by the Ror 
ma])&9 becaufe it was triangular. 

Thefe Leaftargonai were of a ftrong roboft race^ 
as all our S^thi were ; hence the Tyrians eajled 


Aftcimt Hi/i9tj if ir^nd. . ^85 

them 'tj?*^tfi tS^b Lfcid tircam, i. e. L« laordax, 
J^iaying on the name Leaftargui (Ship-pcople) : 
the Greeks tranilated this vAtx^LeenHnij and re^ 
^rtcd them to be men-eaters, like lion«. 

Cifca Teriam amnem & Leontinos campos ha* 
bttafte dicuntur L^rygones, immanc ge^Bs ho- 
tnlnum, ferino more humana came vefci folkum. 
liacitts in Lycaphronem ; fnnt auiem in Skilia, vX 
nugantur, qui vefcuntur humana carne. . 

Bochart proves the Cyclopes & Lseftrigones 
were one and the fiime people; lie xjuotes the 
words of Thucydides before mentioned ; and 
from the Scfaoliaft of Theocritus he proves plainly 
that the Sicarii were <lcfcendcd from them* 

Let us now fuppofe our Scythi reconnoitring 
this iiland. In filing round it, to the norths they 
ehter xht StrciVhts or Fare of Meffina, famous for 
the rapidity of ^ts currents and the Sowing and 
ebbing of the fca, which is irregular, and wme- 
times ruflics in with fuch violence, thst fhips rid- 
ing at andior ate in danger. At the iiorth en- 
tlraftce of this Streight, they obfervc a Rock on the 
coaft of Italy, which they call Scaolah or Scalaghj 
that is, iplintered off, or divided from the conti- 
nent ; in like manner they nanrcd fimilar rocks, 
now called 5*^%^ and Skulls on theS. W. coaft of 
Ireland. On the S. fide of this narrow girt, next 
to Sicily, they find a kind of whirlpool, which 
ihty name Cairb-deh^ i. e. the ftiip's impedimeHt, 
fbr carb is a fmall ftip or boat, a coafter, (in A- 
rab. karib^ Ch. t^a**'!^ ghariba); and enquiring 
Itfto tht caufe of thefe difficulties, are informed by 
tfre natives, that the ifland, being fcparatcd from 
the continent, left thefe impediments ;— -hence 
At^ Would name the ifland Scaolaoi or beachan- 


286 A Vindicathn cf the 

aoiy (the ifland feparated fram the main laiKl)-^ 
whence Sicilia and Sicania. This was the opinion 
of the ancients, as is evident from Strabo, Mela, 
Virgil, and Pliny. Tranquiiiu? Faber pretends to 
afcertain the acra of this memorable event ; that it 
was about the time the Ifraelites were delivered 
from the u£gyptian bondage, which he coUeds 
from Euftathius, in his obfervations on Dionyfius 
Periegetcs : 

Zancle quoque jun£la fuifle 
Dicitur Italise, donee confinia pontus 
Abftulit, & media tellurem xeppulit unda. 

Ovid* Met. L. 15, V. 290. 

Hsec loca, vi quondam & vafta convulfa ruina 
(Tantum aevi longinqua valet miltare vetuftas) 
DiflUuiiTe ferunt ; cum protinus utraque tellus 
Una foret, venit medio vi pontis, & undis 
Hcfperium Siculo latus abfcidit, arvaque & urbes 
Litore didudas angufto interluit aeftu. 

Virg. Mneid. L. 3, V, 414. 

'On which Servius— 

Ut etiam Saluftius dicit, Italiam Siciliam con- 
junftam conftat fuifle, fed medium fpatium, aut 
per humilitatem obrutum eft, aut per anguftiam 
iciflum, £t prster Chary bdim illam notiffimam 
de qua diximus, aliam defcribit (Etymologus) cir- 
ca Gades ubi mare abforptum majore ci;m impetu 
redit. Meminit & Suidas & Strabo. 

So that wherever our Scythi found a dangerous 
paflage for (hipping, there we find a Carb-deis^ or 


Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 287 

Bochart mendoiis another on the Syrian coaft. 
Charibdim Yocat Syrias locum inter Apamaeam & 
Antiocham, in quo Orontes abforptus pod 40 
ftadia rurfus emergit. 

This learned man derives Scylla from b"pO Scol 
exitium, and Charibdis from n^lWTtn Chor ob- 
dan, foramen perditionis. My readers will judge 
which of the two explanations is moft agreeable to 

Sicilia, the name of the iiland, he derives from 
^iffya Siclul, i. e. perfeftio. Quia inter omnes 
infulas quse notas erant turn temporis, facile pri'« 
mas obtinet ; or from VllSU^M Efcol, botrus, Syris 
VOD Segol & SeguL Unde eft quod Grammatici 
Sfj^el vocant a forma botri vocale pun6lum h tribus 
punciis in triangulum fie */ digeftis.— Ea ipfa voce 
puto Phssnices Siciliam appellafle, quad botrorum 

• That the point y^(?/ was fo called, from a bunch, 
we readily allow, for the name of every letter, 
and every point, alludes to trees or its fruit, (as 
we fhall ihew in a Treatife on the Ogham) agree- 
able to the defcription of the alphabet by the Iriih 
Grammarians : but here we might go further, and 
fay, it was called Sicily homSgolo^^iht olive-tree, i. c. 
the Sgol. facred to Oga^ our Hercules ; the Tyrian 
Oga or Minerva— for fgol in Irifli is an olive ; it 
is alfo the morus or arbor fapiens^ both which were 
dedicated to Mercury and to Hercules ; — for on 
^he north fide of 'Sicily are the fmall iflands of 
^olus, that is, of Eolas (fcience) an epithet in 
Irifh of Hercules ; and amongft thefe was Infula 
Hcrculis ; Lpnginis, the fhip-illand, &c. oppofite 
to which was the town of Mylae, i. e* rfro the 
Sailor, another epithet of Hercules. Sgol in Iri(h 


ft88 A Vwdkdiion of 4^ 

i6 a duller, a bundi^ m mokkiide; Jmaw llic £iig- 
Ufh m€fTdy a ikuU of hsmagK, &£• $ i>vit !«^ 8i£% 
^ras frnit^ of the vxne, Bochart forim ^/Hd ifitp 
N'tVtiD fegulaja, id eft, Infuh bottn^cumf *v^ lll- 
ibla Uvarum, 

He ftrengtfaefxs hk ccH^eAarefrom thc2iEaK9fi» 
« tbe mouS <of «he river Tiigidi in (^ifla9d» h^ 
ng XacFcd t» SaocknsA tLiui**^ i^fi a^w^ 8e- 

AittM ctisni apftd ip&s (lihacps) iiftgobtrem 
^joandam dSfe viso pcseftatttcaau 'eic K|tta oonftet 
-quam bene £t ^tkStm {Baodw^) Dew ergia teir 
^tom. (Diofi. L. 5.) j&t 'SoHsiia, NaiDQ3 DiMkjr*- 
£a piwas quant Maxos ditb, vd ^[tt^d ho^Ma hk" 
liero'patri, wl qtuad feixiikatc ^vrmum riniciat ^to^ 
teras«-*-<^cu8e ftt iktoriit ifidoiYUfi lH^xoi wSnh i 
3]kbn}f£«> difia, quafi Dio&axoR, qaod ibijfiteir ¥§- 
tium vincat ceteras* 

Bodbart ^es^OKSt iliew the derimiicifli ^df Napsos ; 
J think k owes its naiDe to oixr ScTrttt liifidifig 
there «eKceUent aid whasy which in !lnfh is a^jgt^ 
-a comi^ption Jrom die Aaabidc .aiiV^, jl»th 'whic^ 
fignify ^/^ €<«ff^*^^-HG andtC ate conmmaUie.; 4cto 
is (Sbs Ararbic ivnxFd vxtfa ifac tnaofpofition i>f tQUe 
letter. The iriffa An^M^MSsiet^ the iflaad -of 0\jk 
Wdne; from whcnde iHaxes, casitd. rcon&qiieQfctly 
the <3tQek6 ^ouid dedii^eifo-ddtQiDUSftii^ t0 

Fmm the lurath we pracoedlo the w^^ -thfifc 
me afind- the .iOgades faxfahe, >and the onoft twfifteiiQw 
called iizera, i. c» lEar^oi^ ike Weftem Iflaud j**^ 
and taksBg a taizr :foutfan»rd, nice iftopt at the 
foutbera .pfometntory catted Qdh'^ktu^ i. e* date 
Soudi Point, whence Ddyilba & Qd^K^eum .Fro«- 

' Bochart 

Andint Hyhry if Ireland. 989 

Bochart thinks the name derived froni W\ ha- 
das, i. e. myrtus. 

In their paflage to the Weft, they find a bay 
favourable for fiming, where the fiih depofit their 
fpawn and breed} this they call lucbanuj from 
luchar, fpawn of fifh, and here they build a fiih- 
ing town called Hycara^^rxnofa CapCapixo* X'^f^^^» 
Hycara barbaricum oppidum. 

tryo p*^T\ Chik-caura Siniis Pifcis, lays Bo- 
chart. Here, I think, and at Drubhan, or Dm- 
phan, i. e. the village or habitation, our Scythi 
firft fettled, and between thefe points is Sicania. 

We have no account of iEtna, the burning 
mountain, in our Iriih hiftory: it is obfervcc^ 
that Homer did not mention it ; that great author 
would not have omitted fo fine, an opportunity of 
exerting his poetical talents, had it burned in his 
time ; and had the expeditions of our ancient Irifh 
to this liland, been the fabrication pf modern 
monks, they would not have had the ingenuity 
to have omitted it. 

The Caiker or Fio/acbe^ attended them in all 
their expeditions. The ofEce of Caiker is often 
mentioned in the Irifh hiftory as a Prieft and Pro- 
phet, ' peculiarly adapted for military lervices, like 
the Sagan of the Jews. 

This pailage and thp explanation of the word 
Caiker will tend, perhaps, to explain one of the 
moft difficult texts in the holy fcriptures. I mean 
the 6th, 7th, and 8th verfes of the 5th Chap, of 
the 2nd book of Samuel. ^' And David and his 

men went to Jerufalem, unto the Jclbufites 

the inhabitants of the land i which fpake unto 

David, fs^ying, except thou take away the blind 
^^ and ibe lame^ thou fhalt not come in hither : 
^* thinking David cannot come in hither". 

T ♦•And 

^o • • A ViniScathn tf the 

^ And David faidy ^^okeret getteth up to die 
*' gutter (aquaedud or fewer) and fmiteth the 
•* lame and the blind thai are hated of David's fiul^ 
** he fha)tl)e chief and captatn'\ ' 

The text has •fly aor and W^phijfach^ tranfia- 
ted blind and lame^ and inftead of Huflach, the 
Chatdee hag "ipn Choker. 'y\y Aor fignifies to 
watch, as well as to be blind, whence ^^ Air^ 
Vigil, Angeitis perpetu6 vigilans, nimquam dor- 
miens : hence Aire in irifk is a chieftain, an offi- 
cer, a guard,^— ^nd we have Caiker and Fiofache 
fignifying the war friejl or prophet : thefe, pro- 
bably, ivere mounted on the walls of Jenkalem 
encouraging the Soldiers and bidding defiance to 
David, and not die blind and lame ; for, why 
fhould the blind and lame be hated of Damd^s Joid? 
*— (a) Or Tibw could David diftinguiih the lame and 
the blind ^ from able men, when poft ed on loftry waUs ? 

Ipn Chalar in the Chaldee is to prsedi£b, to in- 
vcffigalc, to fcarch into nature. — Sephiri ha'm' 
Chakar Ipmon **DDD Librifcrutationis^ i. e, Thyfi- 
ri, which pcrfeaiy correfponds with the office of 
our paicer^ -who was not only a prieft, but an 
officer ; for, in the clofe of this part of the hiftory, 
we are told, that the principal commanders in this 
yoyage were Ealloidp Lamhjfionn^ Cing and Caicer. 
That in their voyage to Guthia^ they met with 
'Murdiuchdfi (Syrens) who fvng the officers to 
ileep; iind would have killed them, had not Ccuker 
givtp them a charm (b). 

(a) And the inhabitants of Jebus faid to David, Thou flialc 
not come hitlicr, — ^Thc fucceediug wcNxls of Samuel are verj 
difficult. (Kenniow.) Difll p. 33. 

- (t>) ^3^rt & *V3n with a 3 ii&ead of p, in the Chaldee is 
tondu£tor. The Iriih, at leaft the modem Irifli, can make 00 
4if&)4tioi}> {he C being always founded as K, and this letter 
ihe? haire not m their al^^bet^ 


Andenf Mifiory tf Ireland. 391 



I'be Voy(i^e of the MilesiaKs from Guthta to 
An' Spain^ L e. The Spairiy i. e. The Ship 

B RATH A, fon of Dcaghatha, was the prin- 
cipal commander in this voyage and condu6l-» 
ed the Gaduli from Guthia (Sicilly) to An Spain^ 
Spain. The officers under him were Oigey Uigey 
Mantany znd, Caiker. They failed from Guthia^ 
(i. e. Sicily) leaving Catria on their left hand, and 
keeping ttie S. Weft Coaft of Eorp (or Europe,) 
Ia|ided in Spain. ■ » 

The pbftferity of Tubal the grand fon of Japhet, 
were the inhabitants of the country at that time, 
and with them the Gadeljans fought miny defpe- 
rate eiigagements (c J. BratKa had a fon born in 
Spain, 'i^hbm he called Bfeog^n : hebiiilt fhe cit^ 
of Breogaii near Cruine. ' * ' 

The famous GallaiUj who -waV called Milefs and 
^ilefpain (d),. was the fon of ^i&, fori of BreogUn. 

(c) Tuh^l five Ji^baly <)i^f^.genitus Japheti fjlii Noe, didlus 
^^ttalus^ & ab eo quod in Alauricania obierit. Atlas Mauricanus, 
primus Hifpaniae ,regnum obtinuit, ut ex Latinis afienmt Eufe- 

'bius St H?eron7inus» ex Hebrseis Jofephus, & ex Chaldseis Be- 
.Tofus. (.Tartipha, Hift. Hifp. p.-8,'. 

The Spuufli writers fa^ that Tulx^l was called Tarfis ; that 
. that he was the,jgrandfon of Japhet, our Irifli hiftory informs us 
^ that the foas of TarHs accompanied them to Ireland and were al- 
ways difttnguiflieid not to be of Gadelian race. 

(d) Goles, the old Spaniih name of Hercules. (De Laftono- 
•fa oBr ancient ^pamih medals). 

T a This 

^gn A Ttndicaiim rftbe 

This family had almoft made a conqueft of the 
country^ and ^obtained fome of the principal ofE- 
crers in the government. Gallamb or Mikfs ct 
Mile-Spain at length refolv^d to vifit his relations 
in Scytbia and accordingly fitted out 30 fliips, and 
fleering for Crete^ he palled it by and afcending to 
the Euxine fea^ entered the Bioriannis. 

The King of Scythia received him kindly, made 
him chief commander of his forces and beftowed 
his daughter Seang upon him. By the continued 
courfe of his vi&orics he became the darling of 
the people, which raifcd a jealoufy in the king,, 
who refolved to crufli his greatnels. MiUfs in- 
formed of this bafe defign, aflembled the Gadelian 
officers, and they canje to a refolutipn of forcing 
their way into the palace and killing the king, 
which they immediately put in execution. They 
then retired to their fhippinsr, and embarking in the 
Biortanais (or Partheneus^ failed through the 
Euxine & JLgeanfeas into the Mediterranean, and 
fleering. for the Nile landed in iEgypt.- 

When Mclefius and his party landed, they fent 
m^flenger^ to; Pharaoh Ntflonebus the ^Egyptian 
king, to notify theif arrival. He welcomed them 
tO; his Court and. aiBgned a trad of land for the 
fupport of the Gadelian .forces. 

jEgypt was at this time engaged" in a defperate 
war with the JEthiopians : Pharaoh finding Mitefius 
CO be an expert foldier, made him general of his 
forces. Milefius engaged the Ethiopians widi 
fuccefs, and at length brought them under, tribute 
to the crown of iffigypt. Upon this, Pharaoh 
gave his daughter Scota in marriage, (by her he 
had two fons neber-Fionn and Amergin) (e). When 

(t) Wc have alrea(djc explained the allegory of Scota; and 
ftiewn ic iignified his fleers, his fhjps, Heberooim ftnd.Ainergin 
he made Commanders of d^ fleets. 


Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 193 

Mileiius arrived in iBgypt^ he. appointed twelve 
of the moft ingenious youths that attended him, 
to be inftruded in the fciences of iEgypt, with a 
defijen pf teaching his countrymen the trades and 
mylteries of the ^Egyptians (,f ). 

When hic had been feven year& in -Egypt, 
he recolleded the remarkable praedidion of the 
Caikerj the principal Draoij who had declared 
that the pofterity of Gadel ihould find no reft till 
diey came to a weftem Ifland. He therefore fitted 
out fixty fhips, and failing from the Nile into the 
Mediterranean, landed in Thrace : leaving that 
foon after, he came to the weftern Ifland, viz. 
GUTHIA, which ties near a Frith or narrow fea^ 
that extends northwards. Here he dwelt fome time, 
ajid in this Ifland his wife was delivered of a ion, 
whom he called Calpa ; they next failed up the 
narrow .feas that divide Afia firom Europe, keep- 
ing Europe on their left or weftward* They 

(f) The Greek hifiory infi)rais m^ that Milenim in lonk, was 
firfl colonized hj Phoenicians from Crete-^that this colony was 
attacked by the Perfians and tranfplanted into Perfia — that the 
Phstnicians and Milefians joined with the Perfians againft the.lo* 
nians, at the battle of Mycale, and that they were made Oaves 
by the Perfians, but kindly treated by Alexander .- — and in the 
time of Pfamiticus a colony of Milefians fettled in Greece. The 
Sacse joined the Perfians at the battle of Marathon and broke the 
centre of the Athenians. 

The Liber Lecanus^ an ancient Iriih MS. informs us, that 
one colony of the Milefians arrived in Ireland in the laft year of 
Cimbaoth or Carabaoth, (i. e. Cambyfes) fon of Ciras (i. e. Cy- 
rus) <— it then defcribes the divifions of Alexander's .empire 
among his Generals, and fays, another colony arrived in Ireland 
in that very year wherein Alexand^ defeated Dair^, \. e. Da- 
rius.— —(Leab. Lecan. fol. 13). 


194 ^ VhUBcatron ifiBi 

then returned to CrotoH/(g)j or the country of the 
Crotoniy at a place called Alhi, (i. e. Albeftum^ 
and voyaging from thence leaving the greater 
Brvtii on their right, they came to Eroihaj (Cadis), 
keeping the S. Weft coaft (of Spaiii ) on their right 
tjlU they arrived in the harbour of Biafcan, (Bif- 
cany; (h). 

R E M A It R S. 

■ « 

We have already (hewn the epithets Milefii and 
Milefpain, fignify the hero of the fhip ; a naval 
commander. Mil is a champion^ hero, officer, 
the fame as Mat or Male; Chald. Nb^TJD malca. 
Rex. Efs and Spain fignify a fhip, from ^y Es, 
fignum ; or K^^gb Spina or Sapiha, navis magna 
& tefta, whence ]£)o Span or Siapauj Nauta; Sec 
i Kings Ch» 9. 26. Ch. lo* 12. lLt. Ch. 29. 29. 
&c. &c. Milefpain is then fynonimous to the 
Chaldean l^*»3iD 31 Rab Spanja, 1. c. Magiftcr 
NautarUm, Jon. Ch. \. 6. ' Again xfifi mallach in 
Hebrew and Melach or Melachoir in Irifh, fignify 
a failor: Nauta, remex, qui mare feu aquas re- 
mo mifcet & vcrtit, fays Schindler. In Arabic 
Mullah is a failor and Sufina a (hip ; the £f$ of the 
Irifli, they have conyerted into Ajuz. The Chal- 
• dee Nifa and the Syriac Nqufa, a fhip derive from 
this root^ whence ret vf & Kifvc. 

(g) TThe reader will recoiled that Nil or Nilus, the &n of 
Feniiis was the Hercules who founded Crotoh :' Sir I. Newton 
talis him th^ ^^ptian Hercules, (Chronol. p. 181). See 
Ch.4th. • ' 

(h) Albiftrum, oppidum Brutionum. Ptolem. Ferrarius. 

• , I. . •• ! * . / • - # 


ISfiorj €f Ireland. • ^95 

Tuatha mac Mileadb, 
Mileadh longe Libearn, 
Lords were Milelius fons, 
Miie(iu8 of the Libearn fliip, 
fays one of the oldeft poets of the Irifii. 

Heace Homer calls the (hip Argo «rflea<.A(»AV(7«. 
{0^.(i) which Euft. explains thus, ex vi^i dat* pi. a 
Sing* «£r & A<«Af 1 curse efl: ; why not from v& omnis, 
totus, excellens*. 

Hiftory inform us, that about 630 year* before 
Chrift, Pfametticus king of -ffigypt prefented the 
MUeftcms with lands on each fide the Nile, and put 
children under their tuition. They are faid to 
have been the firft foreigners permitted to dwell in 
iEgypt. In confideration of their placing him on 
the throne, he went fo far as to cpqipliment them 
with the poft of honour, when he marched into 
Syria^ where he warred many years. This fo in.- 
cenfed the Egyptians that two hundred thoufand 
of them deferted and fettled in Ethiopia. To re- 
pair this lofs he opened his ports to all ftrangers, 
whom he greatly carefied ? Thus the authors of 
the Univer&l Hiftory, from Greek authority. 
Thefe authors have noted in their general index, 
that he invited the Scythians in great numbers j but 
in the hiftorical detail, thev fay, he met them in 
Syria, and by treaties and prefents prevailed on 
them to march back again. They obferve, that 
before Pfametticus, the Egyptian hiftory has been 
covered with an impenetrable mi/i, it there begins to 
clear up a little {i). If thefe laborious miners in 
ancient hiftory found the records of fo enlightened 

(i) Un. Hift Edit, 8yo: V. a. p. »i. ' 


29^ A Vindication of the 

and learned a people as the ^Egyptians, to be in m 
nufif and only clearing up a little^ in the feventh 
century before Chrift. Alas ! what are we to ex« 
pe& from the rude and uncultivated Scythians, 
the barbarous, unlettered Scythians according to 
thefe authors— yet Berpfus formed his liiftory, 
from the books of thefe unlettered Scythians I I ! 
but thefe were fouthem Scythians, (from whom 
the Irifli are defcended) : and as Sir Wm. Jones 
obferves, authors ancient and modern, make no 
diftindion, between the northern and fouthem 

The Englifli tranflation of this paflage of Kcat* 
ing, is grofsly perverted. Gutbia^ as ufual, is 
tranflated Gothland^ inftead of Sicily. Catria an 
Ifland at the weftern point of Sicily is called Crete. 
Croton is faid to be the Pids ; the greater Brutii 
are named Great Britain : and Erotha or Cadis is 
called France. For the amufement of thofe that 
underftand Irifli, we have given the original in a 
note (k). 


(k) Do trialas as fin go hoilean dan'gorithev Gotta, tta (ka 
Uifairge caoil tbeid fan Aighen ba tuaidh^agus do rinn Seal 
pomhnaithe ai| fin, nn an rug Scota an mac d'arngoirthear 
Colpa — an cliaavh. Triallaid as fin fan caol. muir ba cuaidb 
fgaras Afica agus Oirp le ccile : agut lamh de rin an Oirip 
fiar : -^^ Rangadar Crutin taich re raidhte Alba, agos iriaUad 
da eis fin, lamb deas riu an Breatan-mor, go rangadar Er9i/ui^ 
agus lamh dbeas riu an bhfearain gac fiar bu deas, gur nbhiad 
cuan da eis nn fan Biafgan. 

The Crotonians were jnvited to Ireland to extirpate the Ain« 
can Pirates. ' See CoDedahea, No. XIL From the Liber Le- 
canus, we learn, that ' the Crutine (called Pids in the EaglHh 
tranflation} were baniflied by £rimon«>therefore thefe Crotine 
could not be the Fids of the latter dajs— At length ibme of 


Ancient Hyhry of IreUmd. 397 

The old name of Gadis was Erytbia^ called by 
Xfm Irifli hiftoriaas Erotba^ I think from Eortb or 
Acrtb a (hip. Wc have feen before that the Rab- 
-bins derive Spain from thp Fhsenidan Spina a fliip^ 
u circumftance in our favour* Bochart derives it 
from \QiJ Sapban^ which he tranflates a Rabbit, 
but the Saphan was a different animaL 
' Gades was certainly called Etytbia. ^JA> eo la- 
tere quo Hifpaniam fpe^at pambus fere loo, al- 
tera infula eft longa lu M pafs : M lata in qua prius 
oppidum Gadium fiiit. Vocatur ab Ephoro & Phi- 
liftide Erytbiai a Timaeo & Sileno Apbrodijias^ 
ab indigenis Junonis. Erythia dida eft, quoniam 
Tyrii ab origine corum orti ab Erythrceo mari 
ferebantur (1). Again, Tertia Apbrodifias^ in- 
fula. quae prius Erytbia inter Hifpaniam & Gades, 
fays btephanus. And Strabo, videtur Gadibui 
Erythiae nomen tribuiffe Pherecydes : alii autemi 
hoc nomine, intelligunt infulam urbi adfitam, 
unius ftadii freto divifum. 

It was in this ifland the Poets fek;ned Gerym to 
have dwelt, whofe herds were ftolen by Her- 

We have (hewn that the (hip of Hercules was 
called Griany or the Sun } whence the fable. In 

them were allowed to (ettle in Magh-breagh and to enjo^ all the 
advantages of nature onmolefted, viz gach Geis, gac Sein, gac 
Sreathy Gotha £in^ gac Mna, gac Upaidh— the Crutiae on their 
pan were to eive themMoa breas, mna buais& buai gne, & latha 
Greine is Ealga, i. e. fruitflil, (killful, women who excelled in 
6gare and on whom fhone the profperitj of the^wi and Uooru 
(Leab. Leacan. fol. 14). ' 

The chief called Cruithmmcan^ (oa of LiciJ, was to fbruifli 
women for Erimon : in thb fame year he went to affift the Brea- 
tani, i. c. the Brutii, Thefe Croconians according to Philiftus 
and Dionjfins, were fettled in Italy by oar Niul, or Nilas, who 
founded Croton. (See Newton's Chrouol. p. i8i. 

(1) Pliny: 


29S -^ VlfutteatiM rftU 

all ancient biftories wc find a Hercules or Afitefi*. 
The firft Etnifcan King (after the fabulous times 
fays Dempfter> was Meteus. He led the Pefadgim 
Ck>bxiy to SpinaisL Italy^ and thence to Spmn. He- 
rodotus mention^ hioi ; finds him in Spina^ imder 
the name of Melefi^enes^ and thinks it was Homer : 
but it was our voyaging philofopher Miles^ or 
Hercules. By this name the Gredu and Romans 
transferred him to the ccleftiai fpherc. Miles Sep^ 
tentrionale eft, notitior fub Herculis nomine. (St. 
Jcrom. T- 1 . CoL 672.) 

MiUs eft une conftcilation Septentrionale qu'on 
connoit fous le nom d'Hercule* (Reiigion des 
Gaulois, T. i. p. 40.) — Hence the Lyra in the 
cdeftial fphere is placed before Miles or Hercules* 
See C« iv. Hence the name of Malachans or Ma* 
hyans of India : Malaicam linguam Indis plerifque 
intelle&um & yulgo ufurpatum origincm fuam 
debere ferunt promifcuae fifcatorum colluvioni^ 
qui ex regionibus fuis undequaque ed, conunu.*- 
Dis' artis fiise exercendae gratia confluxerunt & 
MallaccK urbis fundamcnta pofuerunt. (a) 

(a) G. arliolenfb DiC PhU. Anfid. p. 6. 


jtfipUntlBftcrj of hrpkindf I99 


ON the return of Milefias to Spain, he found 
the inhabitants in moil dq>lorable circunif 
ftances^ beii^ over-run by plundering foreigners, 
who had rahfacked the whole country. Among 
ethers were (na Goti) the Guti, whom hd i$ver« 
^hrcw in fifty-four pitched battles. 

The children of Breogan increafed in SpAiti to ft 
numerous ptogeny. At length there was ft greftt 
icarcity of com and odier provifidns in Spain ; 
and at the fame time they were under fueh conti* 
nual alarms, from the inroads 6f foreignets, that 
they were obliged to be perpetually in the field 
iinder arms, for fear of being furprized. A#Coun- 
cil, of the Chiefs was aflembled on this occafion, 
to confider to what country they ihould fteer their 
courfe/ After frequent comultation, //A, a prince 
pf confummate learning and prudence, and of an 
enterprizing genius, propofed to fail in fearch of 
the Weftern Ifland, which by an old tradition of 
the Caiker^ was to be the reiling-place of the Ga- 
delians. Oir do bhi caidriamb agus roinn roimefin 
idir Eirinn agus en Spain m irath fa tugg Eocha 
mac Lire Hgh dtagbnac jirm mBolgz — ^i. e. for 
there had been a great friendfldp and alliance be- 
tween Ireland and Spain from the time of Eocha, 
fon of Lire, the hft King of the Fir-Bolg'sl It 
^as therefore agreed that Itb ihould go on the 


30t> A Vindication of tie 

difcoTcry of this liland, and return with a report 
of particulars, (b) 

Itb landed on the northern coaft of Ireland; 
and having {acrificed to the God of the Seas urath 
great devotion, found the Omens not propitious. 
On enquiry, be found the three fons of Cearmada 
Miorbheoily fon of Daghda, ruled the ifland, and 
that they were aflembled at Oileach Neid, in con- 
iequence of a difpute about the Seod or boundaries 
of their provinces, which was likely to be decided 
by tbefword. (c) Ith s^ivifed them (deanmdb an 
i^fi dfollamnughadb amail asUacbta) to divide the 
government of the iilaAd^ as the law (of the land) 
had regulated ; that, as to his part, he was but an 
adventurer, and driven there by ftrefs of weather, 
and fhould foon return. He then extolled the tern* 
perature of the climate, and the produce of the 
foil, and recommended unanimity, as the c^ent 
of fo fertile an ifland, feemed fufficicnt for all 
their wants, if equally divided between them. 
: Thefe encomiums gave fome fufpicion^ and the 
three Kings fearing Ith might return, and attempt 
to refcue the Ifland from them, refolved to put 
him to death. Therefore when he had departed, 
in order to return to his fhip, Mac Cuill, one 
of the princes, was difpatched witl^ a fmali de^ 

(b) Bj this poUage we are to underfland^ that the Milefians 
had no communication with Ireland, (ince the time of their arri-^ 
▼al in Spain ; bat that the old colonies feated in Spain had made 
the vo3rage, previous to tfae^Milefian expedition. 
. (c) Thefe were Tuadia Dadanns. Keaung^i truiflator calls 
^eod a jewel i the word has that fignificationy but bete means an 
intrenchmcnty a boundary line ; in Arabic and Perfian, Sedd, as 
^iddMagiug^ the boundary of the Magogians in Tartarj. 


• AncieM Hl/l0ry cf Ireland. 301 

tachment to overtake him. Idi perceiving the 
party purfuing hhn^ drew up his men, and made 
a retreating fight, till he arrived at a certain ad- 
vantageous fpot, when facing about, a defperate 
engagement enfued, and Ith was mortally wounds 
ed. The name of the place where this battle was 
fought is called Maigh Ith, or tiie plains of Ith to 
this day* Ith was tarried on (hip<»board^ where he 
died of his wounds before' they could reach the 
Spanifli cdaft, and before the fliip reached Spain 
with this melancholy news,* that incomparable 
prince Milefpain died alfo. Ith was the fon of 
Breogan, grandfbn of Milefpain. 

R £ M A B. K. 

On the return of Milefius to Spain, he found 
the country over-run with foreigners, particuhriy 
na GuH^ calted by the tranflator Goths. It appears 
to have been the army of Cud or Gw/, that is, of Ne- 
buchadtiezzar. Gud was one of his Periian names, 
• to which they added Arzj as the Irilh do Jrt or 
jirdy iignifying a chief, a leader, a demagogue, 
value, eftecm, veneration, honoun ** Gudarzj 
*^ fays Jbau al Thahariy Mirccnd^ and other very 
^^ celebrated oriental hiftorians, was the name of 
** the General of Lohoralb, who^ pafled with the 
*• Jews, for a great King whom they called JS&- 
^^ buchadnezzar ; the Arabs called him Bakhtnaf- 
far; Ptolemy named him Nabonajfar^ s^nd ma- 
ny called him Rabam. Gudarz was one of the 
greateft captains the Perfians had ; he conquered 
Judasa, and took Jerufalem in the reign of Lo- 
iorajp^znd fupportcd many warsagainit^r^^^, 




3<» A rmSiaitim>^ti)e 

^' King of TiirqiiQftao or Scyii^ft/' (d) We fta^ 
Aewt prefemly, diat tbis warH)$e prinde purfued 
the Tyrians into Spain ; Ith wns ^y^Tuqt of Tjfi-e 
^^hen Gudarz'befiegcd' it; He probably flew into 
Spain to avoid £aUitig into the conqyoror's hands, 
and hearing of* Gtid coming down the Levant, 
made the b& of iiis tray to lr^\^o>^^ 

Ith is here faid to have been ibeCpn of Breogan, 
gtandfon of Milefius. Tht vaoMyof the Irifh 
Seanachic8 had formed this ;conn^xJion between 
their anceftors and the heroic governor of Tyre. 
llie Liber Lecanus flatly contradkU this genealo^ 
gy. At folio 1 1 9, it fays, '^ 4be race of Ith wert 
neither Milefians^ iyOmhnann*s^ Bolgi^ or Ne^ 
medians J btit far fuperior to altthefe. Mac Con 
defcendedfromlth^ and extended his arms to the 
*• Britannic IJles and to Gaul.** This ftrongly 
.marks the int^roourie and mixt«ire ^f the South- 
ern Scytiiians with .the Tyriaas« 

There is great reafon to think our hh was the 

Ith'baal^ bbo-^badl or EthJwah of the Scriptures, 

i. e. Dominus Ith ; for £42^ / is only ^ ^ epithet in 

. Ae Canaanitifli tongue* like Jiirz in the Per- 


Phaenicia being fre^d of the Aflyrian yoke by 
the death of Salmanassar) iell intp tJjie power pf die 
Clialdseans, but by what imcans does not appear in 
hiflory. We only learn from Berofus, that .Na- 
bopalafier, (or Gudarz) whpfe reign comm^ced 
626 years before Chrifl:» was ;nHuter of ^gypt> 
Paleftine, Phaenicia and C^lo^Syri^. 

(d) lyHerbeloc at Lohorafp. See aHo^Uo* Hift. vol. 5, p. 


Andent ^i/lory ^ Ireland. ^05 

Previous to this,' Gudarz hiid curbed Afrafiab 
King of die T<niran Scythians, and driven 
ihe OrMhite *Scjthi^ns into Phoenicia. On the 
approach of Gudarz^ they would certainly en- 
ter Tyre with t^eir old allies the Canaanites ; frpm 
th^ce they efcaped with them to Guthia, i. e. Sy- 
racufe, and from thence to Spain, and from Spain 
they bad a cbnftant inter courfe with the Britannic 
Ifles. They had long before worked the Tyrian 
Slips, and been the carriers of the produce of 
^fe iflands to Spain, from whence the Canaanites 
tranfported them into Afia, * * 

III 586 before Chrift, Nabuchodbnofor befiegcd 
Tyre. The Governor then was Itb, or hbo-baati 
the city held out thirteen yeslrs, being tadteii 
in 573th bef* Chr. (e) He was a mod proud, ar- 
rogant and afluming prince, and even went fo far 
as to rank himfelf among the gods, which brought 
that heavy judgment upon him of the prophet 
Ezekiel^ ** Say unto the Prince of. Tyrus, thui 
** faith the Lord God, becaufe thine heart is lifted 
*^ up, and thou halt faid, I am\a God, I fit in the 
" feat of 6od,in the midftofthefe*as,yetthouarta 
^* man and not God ; though thou let thine heart 
** as the heart of God. Behold, thou art wifet 
*^ than Daniel : there is no fecrct that they can hide 

(e> Thirty-fix years after this, Baby Ion. was taken by Cynn. 
During this interval many nations were, to be fubdue d, according 
to the pred i&ions of fome ancient prophets. ( Jer. 2 5, Ezek. .5^ 
&c.) The natbns thus foretold, ^trt^CiM jlj/yriant, ElamUti, 
thfr NcttAim wUitmt^ probably the Scythiwis^ Edom, and the 
Kingsof the adjacent countries, Zidmzndl'jre^ and jaft of .«H 
Egypt. The ^eral prophecies emitted by men inipired, 4Xm>- 
cerning the fate of thefe iingdoms, were exadly falnlled^ as, is 
evident in the hiftory of that period. (Piayfair's Chronolog. p. 

" from 

|04 ^ VimBaai0i ^ the 




from thee— with thy wifdom and with thiae on* 
deiilandmg, thou haft gotten thee riches, and 
haft gotten gold and filver in thy treafures^ 
<« and thine heart ia lifted up becaafe of thino 
*^ riches. Therefore, thus faith the Lord God^ 
^^ becaufe thou haft fet thine heart as the heart of 
*^ God, behold therefore I will bring ftraag^rs 
upon thee, the ftrong men of the (Goim) nati- 
ons, and they (hall draw their fwords againft the 
^^ beauty of thine wifdom, and they fliaU defile 
** thy brightncfs — ^thcy fliaU bring thee down to 
^^ the pit, and thou (bait die the- death of them 
^^ that are (lain in the midft of the feas-^thou 
^^ (halt die the death of the uncircumcifed, by the 
*• hand of the (Goim) ft rangers." 
. During the fiege moft of the Tyrians fled by fea 
with the greateft part of their efieds, infomuch 
that when Nebachadnetfar became mafter of it, 
the prophet tells us, there was not wherewithal to 
reward his foldiers. They had been moving off 
before this, from the time of Nabapala0ar : fettling 
inGuthia or Sicily, Rhodes, and other iflands of 
the Mediterranean, and in Spain, and probably 
in the Britannic ifles, and on the coaft of G^ul ; 
the great body appears to have gone to Spain. 
** Is this your joyous city^ (fays Ifaiah) whofe an- 
** tiquity is of ancient days ? Her own fleet (hall 
•*. carry her afar tff to fojourn/* (Ch. 23, v. 7.) 
It is the opinion of feme writers that Ith was 
jcilled during the fiege, as there is no further ac- 
count of him in hiftory. How then would the 
words of the prophet nave been fulfilled, viz* 
*• thou Jfj alt die the deaths of thbfe that arejlain in 
** the midjt of the fea : thou (halt die by the hands 
" of the Goim." All which came to pafs accord- 

Ancient Hifiory of Ireland. 305 

ing to our Irifh records, in-this part of the world, 
where Tyres own fleet had carried her afar off. 

The moft approved Spaniih antiquaries are of 
opinion that he fled to Spain and built the city of 
Ithobaal or Thobal, now called Santubcs, where 
Nabuchadonofor purfed him. 

Hiftory informs us, that two years after the 
taking or Tyre, Nabuchadonofor returned to that 
city, and repairing the Tyrian fliips he had taken 
in the port, and conftruding others, he became 
matter of a ftrong fleet on the Mediterranean. 
On this intelligence, lib jnight not think himfelf 
faie in Spain, well knowing the enterprizing geni- 
us of that prince, and would therefore meditate on 
removing beyond the reach of his power. At 
this period, I am of opinion, the great Milefian 
expedition (as it is called) took place from Spain 
to Ireland ; other parties would naturally follow 
when Nabuchadonofor reached Spain, where, it is 
faid, he did not leave one Phsenician in the whole 
kingdom, fpending no lefs (.han nine years in driv- 
ing them out. 

The learned Court de Gebelin has entered mi- 
nutely on the conqucil of Spain by Nabuchadono- 
for. (a) He calls him the firft known conqueror ; 
he gives us the pidure of population, and of the 
great operations of focieties in Weftern Alia at the 
time this prince appeared. He follows him ftep by 
ftep in his expeditions, and* at length into Spain ; 
fhews the motives that carried him there , and ob- 
ferves, that many learned men had doubted of this 
expedition of Nabuchadonofor, particularly Bo- 
chart, who for reafons not worthy of himfelf treats 

(a) Monde primitif. Tome 8. EflEii d*hiftoire generale, 

U it 

3o6 A Vindication of the 

it as a fabU. Me then (hews diat the niabfdciitit 
had the ufe of the compafs, and tiavigated t6 the 
Weftern ocean ; and finally combats the opponents 
to this part of hiftory, and proves the ctmofms of 
Bochart, to be full of error. 

We (hall ufe theaOthor^s words on this fubjeft, 
and fubjoin fuch authorities, as will, in our hum- 
ble opinion, confirm his arg